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FINAL REPORT ENHANCED GEOTHERMAL SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY PHASE II ANIMAS VALLEY, NEW MEXICO

Description: Final Technical Report covering siting, permitting, and drilling two geothermal temperature gradient holes. This report provides a summary of geotechnical and geophysical data that led to the siting, drilling, and completion of 2 temperature gradient holes in the geothermal anomaly at Lightning Dock Known Geothermal Resource Area in the Animas Valley of New Mexico. Included in this report is a summary of institutional factors and data defining the well drilling process and acquiring drilling permits. Data covering the results of the drilling and temperature logging of these two holes are provided. The two gradient holes were sited on federal geothermal leases owned by Lightning Dock Geothermal, Inc. and both holes were drilled into lakebed sediments some distance from the intense shallow geothermal anomaly located in the eastern half of Section 7, Township 25 South, Range 19 West.
Date: December 29, 2003
Creator: A.Cunniff, Roy & Bowers, Roger L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

EXAMPLE OF A RISK BASED DISPOSAL APPROVAL SOLIDIFICATION OF HANFORD SITE TRANSURANIC (TRU) WASTE

Description: The Hanford Site requested, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 10 approved, a Toxic Substances Control Act of 1976 (TSCA) risk-based disposal approval (RBDA) for solidifying approximately four cubic meters of waste from a specific area of one of the K East Basin: the North Loadout Pit (NLOP). The NLOP waste is a highly radioactive sludge that contained polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) regulated under TSCA. The prescribed disposal method for liquid PCB waste under TSCA regulations is either thermal treatment or decontamination. Due to the radioactive nature of the waste, however, neither thermal treatment nor decontamination was a viable option. As a result, the proposed treatment consisted of solidifying the material to comply with waste acceptance criteria at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico, or possibly the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility at the Hanford Site, depending on the resulting transuranic (TRU) content of the stabilized waste. The RBDA evaluated environmental risks associated with potential airborne PCBs. In addition, the RBDA made use of waste management controls already in place at the treatment unit. The treatment unit, the T Plant Complex, is a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA)-permitted facility used for storing and treating radioactive waste. The EPA found that the proposed activities did not pose an unreasonable risk to human health or the environment. Treatment took place from October 26,2005 to June 9,2006, and 332 208-liter (55-gallon) containers of solidified waste were produced. All treated drums assayed to date are TRU and will be disposed at WIPP.
Date: November 14, 2007
Creator: AL, PRIGNANO
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Laser Safety and Hazard Analysis for the Trailer (B70) Based AURA Laser System

Description: A laser safety and hazard analysis was performed for the AURA laser system based on the 2000 version of the American National Standards Institute's (ANSI) Standard Z136.1, for ''Safe Use of Lasers'' and the 2000 version of the ANSI Standard Z136.6, for ''Safe Use of Lasers Outdoors''. The trailer based AURA laser system is a mobile platform, which is used to perform laser interaction experiments and tests at various national test sites. The trailer (B70) based AURA laser system is generally operated on the United State Air Force Starfire Optical Range (SOR) at Kirtland Air Force Base (KAFB), New Mexico. The laser is used to perform laser interaction testing inside the laser trailer as well as outside the trailer at target sites located at various distances from the exit telescope. In order to protect personnel, who work inside the Nominal Hazard Zone (NHZ), from hazardous laser emission exposures it was necessary to determine the Maximum Permissible Exposure (MPE) for each laser wavelength (wavelength bands) and calculate the appropriate minimum Optical Density (OD{sub min}) of the laser safety eyewear used by authorized personnel and the Nominal Ocular Hazard Distance (NOHD) to protect unauthorized personnel who may have violated the boundaries of the control area and enter into the laser's NHZ.
Date: January 1, 2003
Creator: AUGUSTONI, ARNOLD L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program primarily for the Rocky Mountain states of New Mexico, Colorado, Wyoming, and Montana, and the State of Alaska. Semiannual progress report, October 1978-March 1979

Description: During this six-month period, Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance samples were collected by the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) from 623 locations in Colorado for a special study. Additional special studies are planned for nine other areas in the Rocky Mountain states in fiscal year 1979, plus some cleanup reconnaissance sampling in parts of four quadrangles that overlap state borders. Preparations for reconnaissance sampling of the entire North Slope region of Alaska have been made but sampling is contingent upon receiving supplemental funds. Water samples from 6725 locations were analyzed for uranium by fluorometry or delayed-neutron counting (DNC). Water samples from 9390 locations were analyzed by emission spectroscopy for 12 other elements. Sediment samples from 14,414 locations were analyzed for uranium and 31 other elements by combined DNC and neutron activation analysis. Sediment samples from 9876 locations were analyzed for two additional elements by x-ray fluorescence. Nine LASL reconnaissance reports, one pilot study data release, one supplemental multielement data release, a multielement data release for three areas in western Alaska, and one quarterly report were open filed by the Department of Energy, Grand Junction Office during the six-month period. Numerous other reports are in various stages of completion and several will be open filed in the near future.
Date: July 1, 1979
Creator: Aamodt, P.L.; Bunker, M.E.; Waterbury, G.R. & Waller, R.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Artificial geothermal reservoirs in hot volcanic rock

Description: S>Some recent results from the Los Alamos program in which hydraulic fracturing is used for the recovery of geothermal energy are discussed. The location is about 4 kilometers west and south of the ring fault of the enormous Jemez Caldera in the northcentral part of New Mexico. It is shown that geothermal energy may be extracted from hot rock that does not contain circulating hot water or steam and is relatively impermeable. A fluid is pumped at high pressure into an isolated section of a wellbore. If the well is cased the pipe in this pressurized region is perforated as it is in the petroleum industry, so that the pressure may be applied to the rock, cracking it. A second well is drilled a few hundred feet away from the first. Cold water is injected through the first pipe, circulates through the crack, and hot water returns to the surface through the second pipe. Results are described and circumstances are discussed under which artiflcial geothermal reservoirs might be created in the basaltic rock of Hawaii. (MCW)
Date: February 8, 1974
Creator: Aamodt, R.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hot dry rock geothermal reservoir engineering

Description: Two wells, GT-2 and EE-1, were originally drilled to a depth of 9600 ft (2.93 km) and 10,000 ft (3.05 km), respectively, and, after some difficulties, including redrilling of the bottom portion of GT-2, a good fracture connection was made between EE-1 and GT-2B, as the modified GT-2 was called. The circulation system was studied extensively for the purpose of establishing a number of fracture properties. Techniques were developed to determine orientation, geometry, heat exchange area, volume, flow impedance and impedance distribution. A much larger fracture system was then created from a depth of 9620 ft (2.93 km) in EE-1. The techniques used and results obtained in the study of the new and old fracture systems are discussed. (MHR)
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Aamodt, R.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Anomalous fracture-extension pressure in granitic rocks

Description: Fracture-extension pressures appreciably higher than the least principal earth-stress were observed in hydraulic fractures formed in a pair of 3 km (9600 ft) deep boreholes drilled near the Valles Caldera in northern New Mexico. Pressurization of open wellbores in rock containing preexisting fractures may open these fractures, instead of creating new fractures at right angles to the least principal stress. The pressure necessary to flow into these fractures may be appreciably higher than the least principal stress. Upon sand-propping one such pre-existing fracture, a lower fracture extension pressure was observed. A second fracture in a parallel well-bore 92 m (300 ft) away, at the same depth of 2 km (6500 ft) exhibited the lower fracture extension pressure without propping, but with about 90/sup 0/ difference in fracture direction. Fractures created through perforations at a depth of 3 km (9600 ft) not only exhibited breakdown pressures upon initial pressurization, but sometimes even higher ''breakdown'' pressures upon repressurization. These phenomena may be of interest in the interpretation of earth stress measurements made by hydraulic fracturing.
Date: January 1, 1978
Creator: Aamodt, R.L. & Potter, R.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Water use alternatives for Navajo energy production

Description: The Navajo have substantial resources of coal and uranium, and water use is certain to accompany development of these resources. A variety of supplies, however, are available--water in storage in Navajo Reservoir, water in existing uses which may be transferred, and groundwater. Furthermore, the quantity of water use varies over a wide range depending on the use of water conservation technologies such as dry coolers and wastewater treatment units. Joint management of energy and water resources requires a basic understanding of the water supply and demand alternatives available to the energy industry. Thus, the uses of water for key energy activities--coal and uranium mining, coal transportation (slurry pipelines), and coal conversion (electricity and synthetic gas production) are reviewed. For those activities for which water conservation is feasible, the technologies and estimate costs ($/af saved) are described. The range of water requirements are then compared to energy and water resource estimates. Finally, alternative (not necessarily exclusive) criteria for energy and water resource management are discussed: a) promote energy activities with the lowest minimum water requirements; b) require industry to use low-quality water resources and the most effective water conservation technology; and c) maximize the economic return on Navajo water resources ($/af consumed).
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Abbey, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Surface-wave and refraction tomography at the FACT Site, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

Description: We present a technique that allows for the simultaneous acquisition and interpretation of both shear-wave and compressive-wave 3-D velocities. The technique requires no special seismic sources or array geometries, and is suited to studies with small source-receiver offsets. The method also effectively deals with unwanted seismic arrivals by using the statistical properties of the data itself to discriminate against spurious picks. We demonstrate the technique with a field experiment at the Facility for Analysis, Calibration, and Testing at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico. The resulting 3-D shear-velocity and compressive-velocity distributions are consistent with surface geologic mapping. The averaged velocities and V{sub p}/V{sub s} ratio in the upper 30 meters are also consistent with examples found in the scientific literature.
Date: August 1, 2006
Creator: Abbott, Robert E.; Bartel, Lewis Clark; Pullammanappallil, Satish (Optim, Inc., Reno, NV) & Engler, Bruce Phillip
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Emanation of tritiated water from disposal sites at Los Alamos, New Mexico

Description: The level of contamination induced by the presence of tritiated water (HTO) on the Bandelier tuff near Los Alamos, New Mexico has been seen to decrease vertically and horizontally at the same rate. This decrease in radioactivity with distance from the source has been measured around three different disposal shafts and found to be somewhat slower than the decrease in emanation rate with distance from the source. Physical factors, suspected of influencing HTO emanation, were entered as independent variables in a regression equation including measurements taken over a 14 month period. The physical variables studied were of thermal, hydrological, and meteorological origin or a combination of the above. Only four variables were retained as significant although they explained only 71% of the variation in the HTO flux.
Date: January 1, 1982
Creator: Abeele, W.V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Future credible precipitation occurrences in Los Alamos, New Mexico

Description: I have studied many factors thought to have influenced past climatic change. Because they might recur, they are possible suspects for future climatic alterations. Most of these factors are totally unpredictable; therefore, they cast a shadow on the validity of derived climatic predictions. Changes in atmospheric conditions and in continental surfaces, variations in solar radiation, and in the earth's orbit around the sun are among the influential mechanisms investigated. Even when models are set up that include the above parameters, their reliability will depend on unpredictable variables totally alien to the model (like volcanic eruptions). Based on climatic records, however, maximum precipitation amounts have been calculated for different probability levels. These seem to correspond well to past precipitation occurrences, derived from tree ring indices. The link between tree ring indices and local climate has been established through regression analysis.
Date: September 1, 1980
Creator: Abeele, W.V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Western Wind and Solar Integration Study: Hydropower Analysis

Description: The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) study of 20% Wind Energy by 2030 was conducted to consider the benefits, challenges, and costs associated with sourcing 20% of U.S. energy consumption from wind power by 2030. This study found that with proactive measures, no insurmountable barriers were identified to meet the 20% goal. Following this study, DOE and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducted two more studies: the Eastern Wind Integration and Transmission Study (EWITS) covering the eastern portion of the U.S., and the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS) covering the western portion of the United States. The WWSIS was conducted by NREL and research partner General Electric (GE) in order to provide insight into the costs, technical or physical barriers, and operational impacts caused by the variability and uncertainty of wind, photovoltaic, and concentrated solar power when employed to serve up to 35% of the load energy in the WestConnect region (Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Wyoming). WestConnect is composed of several utility companies working collaboratively to assess stakeholder and market needs to and develop cost-effective improvements to the western wholesale electricity market. Participants include the Arizona Public Service, El Paso Electric Company, NV Energy, Public Service of New Mexico, Salt River Project, Tri-State Generation and Transmission Cooperative, Tucson Electric Power, Xcel Energy and the Western Area Power Administration.
Date: March 1, 2012
Creator: Acker, T. & Pete, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thermal conductivity of S. E. New Mexico rocksalt and anhydrite. [Saltcrete]

Description: The thermal conductivity of several rocksalt materials has been determined. Some of the materials were core samples from well AEC 8, Carlsbad, New Mexico. These samples ranged from nearly pure halite (NaCl) to nearly pure anhydrite (CaSO/sub 4/). Core sample crystallite size ranged from about 3 centimeters to essentially packed salt sand (approx. = 0.5mm). The samples exhibited thermal conductivities from approx. = 1.5 to 7.5 W/mK which depended upon purity and grain size. A one meter cube of rocksalt from the Mississippi Chemical Company's S.E. New Mexico potash mine was obtained for other experiments. The thermal conductivity of one sample from each of the orthogonal directions of the cube was measured. This material had a high conductivity of approx. = 8.5 W/mK and was very isotrophic. A core of rocksalt from the Morton Salt Company, Paynesville, Ohio had a thermal conductivity of 6 W/mK, which is in the upper band of the results on cores from well AEC 8. Finally, a concrete made with salt sand and rocksalt aggregate was determined to have a conductivity of approx. = 2 W/mK. A longitudinal heat flow apparatus was used to determine the thermal conductivity. An analysis of the experiment gave an accuracy within +- 15% on geological samples and within +- 10% on 304 stainless steel. 8 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.
Date: January 1, 1977
Creator: Acton, R.U.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geology and recognition criteria for uraniferous humate deposits, Grants Uranium Region, New Mexico. Final report

Description: The geology of the uraniferous humate uranium deposits of the Grants Uranium Region, northwestern New Mexico, is summarized. The most important conclusions of this study are enumerated. Although the geologic characteristics of the uraniferous humate deposits of the Grants Uranium Region are obviously not common in the world, neither are they bizarre or coincidental. The source of the uranium in the deposits of the Grants Uranium Region is not known with certainty. The depositional environment of the host sediments was apparently the mid and distal portions of a wet alluvial fan system. The influence of structural control on the location and accumulation of the host sediments is now supported by considerable data. The host sediments possess numerous important characteristics which influenced the formation of uraniferous humate deposits. Ilmenite-magnetite distribution within potential host sandstones is believed to be the simplest and most useful regional alteration pattern related to this type of uranium deposit. A method is presented for organizing geologic observations into what is referred to as recognition criteria. The potential of the United States for new districts similar to the Grants Uranium Region is judged to be low based upon presently available geologic information. Continuing studies on uraniferous humate deposits are desirable in three particular areas.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Adams, S.S. & Saucier, A.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geology and Recognition Criteria for Uraniferous Humate Depostis, Grants Uranium Region, New Mexico: Final Report

Description: Extended literature review describing the geologic history and characteristics of the Grants Uranium Region in northwestern New Mexico, particularly the uraniferous humate uranium deposits, "for the purpose of describing those geologic recognition criteria which seem most useful for evaluating areas with potential for new deposits" (p. 13).
Date: January 1981
Creator: Adams, Samuel S. & Saucier, A. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Residual bouguer gravity anomaly map of northern New Mexico

Description: The map is computer contoured from equidistant grid and bicubic spline interpolated surface. Bouguer gravity anomaly correction applied is g/sub BC/ = (0.034) x (elevation - regional elevation), with density 2.67 g/cc. Overall dimensions are 41/sup 1///sub 2/'' x 43''; scale is 1 : 500,000. (JGB)
Date: March 1, 1977
Creator: Aiken, C. L. V.; Laughlin, A. W. & West, F. G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CSDP: Seismology of continental thermal regime

Description: This is a progress report for the past one year of research (year 2 of 5-year project) under the project titled CSDP: Seismology of Continental Thermal Regime'', in which we proposed to develop seismological interpretation theory and methods applicable to complex structures encountered in continental geothermal areas and apply them to several candidate sites for the Continental Scientific Drilling Project. During the past year, two Ph.D. thesis works were completed under the present project. One is a USC thesis on seismic wave propagation in anisotropic media with application to defining fractures in the earth. The other is a MIT thesis on seismic Q and velocity structure for the magma-hydrothermal system of the Valles Caldera, New Mexico. The P.I. co-organized the first International Workshop on Volcanic Seismology at Capri, Italy in October 1988, and presented the keynote paper on the state-of-art of volcanic seismology''. We presented another paper at the workshop on Assorted Seismic Signals from Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii. Another international meeting, namely, the Chapman Conference on seismic anisotropy in the earth's crust at Berkeley, California in May 1988, was co-organized by the co-P.I. (P.C.L), and we presented our work on seismic waves in heterogeneous and anisotropic media. Adding the publications and presentations made in the past year to the list for the preceding year, the following table lists 21 papers published, submitted or presented in the past two years of the present project. 65 refs., 334 figs., 1 tab.
Date: April 1, 1989
Creator: Aki, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CSDP: The seismology of continental thermal regimes: Final report for period April 1, 1986-April 1, 1987

Description: This report describes progress in the study of both wave propagation in complex structures and source mechanism of geothermal seismic events. The following work was accomplished in the past one-year period: (1) interpretation of long-period events observed at Mt. St. Helens and at the Fenton Hill hot-dry-rock experimental site in terms of seismic radiation from a fluid-filled crack; (2) interpretation of teleseismic data collected in and near the Valles caldera in terms of a model with irregular topography, caldera fill, and magma chamber; (3) interpretation of VSP (Vertical Seismic Profiling) data from the Oroville fault zone by ray tracing and polarization calculation for P, SV, and SH waves in heterogeneous and anisotropic media containing aligned fluid-filled and/or dry cracks; and (4) development of a new powerful method for calculating seismic motions in media with irregular topography and interfaces by the superposition of Gaussian Beams.
Date: July 1, 1987
Creator: Aki, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Seismological investigation of crack formation in hydraulic rock fracturing experiments and in natural geothermal environments. Progress report, September 1, 1980-August 31, 1981

Description: Progress is reported on the following: interpretation of seismic data from hydraulic fracturing experiments at the Fenton Hill Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Site, interpretation of 3-D velocity anomalies in the western US with special attention to geothermal areas, theoretical and observational studies of scattering and attenuation of high-frequency seismic waves, theoretical and observational studies of volcanic tremors in relation to magma transport mechanisms, and deployment and maintenance of 9 event-recorders around Mt. St. Helens. Abstracts of papers submitted for publication are included. (MHR)
Date: September 1, 1981
Creator: Aki, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Location of hydraulic fractures using microseismic techniques

Description: Microearthquakes with magnitudes ranging between -6 and -2 have been observed in three successive massive injections of water at the Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Energy demonstration site at Fenton Hill, New Mexico. The injection was part of a program to increase the heat transfer area of hydraulic fractures and to decrease the flow-through impedance between wells. The microearthquakes were used in mapping the location of the extended hydraulic fractures. A downhole triaxial system positioned approximately 200 m vertically above the injection point in a shut-in production well was used for detection. The microearthquakes occurred in a north-northwest striking zone 400 m in length passing through the injection point. During a third substantially larger injection, microearthquakes occurred in a dispersed volume at distances as great as 800 m from the zone active in the first two injections.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Albright, J.A. & Pearson, C.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characterization of hot dry rock geothermal energy extraction systems

Description: The engineering of heat exchange systems by which geothermal heat can be efficiently extracted from hot impermeable rocks is studied. The system currently under investigation at Fenton Hill, New Mexico consists of a network of large fractures created through the hydraulic pressurization of a well penetrating hot basement rocks and subsequently intersected by a second well drilled to form a flow-thru system. Cool water pumped into the fractures through one well, once heated in the reservoir, returns to the surface through the second well, is cooled, and then recirculated. While much is known about the performance parameters of the fracture network from short-term flow tests, little is understood concerning the spatial dimensions and geometrical relationship of individual fractures comprising the network. Ultimately, the success one has in estimating the long-term performance of such a system where commercialization is an issue, and in engineering future systems with optimal performance, depends on the success in characterizing the flow-thru fracture networks. To date only nonconventional application of oil field logging techniques and acoustic emissions studies have been used in the characterization of the fracture network.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Albright, J.N. & Newton, C.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Transmission of acoustic signals through hydraulic fractures

Description: Acoustic signals transmitted between wells have been used to study the structure of the hot dry rock geothermal reservoir at Fenton Hill, New Mexico. The signals produced, usign commercially available logging tools, traveled paths as long as 45.7 m (150 ft) in fractured granitic basement rock. Both P- and S-waves were transmitted, the amplitude of the latter varying with the inclination between logging positions in each well. On pressurization of the reservoir, the signals showed changes in attenuation and waveform. The change in attenuation varied from a value of -2 dB above the fractured portion of the reservoir to -30 dB near the fracture well-bore intersections. The signals, having amplitude content in the frequency range from 6 to 16 kilohertz, were severely attenuated in the higher frequencies. Signal waveforms were limited to one of three distinctive types - the first having a pronounced S-wave arrival, the other two having either no S-wave arrival or apparent distributed P- and S-wave arrivals. The general character of each waveform seems to depend on the absence or presence of fractures along the signal travel paths, on the multiplicity of fractures, and on their pressure states. The propagation velocity of the signals did not change perceptibly on reservoir pressurization. However, the velocity did change as much as 6% locally in the reservoir following a prolonged period of heat extraction and pressure cycling, resulting in extensive microfracturing of the bulk rock.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Albright, J.N.; Pearson, C.F. & Fehler, M.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department