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Pressurized fluidized-bed combustion technology exchange workshop

Description: The pressurized fluidized-bed combustion technology exchange workshop was held June 5 and 6, 1979, at The Meadowlands Hilton Hotel, Secaucus, New Jersey. Eleven papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. The papers include reviews of the US DOE and EPRI programs in this area and papers by Swedish, West German, British and American organizations. The British papers concern the joint program of the USA, UK and FRG at Leatherhead. The key factor in several papers is the use of fluidized bed combustors, gas turbines, and steam turbines in combined-cycle power plants. One paper examines several combined-cycle alternatives. (LTN)
Date: April 1, 1980
Creator: ,
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Scaled Experimental Modeling of VHTR Plenum Flows

Description: Abstract The Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) is the leading candidate for the Next Generation Nuclear Power (NGNP) Project in the U.S. which has the goal of demonstrating the production of emissions free electricity and hydrogen by 2015. Various scaled heated gas and water flow facilities were investigated for modeling VHTR upper and lower plenum flows during the decay heat portion of a pressurized conduction-cooldown scenario and for modeling thermal mixing and stratification (“thermal striping”) in the lower plenum during normal operation. It was concluded, based on phenomena scaling and instrumentation and other practical considerations, that a heated water flow scale model facility is preferable to a heated gas flow facility and to unheated facilities which use fluids with ranges of density to simulate the density effect of heating. For a heated water flow lower plenum model, both the Richardson numbers and Reynolds numbers may be approximately matched for conduction-cooldown natural circulation conditions. Thermal mixing during normal operation may be simulated but at lower, but still fully turbulent, Reynolds numbers than in the prototype. Natural circulation flows in the upper plenum may also be simulated in a separate heated water flow facility that uses the same plumbing as the lower plenum model. However, Reynolds number scaling distortions will occur at matching Richardson numbers due primarily to the necessity of using a reduced number of channels connected to the plenum than in the prototype (which has approximately 11,000 core channels connected to the upper plenum) in an otherwise geometrically scaled model. Experiments conducted in either or both facilities will meet the objectives of providing benchmark data for the validation of codes proposed for NGNP designs and safety studies, as well as providing a better understanding of the complex flow phenomena in the plenums.
Date: April 1, 2007
Creator: 15, ICONE
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of Advanced Wear and Corrosion Resistant Systems Through Laser Surface Alloying and Materials Processing

Description: The stability of tungsten carbide particles in iron-rich and nickel-rich liquid during the laser surface alloying (LSA) process was investigated. Kinetic calculations indicate a rapid dissolution of tungsten carbide particles in iron-rich liquid, as compared with the dissolution rate in nickel-rich liquid. Optical microscopy indicated a heterogeneous microstructure around the tungsten particles that is in agreement with concentration gradients predicted by kinetic calculation. The work demonstrates the applicability of computational thermodynamics and kinetic models for the LSA process.
Date: April 1, 2002
Creator: A, Babu S S Martukanitz R P Parks K D David S
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pressure-induced Breaking of Equilibrium Flux Surfaces in the W7AS Stellarator

Description: Calculations are presented for two shots in the W7AS stellarator which differ only in the magnitude of the current in the divertor control coil, but have very different values of experimentally attainable β (<β> ≈ 2.7% versus <β> ≈ 1.8%). Equilibrium calculations find that a region of chaotic magnetic field line trajectories fills approximately the outer 1/3 of the cross-section in each of these configurations. The field lines in the stochastic region are calculated to behave as if the flux surfaces are broken only locally near the outer midplane and are preserved elsewhere. The calculated magnetic field line diffusion coefficients in the stochastic regions for the two shots are consistent with the observed differences in the attainable β, and are also consistent with the differences in the reconstructed pressure profiles.
Date: April 24, 2007
Creator: A. Reiman, M.C. Zarnstorff, D. Monticello, A. Weller, J. Geiger, and the W7-AS Team
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Impact of the LHC beam abort kicker prefire on high luminosity insertion and CMS detector performance

Description: The effect of possible accidental beam loss in LHC on the IP5 insertion elements and CMS detector is studied via realistic Monte Carlo simulations. Such beam loss could be the consequence of an unsynchronized abort or � in worst case � an accidental prefire of one of the abort kicker modules. Simulations with the STRUCT code show that this beam losses would take place in the IP5 inner and outer triplets. MARS simulations of the hadronic and electro-magnetic cascades induced in such an event indicate severe heating of the inner triplet quadrupoles. In order to protect the IP5 elements, two methods are proposed: a set of shadow collimators in the outer triplet and a prefired module compensation using a special module charged with an opposite voltage (antikicker). The remnants of the accidental beam loss entering the experimental hall have been used as input for FLUKA simulations in the CMS detector. It is shown that it is vital to take measures to reliably protect the expensive CMS tracker components.
Date: April 13, 1999
Creator: A.I. Drozhdin, N.V. Mokhov and M. Huhtinen
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

On possible use of bent crystal to improve Tevatron beam scraping

Description: A possibility to improve the Tevatron beam halo scraping using a bent channeling crystal instead of a thin scattering primary collimator is studied. To evaluate the efficiency of the system, realistic simulations have been performed using the CATCH and STRUCT Monte Carlo codes. It is shown that the scraping efficiency can be increased and the accelerator-related backgrounds in the CDF and DØ collider detectors can be reduced by about one order of magnitude. Results on scraping efficiency versus thickness of amorphous layer of the crystal, crystal alignment and its length are presented.
Date: April 8, 1999
Creator: A.I. Drozhdin, N.V. Mokhov and V.M. Biryukov
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radiation environment resulting from Main Injector beam extraction to the NuMI beam line

Description: A 120 GeV Main Injector proton beam will be delivered to the NuMI beam line at Fermilab at the rate of 3.7x 10{sup 20} per year. Realistic Monte Carlo simulations have been performed to examine the radiation environment in the beam extraction system and NuMI beam line elements. A complete 3-D model of the 160 meter extraction region has been implemented utilizing the computer code MARS. The model includes a description of the field of the electrostatic septa and POISSON calculated field maps of the Lambertson magnets and the other lattice components in the area. The beam element alignment and the source term have been simulated using the code STRUCT. Results on beam losses in the system, energy deposition in the core elements and residual dose rates on the components are presented.
Date: April 29, 1999
Creator: A.I. Drozhdin, P.W. Lucas, N.V. Mokhov, C.D. Moore and S.I. Striganov
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Rosetta Stone Relating Conventions In Photo-Meson Partial Wave Analyses

Description: A new generation of complete experiments in pseudoscalar meson photo-production is being pursued at several laboratories. While new data are emerging, there is some confusion regarding definitions of asymmetries and the conventions used in partial wave analyses (PWA). We present expressions for constructing asymmetries as coordinate-system independent ratios of cross sections, along with the names used for these ratios by different PWA groups.
Date: April 1, 2012
Creator: A.M. Sandorfi, B. Dey, A. Sarantsev, L. Tiator, R. Workman
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nonforward parton distributions

Description: Applications of perturbative QCD to deeply virtual Compton scattering and hard exclusive electroproduction processes require a generalization of usual parton distributions for the case when long-distance information is accumulated in nonforward matrix elements &lt;p{prime}{vert_bar}O(0,x){vert_bar}p&gt; of quark and gluon light-cone operators. They describe two types of nonperturbative functions parameterizing such matrix elements: double distributions F(x,y;t) and nonforward distribution functions F{_}/zeta (X;t), discuss their spectral properties, evolution equations which they satisfy, basic uses and general aspects of factorization for hard exclusive processes.
Date: April 1, 1997
Creator: A.Radyushkin
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Images of Quark Intrinsic Motion in Covariant Parton Model

Description: We discuss the relations between TMDs and PDFs in the framework of the covariant parton model. The quark OAM and its connection to TMDs are studied as well.
Date: April 1, 2010
Creator: A.V. Efremov, P. Schweitzer, O.V. Teryaev, P. Zavada
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Robust performance evaluation represents one of the most challenging aspects of groundwater pump-and-treat (P&amp;T) remedy implementation. In most cases, the primary goal of the P&amp;T system is hydraulic containment, and ultimately recovery, of contaminants to protect downgradient receptors. Estimating the extent of hydraulic containment is particularly challenging under changing flow patterns due to variable pumping, boundaries and/or other conditions. We present a systematic approach to estimate hydraulic containment using multiple lines of evidence based on (a) water-level mapping and (b) groundwater modeling. Capture Frequency Maps (CFMs) are developed by particle tracking on water-level maps developed for each available water level data set using universal kriging. In a similar manner, Capture Efficiency Maps (CEMs) are developed by particle tracking on water-levels calculated using a transient groundwater flow model: tracking is undertaken independently for each stress period using a very low effective porosity, depicting the 'instantaneous' fate of each particle each stress period. Although conceptually similar, the two methods differ in their underlying assumptions and their limitations: their use together identifies areas where containment may be reliable (i.e., where the methods are in agreement) and where containment is uncertain (typically, where the methods disagree). A field-scale example is presented to illustrate these concepts.
Date: April 7, 2011
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Single crystals of magnesium-aluminate spinel MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} were irradiated with 340 keV Xe{sup 2} ions at {minus}173 C ({approximately} 100 K). A fluence of 1 x 10{sup 20} Xe/m{sup 2} created an amorphous layer at the surface of the samples. The samples were annealed for 1 h at different temperatures ranging from 130 C to 880 C. Recrystallization took place in the temperature interval between 610 C and 855 C. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images show two distinct layers near the surface: (1) a polycrystalline layer with columnar grain structure; and (2) a buried damaged layer epitaxial with the substrate. After annealing at 1100 C for 52 days, the profile of implanted Xe ions did not change, which means that Xe ions are not mobile in the spinel structure up to 1100 C. The thickness of the buried damaged layer decreased significantly in the 1100 C annealed sample comparing to the sample annealed for 1 h at 855 C.
Date: April 1, 2000
Creator: AFANASYEV, I. & AL, ET
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: The thermal conductivity of cementitious grouts has been investigated in order to determine suitability of these materials for grouting vertical boreholes used with geothermal heat pumps. The roles of mix variables such as water/cement ratio, sand/cement ratio and superplasticizer dosage were measured. The cement-sand grouts were also tested for rheological characteristics, bleeding, permeability, bond to HDPE pipe, shrinkage, coefficient of thermal expansion, exotherm, durability and environmental impact. This paper summarizes the thermal conductivity, permeability, bonding and exotherm data for selected cementitious grouts. The theoretical reduction in bore length that could be achieved with the BNL-developed cement-sand grouts is examined. Finally, the FY 98 research and field trials are discussed.
Date: April 1, 1998
Creator: ALLAN,M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Caustic Precipitation of Plutonium and Uranium with Gadolinium as a Neutron Poison

Description: The caustic precipitation of plutonium (Pu) and uranium (U) from Pu and U containing waste solutions has been investigated to determine whether gadolinium (Gd) could be used as a neutron poison for precipitation with greater than a fissile mass containing both Pu and enriched U. Precipitation experiments were performed using both actual samples and simulant solutions with a range of 2.6-5.16 g/L U and 0-4.3 to 1 U to Pu. Analyses were performed on solutions at intermediate pH to determine the partitioning of elements for accident scenarios. When both Pu and U were present in the solution, precipitation began at pH 4.5 and by pH 7, 99 percent of Pu and U had precipitated. When complete neutralization was achieved at pH greater than 14 with 1.2 M excess OH-, greater than 99 percent of Pu, U, and Gd had precipitated. At pH greater than 14, the particles sizes were larger and the distribution was a single mode. The ratio of hydrogen to fissile atoms in the precipitate was determined after both settling and centrifuging and indicates that sufficient water was associated with the precipitates to provide the needed neutron moderation for Gd to prevent a criticality in solutions containing up to 4.3 to 1 U to Pu and up to 5.16 g/L U.
Date: April 14, 2005
Creator: ANN, VISSER
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: We study the fragmentation of a transversely polarized quark into a non-collinear (k{perpendicular} {ne} 0) spinless hadron and the fragmentation of an unpolarized quark into a non collinear transversely polarized spin 1/2 baryon. These nonperturbative properties are described by spin and k{perpendicular} dependent fragmentation functions and are revealed in the observation of single spin asymmetries. Recent data on the production of pions in polarized semi-inclusive DIS and long known data on A polarization in unpolarized p-N processes are considered: these new fragmentation functions can describe the experimental results and the single spin effects in the quark fragmentation turn out to be surprisingly large.
Date: April 23, 2001
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: We review a relativistic approach to the heavy quark physics in lattice QCD by applying a relativistic O(a) improvement to the massive Wilson quark action on the lattice. After explaining how power corrections of m{sub Q}a can be avoided and remaining uncertainties are reduced to be of order (a{Lambda}{sub QCD}){sup 2}, we demonstrate a determination of four improvement coefficients in the action up to one-loop level in a mass dependent way. We also show a perturbative determination of mass dependent renormalization factors and O(a) improvement coefficients for the vector and axial vector currents. Some preliminary results of numerical simulations are also presented.
Date: April 1, 2005
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: The development of future facilities relevant to the study of deep inelastic scattering at BNL is described.
Date: April 16, 2007
Creator: ARONSON,S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hydrogen Storage Properties of Magnesium Base Nanostructured Composite Materials

Description: In this work, nanostructured composite materials have been synthesized using the mechanical alloying process. The new materials produced have been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transition electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and electron energy dispersion spectrum (EDS) for their phase compositions, crystal structure, grain size, particle morphology and the distribution of catalyst element. Hydrogen storage capacities and the hydriding-dehydriding kinetics of the new materials have been measured at different temperatures using a Sieverts apparatus. It is observed that mechanical alloying accelerates the hydrogenation kinetics of the magnesium based materials at low temperature, but a high temperature must be provided to release the absorbed hydrogen from the hydrided magnesium based materials. It is believed that the dehydriding temperature is largely controlled by the thermodynamic configuration of magnesium hydride. Doping Mg-Ni nano/amorphous composite materials with lanthanum reduces the hydriding and dehydriding temperature. Although the stability of MgH2 can not be easily reduced by ball milling alone, the results suggest the thermodynamic properties of Mg-Ni nano/amorphous composite materials can be alternated by additives such as La or other effective elements. Further investigation toward understanding the mechanism of additives will be rewarded.
Date: April 30, 2004
Creator: AU, M
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department