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Lightweight transformer demonstration. Semiannual status report, 1 April 1988--30 September 1988

Description: Information is presented on progress made during the reporting period: 4/1/88--9/30/88. The project goal is to support highly focused, innovative, fundamental/applied research approaches that will complement the Feasibility Assessment Program for Space Based, Multimegawatt, MHD Power Systems.(JDB)
Date: December 31, 1988
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Lightweight transformer demonstration. Quarterly status report, 27 March 1989--25 June 1989

Description: Information is presented on progress made during the reporting period: 3/27/89--6/25/89. The project goal is to support highly focused, innovative, fundamental/applied research approaches that will complement the Feasibility Assessment Program for Space Based, Multimegawatt, MHD Power Systems.(JDB)
Date: December 31, 1989
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Special Applications RTG Technology Program: Thermoelectric module development summary report

Description: The primary objective of the Special Applications thermoelectric module development program is to design, develop and demonstrate the performance of a module which provides a significant thermoelectric conversion efficiency improvement over available technology for low power, relatively high voltage RTGS intended for terrestrial applications. ``Low power`` can be construed as an RTG power output of 10 watts or less, and ``high voltage`` can be considered as a load voltage of 5 volts or greater. In particular, the effort is to improve the system efficiency characteristic of the state-of-the-art bismuth telluride-based RTG system (e.g., Five-Watt RTG and Half-Watt RTG), typically 3 to 4%, to the range of 6% or better. This increase in efficiency will also permit reductions in the weight and size of RTGs in the low power range.
Date: September 1, 1988
Creator: Brittain, W. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Lightweight transformer demonstration. Semiannual status report, 1 October 1987--31 March 1988

Description: Information is presented on progress made during the reporting period: 10/1/87--3/31/88. The project goal is to support highly focused, innovative, fundamental/applied research approaches that will complement the Feasibility Assessment Program for Space Based, Multimegawatt, MHD Power Systems. (JDB)
Date: December 31, 1988
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Definitive design status of the SP-100 Ground Engineering System Test Site

Description: The SP-100 reactor will be ground tested at the SP-100 Ground Engineering System (GES) Test Site on the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. Project direction and the flight system design evolution have resulted in a smaller reactor size and the consequential revision to Test Site features to accommodate the design changes and reduce Test Site costs. The significant design events since the completion of the Conceptual Design are discussed in this paper.
Date: May 1, 1989
Creator: Renkey, E. J. Jr.; Bazinet, G. D.; Bitten, E. J.; Brackenbury, P. J.; Carlson, W. F.; Irwin, J. J. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Silicon-germanium/gallium phosphide material in high power density thermoelectric modules. Final report, February 1980--September 1981

Description: This is the final report of work on the characterization of an improved Si-Ge alloy and the fabrication of thermoelectric devices. The improved Si-Ge alloy uses a small addition of GaP in n- and p- type 80 at.% Si-20 at.% Ge; this addition reduces the thermal conductivity, thereby increasing its figure of merit and conversion efficiency. The thermoelectric devices fabricated include multicouples intended for use in Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) and ring-type modules intended for use with nuclear reactor heat sources. This report summarizes the effort in the material as well as the device areas and discusses individual phases of each area. Results should form basis for further effort.
Date: December 31, 1981
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A review of research programs related to the behavior of plutonium in the environment

Description: Plutonium-fueled radioisotopic heat sources find application in a spectrum of space, terrestrial, and underseas applications to generate electrical power by thermoelectric or dynamic-cycle conversion. Such systems under postulated accident conditions could release radioactivity into the environment resulting in risks to the general population. The released radioactivity could be dispersed into various environmental media, such as air, soil, and water and interact with people through various exposure pathways leading to inhalation, ingestion, and external radiological doses and associated health effects. The authors developed short-term exposure (RISK II) and long-term exposure (RISK III) models for use in safety risk assessments of space missions utilizing plutonium-fueled electric power systems. To effectively use these models in risk assessments, representative input values must be selected for a spectrum of environmental transfer parameters that characterize the behavior of plutonium in the environment. The selection of appropriate transfer parameters to be used in a given analysis will depend on the accident scenarios to be modeled and the terrestrial and aquatic environments to be encountered. The authors reviewed the availability of plutonium in the environment. This report summarizes the research programs presently being conducted at six Department of Energy Laboratories and makes recommendations on areas where further research is needed to fill gaps in the data necessary for risk assessments
Date: June 15, 1983
Creator: Bartram, Bart W. & Wilkinson, Martha J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High-temperature, radiation-tolerant electronics for the MMW (Multi-megawatt) Space Reactor Program

Description: One of the objectives of the Multi-Megawatt (MMW) space reactor program is to determine, within the next five years, what types of power electronic devices would be suitable for MMW space power applications. Suitable devices must be able to withstand high temperatures and high radiation fields. After investigating the literature on solid state device and miniature vacuum tube technologies, we have concluded that the miniature vacuum tube technology is, currently, the most promising. The main reason for choosing this technology, is because miniature vacuum tubes can operate at very high temperatures (775 K or potentially higher) and are tolerant to very high neutron fluence and gamma dose. Although there are still problems to be solved before miniature vacuum tubes can be used, the time required for their development will be much shorter than the five year period required by the MMW space reactor program. 13 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.
Date: October 17, 1986
Creator: Yee, J.H.; Orvis, W.J.; McConaghy, C. & Ciarlo, D.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pressure Fed Nuclear Thermal Rockets for space missions

Description: The National Space Policy includes a long range goal of expanding human presence and activity beyond Earth orbit into the solar system. This has renewed interest in the potential application of Nuclear Thermal Rockets (NTR) to space flight, particularly for human expeditions to the Moon and Mars. Recent NASA studies consider applications of the previously developed NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application) technology and the more advanced gas core reactors and show their potential advantages in reducing the initial mass in Earth orbit (IMEO) compared to advanced chemical rocket engines. Application of NERVA technology will require reestablishing the prior technological base or extending it to an advanced NERVA type engine, while the gas core NTR will require an extensive high risk research and development program. A technology intermediate between NERVA and the gas core NTR is a low pressure engine based on solid fuel, a Pressure Fed NTR (PFNTR). In addition to the simplicity of the gas pressurized engine cycle, the PFNTR takes advantage of the dissociation of hydrogen-the increases in specific impulse become significant as the chamber pressure decreases below 1.0 MPa (10 atmospheres) and the chamber temperature increases above 3000 K. The developmental status of technology applicable to a Pressure Fed Nuclear Thermal Rocket (PFNTR) lies between that of the NERVA engine and the gas core NTR (GCNTR). This document investigates PFNTR performance and provides typical mission analyses.
Date: August 1, 1989
Creator: Leyse, C.F. (Leyse (C.F.), Idaho Falls, ID (USA)); Madsen, W.W.; Ramsthaler, J.H. & Schnitzler, B.G. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SP-100 from ground demonstration to flight validation

Description: The SP-100 program is in the midst of developing and demonstrating the technology of a liquid metal cooled, fast reactor using thermoelectric thermal-to-electric conversion devices for space power applications in the range of 10s-to-100s of kilowatts. The current Ground Engineering System (GES) design and development phase will demonstrate the readiness of the technology building blocks and the system to proceed to flight system validation. This phase includes the demonstration of a 2.4 MW thermal reactor in the Nuclear Assembly Test (NAT) and aerospace subsystem in the Integrated Assembly Test (IAT). The next phase in the SP-100 development, now being planned, is to be a flight demonstration of the readiness of the technology to be incorporated into future military and civilian missions.
Date: January 1, 1989
Creator: Buden, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final safety analysis report for the Galileo Mission: Volume 2, Book 2: Accident model document: Appendices

Description: This section of the Accident Model Document (AMD) presents the appendices which describe the various analyses that have been conducted for use in the Galileo Final Safety Analysis Report II, Volume II. Included in these appendices are the approaches, techniques, conditions and assumptions used in the development of the analytical models plus the detailed results of the analyses. Also included in these appendices are summaries of the accidents and their associated probabilities and environment models taken from the Shuttle Data Book (NSTS-08116), plus summaries of the several segments of the recent GPHS safety test program. The information presented in these appendices is used in Section 3.0 of the AMD to develop the Failure/Abort Sequence Trees (FASTs) and to determine the fuel releases (source terms) resulting from the potential Space Shuttle/IUS accidents throughout the missions.
Date: December 15, 1988
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final safety analysis report for the Galileo mission: Volume 3 (Book 2), Nuclear risk analysis document: Appendices: Revision 1

Description: It is the purpose of the NRAD to provide an analysis of the range of potential consequences of accidents which have been identified that are associated with the launching and deployment of the Galileo mission spacecraft. The specific consequences analyzed are those associated with the possible release of radioactive material (fuel) of the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs). They are in terms of radiation doses to people and areas of deposition of radioactive material. These consequence analyses can be used in several ways. One way is to identify the potential range of consequences which might have to be dealt with if there were to be an accident with a release of fuel, so as to assure that, given such an accident, the health and safety of the public will be reasonably protected. Another use of the information, in conjunction with accident and release probabilities, is to estimate the risks associated with the mission. That is, most space launches occur without incident. Given an accident, the most probable result relative to the RTGs is complete containment of the radioactive material. Only a small fraction of accidents might result in a release of fuel and subsequent radiological consequences. The combination of probability with consequence is risk, which can be compared to other human and societal risks to assure that no undue risks are implied by undertaking the mission. Book 2 contains eight appendices.
Date: January 25, 1989
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Heat-source specification 500 watt(e) RTG

Description: This specification establishes the requirements for a /sup 90/SrF/sub 2/ heat source and its fuel capsule for application in a 500 W(e) thermoelectric generator. The specification covers: fuel composition and quantity; the Hastelloy S fuel capsule material and fabrication; and the quality assurance requirements for the assembled heat source. (LCL)
Date: February 1, 1983
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reliability program requirements for Space and Terrestrial Nuclear Power Systems

Description: The objectives of the reliability program requirements described in this report are (1) to provide contractors with an outline of the reliability requirements established by the Department of Energy (DOE) in the areas of design, development, production, testing, and acceptance of space and terrestrial nuclear systems hardware, and (2) to guide the contractor in meeting these requirements. This publication or particular portions of it is applicable as specified in the contract. Whether the contractors/subcontractors are subject to all the requirements or only to part of them will be specified by contract, program letter, or by the contract statement-of-work.
Date: October 1, 1982
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final safety analysis report for the Galileo mission: Volume 3 (Book 1), Nuclear risk analysis document: Revision 1

Description: It is the purpose of the NRAD to provide an analysis of the range of potential consequences of accidents which have been identified that are associated with the launching and deployment of the Galileo mission spacecraft. The specific consequences analyzed are those associated with the possible release of radioactive material (fuel) of the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs). They are in terms of radiation doses to people and areas of deposition of radioactive material. These consequence analyses can be used in several ways. One way is to identify the potential range of consequences which might have to be dealt with if there were to be an accident with a release of fuel, so as to assure that, given such an accident, the health and safety of the public will be reasonably protected. Another use of the information, in conjunction with accident and release probabilities, is to estimate the risks associated with the mission. That is, most space launches occur without incident. Given an accident, the most probable result relative to the RTGs is complete containment of the radioactive material. Only a small fraction of accidents might result in a release of fuel and subsequent radiological consequences. The combination of probability with consequence is risk, which can be compared to other human and societal risks to assure that no undue risks are implied by undertaking the mission. 4 refs., 11 figs., 31 tabs.
Date: January 13, 1989
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final safety analysis report for the Galileo Mission: Volume 2: Summary

Description: The General Purpose Heat Source Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (GPHS-RTG) will be used as the prime source of electric power for the spacecraft on the Galileo mission. The use of radioactive material in these missions necessitates evaluations of the radiological risks that may be encountered by launch complex personnel and by the Earth's general population resulting from postulated malfunctions or failures occurring in the mission operations. The purpose of the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) is to present the analyses and results of the latest evaluation of the nuclear safety potential of the GPHS-RTG as employed in the Galileo mission. This evaluation is an extension of earlier work that addressed the planned 1986 launch using the Space Shuttle Vehicle with the Centaur as the upper stage. This extended evaluation represents the launch by the Space Shuttle/IUS vehicle. The IUS stage has been selected as the vehicle to be used to boost the Galileo spacecraft into the Earth escape trajectory after the parking orbit is attained.
Date: December 15, 1988
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

TFE Verification Program: Semiannual report for the period ending March 31, 1987

Description: The objective of the TFE program is to demonstrate the technological readiness of a thermionic fuel element suitable for use as the basic element in a thermionic reactor with electric power output in the .5 to 5.0 MWe range, with a full-power life of 7 years. This report summarizes the technical results obtained in this program. Information presented here contains evaluated test data, designs, and experimental results. (JDB)
Date: April 1, 1987
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Atomic power in space: A history

Description: ''Atomic Power in Space,'' a history of the Space Isotope Power Program of the United States, covers the period from the program's inception in the mid-1950s through 1982. Written in non-technical language, the history is addressed to both the general public and those more specialized in nuclear and space technologies. 19 figs., 3 tabs.
Date: March 1, 1987
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Quality assurance program requirements for Space and Terrestrial Nuclear Power Systems

Description: This publication gives the general requirements for planning, managing, and evaluating quality assurance (QA) programs for Space and Terrestrial Nuclear Power Systems. These requirements are based on proven practices and provide direction to project management to aid in safe, reliable, and economical operation. The program's objective is to assure that systems, components, piece parts and materials (including those used for facilities and testing) are designed, developed, fabricated, installed, operated, and maintained in compliance with established engineering criteria. It is the intent of the Department of Energy (DOE) that QA standards be applied to hardware design and development programs from their inception to their completion.
Date: October 1, 1982
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pinellas Plant facts. [Products, processes, laboratory facilities]

Description: This plant was built in 1956 in response to a need for the manufacture of neutron generators, a principal component in nuclear weapons. The neutron generators consist of a miniaturized linear ion accelerator assembled with the pulsed electrical power supplies required for its operation. The ion accelerator, or neutron tube, requires ultra clean, high vacuum technology: hermetic seals between glass, ceramic, glass-ceramic, and metal materials: plus high voltage generation and measurement technology. The existence of these capabilities at the Pinellas Plant has led directly to the assignment of the lightning arrester connector, specialty capacitor, vacuum switch, and crystal resonator. Active and reserve batteries and the radioisotopically-powered thermoelectric generator draw on the materials measurement and controls technologies which are required to ensure neutron generator life. A product development and production capability in alumina ceramics, cermet (electrical) feedthroughs, and glass ceramics has become a specialty of the plant; the laboratories monitor the materials and processes used by the plant's commercial suppliers of ferroelectric ceramics. In addition to the manufacturing facility, a production development capability is maintained at the Pinellas Plant.
Date: September 1, 1986
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Silicon germanium (SiGe) radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) program for space missions. Nineteenth technical progress report, December 1980-January 1981

Description: Work accomplished during the reporting period on the DOE Silicon Germanium RTG Program, Contract DE-AC01-79ET-32043 is described. This program consists of the following three tasks: multi-hundred watt RTG for the Galileo probe mission; reestablishment of silicon germanium unicouple capability; and general purpose heat source RTG for the international solar polar and Galileo orbiter missions. Details of program progress for each task, including a milestone schedule and a discussion of current problem areas (if any) are presented.
Date: January 1, 1981
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Idaho National Engineering Laboratory: Annual report, 1986

Description: The INEL underwent a year of transition in 1986. Success with new business initiatives, the prospects of even better things to come, and increased national recognition provided the INEL with a glimpse of its promising and exciting future. Among the highlights were: selection of the INEL as the preferred site for the Special Isotope Separation Facility (SIS); the first shipments of core debris from the Three Mile Island Unit 2 reactor to the INEL; dedication of three new facilities - the Fluorinel Dissolution Process, the Remote Analytical Laboratory, and the Stored Waste Experimental Pilot Plant; groundbreaking for the Fuel Processing Restoration Facility; and the first IR-100 award won by the INEL, given for an innovative machine vision system. The INEL has been assigned project management responsibility for the SDI Office-sponsored Multimegawatt Space Reactor and the Air Force-sponsored Multimegawatt Terrestrial Power Plant Project. New Department of Defense initiatives have been realized in projects involving development of prototype defense electronics systems, materials research, and hazardous waste technology. While some of our major reactor safety research programs have been completed, the INEL continues as a leader in advanced reactor technologies development. In April, successful tests were conducted for the development of the Integral Fast Reactor. Other 1986 highlights included the INEL's increased support to the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management for complying with the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. Major INEL activities included managing a cask procurement program, demonstrating fuel assembly consolidation, and testing spent fuel storage casks. In addition, the INEL supplied the Tennessee Valley Authority with management and personnel experienced in reactor technology, increased basic research programs at the Idaho Research Center, and made numerous outreach efforts to assist the economies of Idaho communities.
Date: January 1, 1986
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SP-100 space reactor safety

Description: The SP-100 space reactor power system is being developed to meet the large electrical power requirements of civilian and military missions planned for the 1990's and beyond. It will remove the restrictions on electrical power generation that have tended to limit missions and will enable the fuller exploration and utilization of space. This booklet describes the SP-100 space reactor power system and its development. Particular emphasis is given to safety. The design aand operational features as well as the design and safety review process that will assure that the SP-100 can be launched nd operated safely are described.
Date: May 1, 1987
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DOE advanced thermionic technology program, progress report No. 46, January, February, March 1981

Description: The primary long-term goal is to improve thermionic performance to the level that thermionic topping of fossil-fuel power plants becomes technically possible and economically attractive. An intermediate goal is to operate a thermionic module in a powerplant during the mid-1980's. A short-term goal is to demonstrate reliable thermionic operation in a combustion environment. Progress made during the three-month period from January through March 1981 is reported. During this period, significant accomplishments include: 1) continuing stable output from the combustion test of the one-inch diameter hemispherical silicon carbide diode (Converter No. 239) at an emitter temperature of 1730 K for a period of over 6400 hours; 3) demonstration of an additive oxygen effect in a research diode (Converter No. 258) with a cesium-graphite reservoir locate in the collector; 3) preliminary testing of the four-diode module; and 4) evaluation of a research diode (Converter No. 261) with ZrO/sub 2/-Mo cermet electrodes.
Date: January 1, 1981
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department