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Development of a Vortex Combustor (VC) for space/water heating applications (proof-of-concept model development)

Description: Based on the results and experience gained from the exploratory model tests, a 0.6 MB/H experimental model has been designed and the construction is nearly complete. This model incorporates a variable (cooling surface area) center heat removal unit and flexible air flow rate and velocity controls. It is also readily convertible to an outside heat removal arrangement for capacity increase. Suitable instrumentation will be installed obtaining quantitative data for finalizing the design of the proof-of-concept model. Tests will begin early in December 1988. Design of the proof-of-concept model is expected to be ready for Preliminary Design Review early in 1989.
Date: January 1, 1989
Creator: Fu, T. T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Laser velocimeter measurements of multiphase flow of solids

Description: A unique refractive index matched facility for studying solid-liquid multiphase flow has been developed. The refractive index matching of the solid and the liquid allows the use of non-intrusive Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) to measure the solid and the liquid velocities. These measurements will be useful in developing a better understanding of solid-liquid flows, especially solid-liquid and solid-solid interactions. Silica gel and 50% sodium iodide solution in water (refractive index {approx}1.443) are used as the refractive index matched solid and liquid respectively. A two color back scatter mode LDV is used for making velocity measurements. Tests were conducted in solid-liquid slurries with volumetric solid concentration levels of 5% and 15% in the Reynolds number (Re) range of 400 to 9200. Silica gel particles of mean diameter 40 microns were used. Measurements included mapping of the solid and liquid velocities and obtaining the pressure drop data. Signal processing technique utilizing histogram of velocity measurements made at a point and signal amplitude discrimination was successfully used for differentiating between solid and liquid velocities. 34 refs., 61 figs., 5 tabs.
Date: January 1, 1989
Creator: Kadambi, J. R.; Chen, R. C. & Bhunia, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of a vortexing combustor (VC) for space/water heating applications (proof-of-concept model development)

Description: This is the second Technical Progress Report for DE-AI22-87PC79660 covering the period 1 February to 30 April 1988. Our main effort during this reporting period is to use the 0.15 MB/H exploratory vortexing combustor hot model as a tool to develop information leading toward the proof-of-concept model design. This 0.15 MB/H model has been operational and performs satisfactorily in firing ultrafine coal. To date, about 50 hours of running time has been logged and about 500 pounds of ultrafine coal has been consumed without incident. The longest uninterrupted, stable running duration was 11 hours. The starting procedure is simple. Once the combustor is started the flame is self sustaining and no supplemental fuel is needed. The fuel to the combustor can be shut off for as long as one-half hour and restarted by simply blowing in the coal. Up to 0.18 MB/H firing rate has been achieved. Future efforts consist of: Conducting more exploratory experimentation using the 0.15 MB/H model, adding its capability to fire coal water fuel, design of the 0.6 MB/H model, and building up laboratory capability for testing larger models.
Date: June 1, 1988
Creator: Fu, T. T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Rheological properties essential for the atomization of coal water slurries (CWS)

Description: The overall objective of this project is to perform experiments to understand the effect of high shear and extensional properties on the atomization of coal-water slurries (CWS). Several CWS were prepared and their low shear rheological properties (i.e. rheology as a function of concentration, constant shear and, additive type, stability and slip effect) performed. The stability was determined using a settling column to study the shift in mass of the CWS as a function of time. Low shear testing of the slurries were used to determine the effect of yield stress on the concentration of the slurries.
Date: January 1, 1992
Creator: Ohene, F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development and testing of a commercial-scale coal-fired combustion system, Phase 3

Description: Within the commercial sector, oil and natural gas are the predominant fuels used to meet the space-heating needs of schools, office buildings, apartment complexes, and other similar structures. In general, these buildings require firing rates of 1 to 10 million Btu/hr. The objective of this program is to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of a coal-fired combustion system for this sector. The commercial-scale coal-water slurry (CWS)-fired space heating system will be a scale-up of a CWS-fired residential warm-air heating system developed by Tecogen under contract to the Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. This system included a patented nonslagging combustor known as IRIS, for Inertial Reactor with Internal Separation. This combustion technology, which has demonstrated high combustion efficiency using CWS fuels at input rates of 100,000 Btu/hr, will be scaled to operate at 2 to 5 millon Btu/hr. Along with the necessary fuel storage and delivery, heat recovery, and control equipment, the system will include pollution control devices to meet targeted values of NO{sub x}, S0{sub 2}, and particulate emissions. In general, the system will be designed to match the reliability, safety, turndown, and ignition performance of gas or oil-fired systems.
Date: March 1, 1991
Creator: Litka, A. F. & Breault, R. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of a Vortexing Combustor (VC) for space/water heating applications (proof-of-concept model development)

Description: This in the third quarterly technical progress report for DE-AI2287PC79660 covering the period between 1 May and 31 July 1988. During this reporting period, the firing test of Dry Ultrafine Coal (DUC) in the 0.15 MB/H exploratory model has continued. Sufficient experience and insight have been accumulated to help finalize the design of the 0.6 MB/H experimental model. Fabrication of the 0.6 MB/H model in 33% complete. A Coal-Water Fuel (CWF) loop for firing tests and an apparatus for testing CWF nozzle spray patterns are also 33% complete. A now test facility which includes the flue gas cleaning facility (described in our first quarterly progress report) is operational. We are now able to conduct independent tests on both the 0.15 and 0.6 MB/H models without disruption to either model. Current efforts have been concentrated in permanently installing test apparatus/equipment in the now test facility area. CWF tests in the 0. 15 MB/H model and DUC tests in the 0. 6 MB/H model are expected to begin in September 1988.
Date: September 1, 1988
Creator: Fu, T. T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

(Roles of additives and surface control in slurry atomization)

Description: Our experimental results clearly demonstrate that the shape of particles with aspect ratio close to unity dictates the relative suspension viscosity. Suspensions of irregularly shaped particles have higher relative viscosities than suspensions of spherical particles at same volume fractions, in agreement with the reported results at high shear conditions. The relative viscosity of a Newtonian suspension is in excellent agreement with that predicted by the Krieger/Dougherty rigid sphere model using the maximum packing fraction determined from sedimentation as the sole parameter. The relative viscosity of a pseudoplastic suspension is independent of the particle density. It correlates well with the particle Peclet number. The extent of particle diffusion at high shear rates decreases considerably as the particle size increases, and less energy is dissipated as a result. The interparticle electrostatic repulsion plays no significant role in the rheology of pseudoplastic nonaqueous and aqueous glycerol suspensions of noncolloidal particles.
Date: January 1, 1992
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mulled coal: A beneficiated coal form for use as a fuel or fuel intermediate

Description: Energy International is developing a technology that will create a staged formulation with the first coal form (Mulled Coal) that can be stored, transported, and pumped. Just prior to combustion, the Mulled Coal (MC) is modified to provide the properties needed for proper atomization. This concept is an alternative to the expensive and energy intensive thermal drying processing of fine coal wetcakes. The material is suitable for both direct feed use in conventional and fluid bed combustors as well as on-site conversion to combustible slurries. By maintaining the coal form relatively close to the feed wetcake, only minor processing with low additive levels and low energy blending is needed at the point of production. Its conversion to slurry or other use-feed form is made near the time of use and thus the requirements for stability, climatic control, and other storage, transport, and handling requirements are much less severe.
Date: May 1, 1992
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pelletizing/reslurrying as a means of distributing and firing clean coal

Description: The objective of this study is to develop technology that permits the practical and economic preparation, storage, handling, and transportation of coal pellets, which can be formulated into Coal-Water Fuels (CWFs) suitable for firing in small- and medium-size commercial and industrial boilers, furnaces, and engines.
Date: September 20, 1991
Creator: Conkle, H. N.; Raghavan, J. K.; Smit, F. J. & Jha, M. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pelletizing/reslurrying as a means of distributing and firing clean coal

Description: The objective of this study is to develop technology that permits the practical and economic preparation, storage, handling, and transportation of coal pellets, which can be reslurried into Coal water fuels (CWF) suitable for firing in small- and medium-size commercial and industrial boilers, furnaces, and engines. The project includes preparing coal pellets and capsules from wet filter cake that can be economically stored, handled, transported, and reslurried into a CWF that can be suitably atomized and fired at the user site. The wet cakes studied were prepared from ultra-fine (95% -325 mesh) coal beneficiated by advanced froth-flotation techniques. The coals studied included two eastern bituminous coals, one from Virginia (Elkhorn) and one from Illinois (Illinois No. 6) and one western bituminous coal from Utah (Sky Line coal).
Date: November 21, 1991
Creator: Conkle, H. N.; Raghavan, J. K.; Smit, F. J. & Jha, M. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characteristics of American coals in relation to their conversion into clean energy fuels. Quarterly technical progress report, July--September 1976. [15 refs]

Description: Under Facet I, 158 coal samples have been added to the Penn State/ERDA Sample Bank. Sixty-nine sets of analytical data and one characterized coal sample were provided upon request to other agencies. Facet IV-A research on reactor development and operation shows that the gasification zone of a fuel bed is not diffusionally controlled. Pyrolysis of pulverized coal occurs under essentially isothermal conditions within the laminar flow furnace. Methanol densities of chars, work on which has recently begun under Facet IV-B, are found to be quite similar to helium densities. Small angle x-ray scattering studies (Facet IV-B) show that the internal pore structure of coal chars changes with rank of the starting coal precursor and the maximum temperature at which the char is prepared. Removal of inorganic impurities from chars by acid washing significantly reduces the extent of carbon deposition as a result of methane cracking. Reactivity and surface area are also affected by mineral matter removal. Furthermore, ion exchange increases char reactivity to steam. Under Facet V-B, the addition of coal to water-oil emulsions has been found to increase the heat absorbed by the water load on the furnace to levels comparable to that of fuel oil no. 2.
Date: December 1, 1976
Creator: Spackman, W.; Davis, A.; Walker, P. L.; Lovell, H. L.; Essenhigh, R. H.; Vastola, F. J. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effects of calcium magnesium acetate on the combustion of Coal-Water Slurry

Description: The general objective of the project is to investigate the combustion behavior of single and multiple Coal-Water Slurry particles burning at high temperature environments. Both uncatalyzed as well as catalyzed CWS drops with Calcium Magnesium Acetate (CMA) catalyst will be investigated. Emphasis will also be given in the effects of CMA on the sulfur capture during combustion.
Date: January 1, 1990
Creator: Levendis, Y. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Integrated low emission cleanup system for direct coal-fueled turbines (electrostatic agglomeration)

Description: The objective of this contract is to investigate the removal of So{sub x} and particulate matter from direct coal-fired combustion gas streams at high temperature and high pressure conditions. This investigation will be accomplished through a bench-scale testing and evaluation program employing sorbent mixed with a coal-water slurry for So{sub x} removal, and an innovative particulate control concept. The particulate control device utilizes electrostatic agglomeration followed by a high efficiency mechanical collector (cyclone). The process goal is to achieve particulate collection efficiency better than that required by the 1979 new source performance standards. An additional goal is to demonstrate 70% So{sub x} removal efficiency. This research project is now in the second of a 3 phase (Phase II) project. Phase II is to fabricate the combustor and particulate control devices and install the system at a test facility located at Research-Cottrell's, KVB Western Laboratory, Santa Ana, CA. There are three functional categories, or tasks which are to be completed in sequence. These tasks are itemized as follows: Design, procurement, and installation; Shakedown and startup; Reporting. Attempts to validate the concept of electrostatic agglomeration were not possible in the shakedown program before budget constraints halted the program. What was learned was that electrostatic precipitation is feasible in the temperature range of 1600--1800{degrees}F and at pressures above 10 atmospheres.
Date: February 1, 1992
Creator: Quimby, J. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Gasifier feed - Tailor-made from Illinois coals

Description: The main purpose of this project is to produce a feedstock from preparation plant fines from an Illinois coal that is ideal for a slurry fed, slagging, entrained-flow coal gasifier. The high sulfur content and high Btu value of Illinois coals are particularly advantageous in such a gasifier; preliminary calculations indicate that the increased cost of removing sulfur from the gas from a high sulfur coal is more than offset by the increased revenue from the sale of the elemental sulfur; additionally the high Btu Illinois coal concentrates more energy into the slurry of a given coal to water ratio. This project will bring the expertise of four organizations together to perform the various tasks. The Illinois Coal Association will help direct the project to be the most beneficial to the Illinois coal industry. DESTEC Energy, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Dow Chemical Company, will provide guidelines and test compatibility of the slurries developed for gasification feedstock. Williams Technology will provide their expertise in long distance slurry pumping, and test selected products for viscosity, pumpability, and handlability. The Illinois State Geological Survey will study methods for producing clean coal/water slurries from preparation plant wastes including the concentration of pyritic sulfur into the coal slurry to increase the revenue from elemental sulfur produced during gasification operations, and decrease the pyritic sulfur content of the waste streams. ISGS will also test the gasification reactivity of the coals. As reported earlier, a variety of possible samples of coal have been analyzed and the gasification performance evaluation reported. Additionally, commercial sized samples of -28 mesh {times} 100 mesh coal -100 {times} 0 coal were subjected to pumpability testing. Neither the coarse product nor the fine product by themselves proved to be good candidates for trouble free pumping, but the mix of the two proved to ...
Date: January 1, 1992
Creator: Ehrlinger, H. P. III (Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States)); Lytle, J.; Frost, R. R.; Lizzio, A.; Kohlenberger, L. & Brewer, K. (Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States) DESTEC Energy (United States) Williams Technology (United States) Illinois Coal Association (United States))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Correlation of stability/rheology relationship with coal: Properties and chemical additives

Description: Coal-water slurries have the potential of a near term replacement for fuel oil. In order to gain the fundamental understanding of the preparation and handling of coal-water slurries, experiments were performed to identify the relationship between the coal content of a given coal-water slurry and its physical and chemical properties. The objectives of this program were: Investigate the relationship between the chemical and physical properties of coal and the rheology of coal-water slurry Define procedures for evaluating and preparing coal water slurries for a particular coal candidate, based on the characteristic coal properties Develop improved methods of screening surfactants used in coal-water slurry preparation Perform experiments designed to investigate the effect of characteristic coal properties on slurry quality, by examining the effect of the individual coal properties on slurry quality Develop a statistical formulation to predict the coal content of a given coal water slurry content based on the coal characteristic properties.
Date: February 19, 1992
Creator: Ohene, F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Industrial and utility applications coal-oil mixture data index. [Oil-fired systems]

Description: The seriousness of the present and projected national energy picture dictated the adoption of several approaches by the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop alternate fuel sources as a means of curtailing our present dependence on imported oil. One approach, which offers near term potential for reducing the domestic consumption rate of natural gas and oil, is the application of coal-oil mixture (COM) combustion technology. The idea of burning coal and oil in the form of a mixture has been around for some time and is not viewed by DOE, in any degree, as the solution to our domestic energy problem. However, it is viewed as a near-term retrofit coal utilization technology with a high degree of application potential to existing oil fired systems. In view of this, DOE has undertaken several demonstration and support-research projects to further define existing COM technical uncertainties. The purpose of this manual is to present a comprehensive technical description and status of each project, both informative and practical with respect to the diverse data requirements.
Date: May 1, 1978
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pelletizing/reslurrying as a means of distributing and firing clean coal

Description: This volume contains appendices for: atomization test report; cost estimation model--pelletization material balance and equipment selection; cost estimation model--pelletization capital investment estimates; cost estimation--pelletization operating cost estimates; cost estimation model--pellet-CWF formulation material balance and equipment selection; cost estimation model--pellet-CWF capital investment estimates; cost estimation model--pellet-CWF operating cost estimates; and cost estimation model--direct CWF operating cost estimates.
Date: June 9, 1992
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Abrasive wear by coal-fueled diesel engine and related particles

Description: The development of commercially viable diesel engines that operate directly on pulverized coal-fuels will require solution to the problem of severe abrasive wear. The purpose of the work described in this report was to investigate the nature of the abrasive wear problem. Analytical studies were carried out to determine the characteristics of the coal-fuel and associated combustion particles responsible for abrasion. Laboratory pinon-disk wear tests were conducted on oil-particle mixtures to determine the relationship between wear rate and a number of different particle characteristics, contact parameters, specimen materials properties, and other relevant variables.
Date: September 1, 1992
Creator: Ives, L. K. (National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

PETC fuel rheology laboratory

Description: This document summarizes the results of investigations into the rheological properties of alternate fuel mixtures, such as coal-oil mixtures, coal-water mixtures, and coal-alcohol mixtures. Primary emphasis in this paper is placed on the procedures and techniques used to evaluate alternate slurry fuels in the rheology laboratory at PETC through the spring of 1983. Sophisticated, bench-scale equipment was used to examine viscometric properties and to make settling velocity measurements. Examples of the data developed during this program are given to support the choice of measurement procedures and test conditions. Furthermore, a brief discussion of the applicability of various mathematical models for settling characteristics and rheological properties are included. Areas in which additional development of techniques is required are discussed. 25 references, 21 figures, 7 tables.
Date: August 1, 1984
Creator: Ekmann, A. C. & Ekmann, J. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development and testing of a commercial-scale coal-fired combustion system, Phase 3

Description: Within the commercial sector, oil and natural gas are the predominant fuels used to meet the space-heating needs of schools, office buildings, apartment complexes, and other similar structures. In general, these buildings require firing rates of 1 to 10 million Btu/hr. The objective of this program is to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of a coal-fired combustion system for this sector. The commercial-scale coal-water slurry (CWS)-fired space heating system will be a scale-up of a CWS-fired residential warm-air heating system developed by Tecogen under contract to the Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. This system included a patented nonslagging combustor known as IRIS, for Inertial Reactor with Internal Separation. This combustion technology, which has demonstrated high combustion efficiency using CWS fuels at input rates of 100,000 Btu/hr, will be scaled to operate at 2 to 5 millon Btu/hr. Along with the necessary fuel storage and delivery, heat recovery, and control equipment, the system will include pollution control devices to meet targeted values of NO{sub x}, S0{sub 2}, and particulate emissions. In general, the system will be designed to match the reliability, safety, turndown, and ignition performance of gas or oil-fired systems.
Date: May 1, 1992
Creator: Litka, A. F. & Breault, R. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development and testing of a commercial-scale coal-fired combustion system, Phase 3

Description: Within the commercial sector, oil and natural gas are the predominant fuels used to meet the space-heating needs of schools, office buildings, apartment complexes, and other similar structures. In general, these buildings require firing rates of 1 to 10 million Btu/hr. The objective of this program is to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of a coal-fired combustion system for this sector. The commercial-scale coal-water slurry (CWS)-fired space heating system will be a scale-up of a CWS-fired residential warm-air heating system developed by Tecogen under contract to the Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. This system included a patented nonslagging combustor known as IRIS, for Inertial Reactor with Internal Separation. This combustion technology, which has demonstrated high combustion efficiency using CWS fuels at input rates of 100,000 Btu/hr, will be scaled to operate at 2 to 5 millon Btu/hr. Along with the necessary fuel storage and delivery, heat recovery, and control equipment, the system will include pollution control devices to meet targeted values of NO{sub x}, S0{sub 2}, and particulate emissions. In general, the system will be designed to match the reliability, safety, turndown, and ignition performance of gas or oil-fired systems.
Date: January 1, 1992
Creator: Litka, A. F.; Breault, R. W. & Balsavich, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Synthesis of octane enhancers during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch

Description: The objective of this project is to investigate three possible routes to the formation of ethers, in particular methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), during slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch reaction. The three reaction schemes to be investigated are: Addition of isobutylene during the formation of methanol and/or higher alcohols directly from CO and H{sub 2} during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch. Addition of isobutylene to FT liquid products including alcohols in a slurry-phase reactor containing an MTBE or other acid catalyst. Addition of methanol to slurry phase FT synthesis making iso-olefins.
Date: June 10, 1992
Creator: Marcelin, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pelletizing/reslurrying as a means of distributing and firing clean coal

Description: Work in this quarter focused on completing (1) the final batch of pilot-scale disk pellets, (2) storage, handling, and transportation evaluation, (3) pellet reslurrying and atomization studies, and (4) cost estimation for pellet and slurry production. Disk pelletization of Elkhorn coal was completed this quarter. Pellets were approximately 1/2- to 3/4-in. in diameter. Pellets, after thermal curing were strong and durable and exceeded the pellet acceptance criteria. Storage and handling tests indicate a strong, durable pellet can be prepared from all coals, and these pellets (with the appropriate binder) can withstand outdoor, exposed storage for at least 4 weeks. Pellets in unexposed storage show no deterioration in pellet properties. Real and simulated transportation tests indicate truck transportation should generate less than 5 percent fines during transport. Continuous reslurrying testing and subsequent atomization evaluation were performed this quarter in association with University of Alabama and Jim Walter Resources. Four different slurries of approximately 55-percent-solids with viscosities below 500 cP (at 100 sec{sup {minus}1}) were prepared. Both continuous pellet-to-slurry production and atomization testing was successfully demonstrated. Finally, an in depth evaluation of the cost to prepare pellets, transport, handle, store, and convert the pellet into Coal Water Fuel (CWF) slurries was completed. Cost of the pellet-CWF option are compared with the cost to directly convert clean coal filter cake into slurry and transport, handle and store it at the user site. Findings indicate that in many circumstances, the pellet-CWF option would be the preferred choice. The decision depends on the plant size and transportation distance, and to a lesser degree on the pelletization technique and the coal selected.
Date: June 9, 1992
Creator: Conkle, H. N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pelletizing/reslurrying as a means of distributing and firing clean coal

Description: Battelle-Columbus and Amax Research Development conducted a program to develop a process to transport, handle, store, and utilize ultra-fine, ultra-clean (UFUC) coals. The primary objective was to devise a cost-effective method, based on conventional pelletization techniques, to transform the sludge-like filter cake produced in advanced flotation cleaning processes into a product which could be used like lump coal. A secondary objective was the production of a pellet which could be readily converted into a coal water fuel (CWF) because the UFUC coal would ultimately be used as CWF. The resulting product would be a hard, waterproof pellet which could be easily reduced to small particle sizes and formulated with water into a liquid fuel.
Date: September 29, 1992
Creator: Conkle, H. N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department