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UPDATE: nuclear power program information and data, July-September 1981

Description: UPDATE is published by the Office of Coordination and Special Projects, Office of Nuclear Reactor Programs, to provide a quick reference source on the current status of nuclear powerplant construction and operation in the United States and for information on the fuel cycle, economics, and performance of nuclear generating units. Similar information on other means of electric generation as related to nuclear power is included when appropriate. The subject matter of the reports and analyses presented in UPDATE will vary from issue to issue, reflecting changes in foci of interest and new developments in the field of commercial nuclear power generation. UPDATA is intended to provide a timely source of current statistics, results of analyses, and programmatic information proceeding from the activities of the Office of Nuclear Reactor Programs and other components of the Department of Energy, as well as condensations of topical articles from other sources of interest to the nuclear community. It also facilitates quick responses to requests for data and information of the type often solicited from this office.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: /NBM--6011986, DOE
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

EVALUATION OF FLAT-PLATE PHOTOVOLTAIC THERMAL HYBRID SYSTEMS FOR SOLAR ENERGY UTILIZATION.

Description: The technical and economic attractiveness of combined photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) solar energy collectors was evaluated. The study was limited to flat-plate collectors since concentrating photovoltaic collectors require active cooling and thus are inherently PV/T collectors, the only decision being whether to use the thermal energy or to dump it. it was also specified at the outset that reduction in required roof area was not to be used as an argument for combining the collection of thermal and electrical energy into one module. Three tests of economic viability were identified, all of which PV/T must pass if it is to be considered a promising alternative: PV/T must prove to be competitive with photovoltaic-only, thermal-only, and side-by-side photovoltaic-plus-thermal collectors and systems. These three tests were applied to systems using low-temperature (unglazed) collectors and to systems using medium-temperature (glazed) collectors in Los Angeles, New York, and Tampa. For photovoltaics, the 1986 DOE cost goals were assumed to have been realized, and for thermal energy collection two technologies were considered: a current technology based on metal and glass, and a future technology based on thin-film plastics. The study showed that for medium-temperature applications PV/T is not an attractive option in any of the locations studied. For low-temperature applications, PV/T appears to be marginally attractive.
Date: June 1, 1981
Creator: ANDREWS,J. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measurement of instantaneous shut-in pressure in crystalline rock

Description: A method is defined which was found useful, not only for determining the instantaneous shut-in pressure (ISIP) during fracture creation, but also for determining the pressure inside the fracture, near the exit and entrance wellbores, when a circulation of fluid through a fracture is taking place. The basic assumption of the Muskat method is that, after a short transient period, the shut-in pressure approaches an asymptotic value, Pa, in an exponential fashion, i.e., if Pa is subtracted from P at each time, t, and the result is plotted, ln (P-Pa) vs t will be a straight line. Various values of Pa are tried until the best straight line fit is found. Two Muskat analyses are shown. (MHR)
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Aamodt, L. & Kuriyagawa, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cermets and method for making same

Description: The present invention is directed to a method for making a wide variety of general-purpose cermets and for radioactive waste disposal from ceramic powders prepared from urea-dispersed solutions containing various metal values. The powders are formed into a compact and subjected to a rapid temperature increase in a reducing atmosphere. During this reduction, one or more of the more readily reducible oxides in the compact is reduced to a selected substoichiometric state at a temperature below the eutectic phase for that particular oxide or oxides and then raised to a temperature greater than the eutectic temperature to provide a liquid phase in the compact prior to the reduction of the liquid phase forming oxide to solid metal. This liquid phase forms at a temperature below the melting temperature of the metal and bonds together the remaining particulates in the cermet to form a solid polycrystalline cermet.
Date: April 1, 1981
Creator: Aaron, W.S.; Kinser, D.L. & Quinby, T.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Important material considerations in INTOR

Description: A number of important material-related problems were identified and analyzed during the Phase-I study for INTOR. The first wall and divertor collector plate are subjected to severe normal and off-normal conditions. A melt layer is predicted to develop in a bare stainless steel wall under plasma disruptions. Graphite tiles will not melt but they introduce other serious uncertainties into the design. The design strategy for the divertor collector plate focused on separating the surface and high heat flux problems and on utilizing a novel mechanical design concept for attaching tungsten tiles to a stainless steel (or copper) heat sink.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Abdou, M.A.; Mattas, R.F. & Smith, D.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geohydrology of Bandelier Tuff

Description: The Los Alamos National Laboratory has been disposing of radioactive wastes since 1944. Environmental studies and monitoring for radioactive contamination started concurrently. In this report, only two mechanisms and rates by which the radionuclides can enter the environment are studied in detail: subsurface transport of radionuclides by migrating water, and diffusion of tritiated water (HTO) in the vapor phase. The report also includes a section concerning the influence of moisture on shear strength and possible resulting subsidences occurring in the pit overburdens. Because subsurface transport of radionuclides is influenced by the hydraulic conductivity and this in turn is regulated by the moisture content of any given material, a study was also undertaken involving precipitation, the most important climatic element influencing the geohydrology of any given area. Further work is in progress to correlate HTO emanation to atmospheric and pedological properties, especially including thermal characteristics of the tuff.
Date: October 1, 1981
Creator: Abeele, M.V.; Wheeler, M.L. & Burton, B.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Isotope-dilution mass spectrometry in the measurement of plutonium isotope half-lives

Description: Isotope-dilution mass spectrometry has been used at Los Alamos to measure the half-lives of /sup 239/Pu, /sup 240/Pu, and /sup 241/Pu. The latter was determined by measuring the rate of decrease of the /sup 241/Pu//sup 242/Pu ratio in an appropriate isotopic mixture over a period of several years. The half-lives of the two lighter isotopes are too long to be determined in this manner. They were determined by measuring the rate of production of the uranium daughter relative to a known added /sup 233/U spike. Experimental procedures were designed to control sources of error and to permit a detailed statistical treatment which included all known sources of error and accounted for all covariances. The uncertainties, at the 95% confidence level, associated with the measured half-lives were less than 0.4% for /sup 241/Pu and less than 0.2% for /sup 239/Pu and /sup 240/Pu.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Abernathey, R.M. & Marsh, S.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Shear rigidity of spread stearic acid monolayers on water

Description: The effect of Al/sup 3 +/, Fe/sup 3 +/, Ca/sup 2 +/, and Mg/sup 2 +/ ions and of pH on the two-dimensional shear modulus of stearic acid spread on a water substrate was determined. A large shear modulus was displayed by the films when the subphase contained Al/sup 3 +/ and Fe/sup 3 +/ ions at the self buffered pH. With Fe/sup 3 +/ dissolved in the subphase, the film displayed a viscous relaxation when strained but no residual stress was observed. No effect was observed with the Ca/sup 2 +/ or Mg/sup 2 +/. Reducing the pH value in the subphase with the trivalent ions caused the shear modulus to disappear. The observations are interpreted in terms of hydrogen bonding.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Abraham, B.M.; Ketterson, J.B.; Miyano, K. & Kueny, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Bibliography for the Satellite Power System (SPS) Concept Development and Evaluation Program

Description: This bibliography encompasses systems definition and engineering aspects; environmental assessment of microwave health and ecology, risks to space workers and atmospheric effects; a societal assessment covering resource requirements (land and materials) international and institutional issues; and a comparative assessment of the SPS Reference System relative to other advanced energy technologies, such as fusion. (MHR)
Date: April 1, 1981
Creator: Abromavage, M.; Calzadilla, R. & Murray, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Stimulated Raman scattering and four-wave mixing: steady-state plane-wave analytic solutions

Description: The equations for plane-wave steady-state propagation of n fields interacting via four wave processes in a Raman medium have been known since at least 1962. Complete analytic solutions have only been found for the process of harmonic generation. However, solutions have been obtained in the gain regime assuming zero pump depletion. Assuming all fields satisfy the phase matching condition, general analytic solutions to these equations have been found. The solutions are complete in that they describe both pump depletion and saturation. Some example problems will be studied.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Ackerhalt, J.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Self-focusing in SF/sub 6/

Description: It is shown by explicit calculation of previously published quasicontinuum model that the molecular susceptibility rapidly approaches zero as higher excited states of the molecule become populated. Hence the overtones of the ..nu../sub 3/-pumped mode are totally responsible for the self focusing effects in SF/sub 6/. The ..nu../sub 3/ ladder contribution to the susceptibility is calculated. The vibrational model is a classical triply degenerate anharmonic oscillator in the Cartesian basis with the anharmonicity parameters chosen to be consistent with the latest spectroscopic analysis of the 3..nu../sub 3/ overtone spectrum. The rotational structure is represented by a distribution of these oscillators where the distribution is chosen to correspond to the spectrum of the ..nu../sub 3/ fundamental. Good agreement is found with the 300/sup 0/ in self-focusing data of Nowak and Ham at CO/sub 2/ P(28), P(20) and P(10) in SF/sub 6/.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Ackerhalt, J.R. & Galbraith, H.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thermochemical Investigations of Nearly Ideal Binary Solvents 7: Monomer and Dimer Models for Solubility of Benzoic Acid in Simple Binary and Ternary Solvents

Description: Article on thermochemical investigations of nearly ideal binary solvents and monomer and dimer models for solubility of benzoic acid in simple binary and ternary solvents.
Date: September 1, 1981
Creator: Acree, William E. (William Eugene) & Bertrand, Gary L.
Partner: UNT College of Arts and Sciences

Preparation of higher-actinide burnup and cross section samples. [LMFBR]

Description: A joint research program involving the United States and the United Kingdom was instigated about four years ago for the purpose of studying burnup of higher actinides using in-core irradiation in the fast reactor at Dounreay, Scotland. Simultaneously, determination of cross sections of a wide variety of higher actinide isotopes was proposed. Coincidental neutron flux and energy spectral measurements were to be made using vanadium encapsulated dosimetry materials in the immediate region of the burnup and cross section samples. The higher actinide samples chosen for the burnup study were /sup 241/Am and /sup 244/Cm in the forms of Am/sub 2/O/sub 3/, Cm/sub 2/O/sub 3/, and Am/sub 6/ Cm(RE)/sub 7/O/sub 21/, where (RE) represents a mixture of lanthanide sesquioxides. It is the purpose of this paper to describe technology development and its application in the preparation of the fuel specimens and the cross section specimens that are being used in this cooperative program.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Adair, H.L.; Kobisk, E.H.; Quinby, T.C.; Thomas, D.K. & Dailey, J.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Small Sample Assay Station users guide

Description: A system for acquisition of delayed neutron data, based on an LSI-11 with 28 K words of memory, is described. Hardware features are a six-channel scaler and level sensor to determine the state of the experiment; and normal peripherals include dual floppy-disk drive, line printer, and CRT terminal. The software for experiment control and for the analysis of data is presented. The protocol for assays that optimally utilize the system is suggested.
Date: March 1, 1981
Creator: Adams, E.L.; Bourret, S. & Meier, M.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sodium oxide and uranium oxide aerosol experiments: NSPP Tests 106-108 and Tests 204-207, data record report

Description: This data record report describes three sodium oxide aerosol tests and four uranium oxide aerosol tests conducted in the Nuclear Safety Pilot Plant project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The goal of this project is to establish the validity (or level of conservatism) of the aerosol behavioral code, HAARM-3, and follow-on codes under development at the Battelle Columbus Laboratories for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Descriptions of the seven tests with tables and graphs summarizing the results are included. 92 figs.
Date: March 1, 1981
Creator: Adams, R.E.; Kress, T.S. & Tobias, M.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental Transport Division. 1980 report

Description: Aquatic, atmospheric, and terrestrial studies and instrumentation developments are described in a series of articles. More details about specific studies are given in publications listed at the end of the report.
Date: March 1, 1981
Creator: Adams, S.E.; Fliermans, C.B.; Garrett, A.J. & Halverson, J.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Approach to ecological assessment of power-plant-intake (316b) related issues: the Prairie Island case

Description: Assessment approaches and strategies useful in addressing important issues in section 316(b) of the 1972 Federal Water Pollution Control Act are illustrated in this report through the analysis and evaluation of the Prairie Island Nuclear Station 316(b) data base. The main issues in 316(b) demonstrations, cooling water intake operation and location, involve determining the impacts of entrainment and impingement. Entrainment impacts were addressed by applying the equivalent adult approach and correcting for inherent biases and by determining the through-plant survival of zooplankton. An assessment of impingement impacts was made by comparing for each of various species the number of fish impinged to estimates of population size. Densities of plankton and fish were compared between the intake area and an alternate area to determine if the location of the present intake minimizes impacts. No definitive conclusion relative to the best location of the intake could be made because of high year to year variability in the data and the differential dominance of trophic groups between areas.
Date: April 1, 1981
Creator: Adams, S.M.; Vaughan, D.S.; Hildebrand, S.G. & Kumar, K.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geology and recognition criteria for uraniferous humate deposits, Grants Uranium Region, New Mexico. Final report

Description: The geology of the uraniferous humate uranium deposits of the Grants Uranium Region, northwestern New Mexico, is summarized. The most important conclusions of this study are enumerated. Although the geologic characteristics of the uraniferous humate deposits of the Grants Uranium Region are obviously not common in the world, neither are they bizarre or coincidental. The source of the uranium in the deposits of the Grants Uranium Region is not known with certainty. The depositional environment of the host sediments was apparently the mid and distal portions of a wet alluvial fan system. The influence of structural control on the location and accumulation of the host sediments is now supported by considerable data. The host sediments possess numerous important characteristics which influenced the formation of uraniferous humate deposits. Ilmenite-magnetite distribution within potential host sandstones is believed to be the simplest and most useful regional alteration pattern related to this type of uranium deposit. A method is presented for organizing geologic observations into what is referred to as recognition criteria. The potential of the United States for new districts similar to the Grants Uranium Region is judged to be low based upon presently available geologic information. Continuing studies on uraniferous humate deposits are desirable in three particular areas.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Adams, S.S. & Saucier, A.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geology and recognition criteria for sandstone uranium deposits in mixed fluvial-shallow marine sedimentary sequences, South Texas. Final report

Description: Uranium deposits in the South Texas Uranium Region are classical roll-type deposits that formed at the margin of tongues of altered sandstone by the encroachment of oxidizing, uraniferous solutions into reduced aquifers containing pyrite and, in a few cases, carbonaceous plant material. Many of the uranium deposits in South Texas are dissimilar from the roll fronts of the Wyoming basins. The host sands for many of the deposits contain essentially no carbonaceous plant material, only abundant disseminated pyrite. Many of the deposits do not occur at the margin of altered (ferric oxide-bearing) sandstone tongues but rather occur entirely within reduced, pyurite-bearing sandstone. The abundance of pyrite within the sands probably reflects the introduction of H/sub 2/S up along faults from hydrocarbon accumulations at depth. Such introductions before ore formation prepared the sands for roll-front development, whereas post-ore introductions produced re-reduction of portions of the altered tongue, leaving the deposit suspended in reduced sandstone. Evidence from three deposits suggests that ore formation was not accompanied by the introduction of significant amounts of H/sub 2/S.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Adams, S.S. & Smith, R.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of fuel release rate and mechanism tests under RBCB conditions. [LMFBR]

Description: This task includes theoretical evaluation of fuel/fission product release behavior from failed LMFBR fuel elements as well as an on-going experimental investigation of the mechanism of oxide fuel dispersal into flowing liquid sodium. The primary objectives of this work are to develop a fuel source term that can be used in predictive models for primary heat transfer system contamination and to understand the separate influences of important system variables (such as flow rate, oxygen impurity level) on this source term. The present report is written in two parts: the first, in condensed form, is an updated evaluation of fuel (U,Pu) and fission product release data, and the second describes the current status of supporting experimental work at General Electric's Vallecitos Laboratory.
Date: September 1, 1981
Creator: Adamson, M.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Small scale ethanol production: design manual. [10 to 15 gallons per hour]

Description: The purpose of the project was to design, fabricate, and evaluate a small scale continuous ethanol plant. The scope of the study was to satisfy four specific objectives. The first objective was to design a small scale continuous distillation unit capable of producing 10 to 15 gallons per hour of 170 to 190 proof ethanol. A second objective was to economically fabricate the distillation unit. A third objective was to thoroughly evaluate the unit with emphasis on production potential, operation considerations, and energy balance. The fourth objective was to work with the Farm Bureau in identifying an organization that would place the unit in a production environment. The results of the study indicate that the distillation unit is capable of producing and average of 9 to 14 gallons per hour (based on alcohol percent in beer) of 174 proof ethanol. The energy ratio for distillation is a positive 3:1. Once the unit has reached steady state very little operator attention is required with the exception of periodically refluxing. Material cost of the plate column is approximately $5000. The unit could be built by an individual provided he is trained in welding and has the necessary shop equipment. 39 figures, 12 tables.
Date: September 1, 1981
Creator: Adcock, L.E. II; Eley, M.H. & Schroer, B.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Improved coupling of the conduction and flow equations in TRAC. [PWR]

Description: Recent nuclear-reactor-systems modeling efforts have been directed toward the development of computer codes capable of simulating transients in short computational times. For this reason, a stability enhancing two-stem method (SETS) has been applied to the two-phase flow equations in the Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC) allowing the Courant limit to be violated. Unfortunately, the coupling between the wall conduction equation and the fluid-dynamics equations is performed semi-implicitly, that is, the wall-heat transfer term, is evaluated using old-time heat-transfer coefficients and wall temperatures and new-time coolant temperatures. This coupling may lead to numerical instabilities at large time steps because of large variations in the heat-transfer coefficient in certain regimes of the boiling curve. Consequently, simply using new-time wall temperatures is not sufficient. A technique that also incorporates new-time heat-transfer coefficients must be used.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Addessio, F.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development and radiotherapeutic application of /sup 211/At-labeled radiopharmaceuticals. Progress report, March 1, 1981-February 28, 1982

Description: This project is concerned with developing the potential of alpha-emitting radionuclides as agents for radiotherapy. Alpha-emitters seem ideally suited for his application because their high linear energy transfer and short range permit the deposition of considerable energy in a very small volume of tissue. Unlike the beta particles of /sup 131/I which have a range of about 1 to 2 mm in tissue, 5 to 7 MeV alpha particles would traverse only a few cell diameters. Among the available alpha-emitters, /sup 211/At appears most promising for therapeutic applications because, (1) it has some chemical similarities to iodine, an element that can readily be incorporated into numerous proteins and peptides, (2) it has a half-life that is long enough to permit chemical manipulation yet short enough to minimize destruction of healthy cells due to degradation of the label over time, (3) it can be produced conveniently using a cyclotron, and (4) alpha emission is associated with 100% of its decays with no accompanying beta emission. In the past year the evaluation of an astatine-tellurium colloid as an agent for the destruction of malignant ascites has been completed. The therapeutic efficacy of /sup 211/At-tellurium colloid has been compared with that of several beta-emitting radiocolloids. Studies on the application of monoclonal antibodies as carriers for selective delineation and destruction of malignant cell populations have also been initiated.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Adelstein, S.J.; Zalutsky, M. & Bloomer, W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

FUEL PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM Thermal Conductivity of Sphere-Pac Fuel

Description: Progress in understanding the thermal conductivity of sphere-pac fuel beds has been made both at Oregon State University and Exxon Nuclear Company supported by the Fuel Performance Improvement Program (FPIP). FPIP is sponsored by the U. S. Department of Energy and is being performed by Consumers Power Company, Exxon Nuclear Company, and Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The purpose of the program is to test and demonstrate improved li9ht water reactor fuel concepts that are more resistant to failure from pellet-cladding interaction during power increases than standard pellet fuel.
Date: July 1, 1981
Creator: Ades,, M. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department