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Aerated atomization of coal water slurry

Description: In order to better understand the process of slurry atomization, it is important to observe the influence of fluid non-Newtonian rheological behavior on the spray formation process. As a first step, glycerin-water solutions have been atomized. This report describes findings of photographs taken during atomization. 19 figs.
Date: January 5, 1989
Creator: Buckner, H.N.; Sojka, P.E. & Lefebvre, A.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Safety analysis of the 700-horsepower combustion test facility

Description: The objective of the program reported herein was to provide a Safety Analysis of the 700 h.p. Combustion Test Facility located in Building 93 at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. Extensive safety related measures have been incorporated into the design, construction, and operation of the Combustion Test Facility. These include: nitrogen addition to the coal storage bin, slurry hopper, roller mill and pulverizer baghouse, use of low oxygen content combustion gas for coal conveying, an oxygen analyzer for the combustion gas, insulation on hot surfaces, proper classification of electrical equipment, process monitoring instrumentation and a planned remote television monitoring system. Analysis of the system considering these factors has resulted in the determination of overall probabilities of occurrence of hazards as shown in Table I. Implementation of the recommendations in this report will reduce these probabilities as indicated. The identified hazards include coal dust ignition by hot ductwork and equipment, loss of inerting within the coal conveying system leading to a coal dust fire, and ignition of hydrocarbon vapors or spilled oil, or slurry. The possibility of self-heating of coal was investigated. Implementation of the recommendations in this report will reduce the ignition probability to no more than 1 x 10/sup -6/ per event. In addition to fire and explosion hazards, there are potential exposures to materials which have been identified as hazardous to personal health, such as carbon monoxide, coal dust, hydrocarbon vapors, and oxygen deficient atmosphere, but past monitoring experience has not revealed any problem areas. The major environmental hazard is an oil spill. The facility has a comprehensive spill control plan.
Date: May 1, 1981
Creator: Berkey, B.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Utilization of low rank coals in liquefaction

Description: The objective of the current MITRE study is to estimate the cost of the coal derived liquid products that result from processing low rank coals in the Wilsonville and HRI CTSL configurations. The resultant cost of liquids is then compared to liquids produced from bituminous coals. The methodology used to accomplish the above objective was to utilize the MITRE coal liquefaction cost model to assess the overall technical and economic performance of low rank coals in both the Wilsonville and HRI configurations. Actual test data from Wilsonville and HRI was used as the basis for these analyses. This test data is modified to simulate complete resid recycle extinction and to standardize the operating performance of the deashing unit. This corrected yield data is then used in the simulation models to predict the overall performance and economics of a conceptual commercial coal liquefaction facility. 9 refs., 7 figs.
Date: January 1, 1991
Creator: Gray, D. (Mitre Corp., McLean, VA (United States))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characteristics of coal/light hydrocarbon slurries in spray combustion. Semi-annual progress report, 1 September 1980-28 February 1981

Description: This report summarizes the progress made during the first six months of the grant period. The status of each of the three major task areas is discussed: the atomization study, the analytical droplet model, and the combustion study. The time-period has been used primarily to design and begin fabrication of the experimental atomization and combustion facilities. No data is presented in either of these areas. Significant progress has been made in the development of the numerical droplet model. The results of a preliminary parametric study are presented for a single coal particle in a one-millimeter methanol droplet. The importance of gas phase velocity and coal particle diameter bringing the solid material to the droplet surface is discussed.
Date: March 6, 1981
Creator: Grosshandler, W.L.; Crowe, C.T. & Chung, J.N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Storage, transportation, and atomization of CWF for residential applications

Description: The proposed test program will examine the stability and rheology of the coal water fuels (CWFs) prepared from various beneficiated coal products made from the following coals: Illinois No. 6, Wyodak, and Upper Elkhorn No. 3. Fuel characterization will include: particle size distribution, ultimate and proximate analyses of coal, ash composition, ash fusion temperature, and solids concentration. For rheological characteristics, data will be obtained at varying shear rates, temperature, and agitation or recirculation in the bulk storage tanks. The effect of freeze-thaw on the stability and rheology of the CWF will be evaluated. Control of the environmental conditions will be examined by means of formulation additives, including the addition of freezing point depressants and biocides. Bulk storage studies will involve testing CWF stability characteristics with and without agitation and recirculation. The design of the storage tank will be reviewed, and the effectiveness of cone bottom and dish bottom tanks will be tested. The CWF storage and handling tests will be carried out at Tecogen's CWF-fired advanced combustor facility. This quarter, under Task 2, two coal water slurry fuels were produced from the baseline coal. Chemical stability tests and mechanical resuspension tests were begun under the Task 3 effort. Residential storage work was also initiated and a bladder tank developed. Residential handling tests were initiated under the Task 5 effort to develop pressure drop characteristics for the slurries at residential flows in residential type components. 5 refs., 9 figs., 8 tabs.
Date: July 1, 1990
Creator: Breault, R. & Sayre, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Roles of additives and surface control in slurry atomization

Description: Airblast atomization of micronized coal water slurry is carried out using twin-fluid jet atomizers of various distributor designs. Drop size and size distribution are measured using the laser diffraction technique. We found that the atomized drop sizes of micronized coal water slurries substantially decrease as the atomizing air pressure exceeds a threshold value. We also found that the atomized drop size, represented by the mass median diameter (MMD) can be described by the wave mechanism-based models in terms of three non-dimensional groups, namely, slurry-to-air mass ratio, the Weber number, and the Ohnesorge number. 11 refs.
Date: July 10, 1990
Creator: Tsai, S.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Combustion and fuel characterization of coal-water fuels

Description: The ash deposition and performance behavior of a cross-section of coal-water fuels (CWFs) were investigated during comprehensive pilot-scale testing under Task 5 of the Department of Energy's Combustion and Fuel Characterization of Coal-Water Fuels project. The key results from this effort including combustion, furnace slagging, convective pass fouling, fly ash erosion and electrostatic precipitator collection characteristics of the test fuels, are summarized in this report. Data were obtained on twelve different CWFs as well as three baseline pulverized coals. Three coal types were fired at different levels of coal beneficiation to assess the effects of coal cleaning on performance. Five CWFs prepared from the same feed coal by different manufactures were tested to assess the effects of slurry processing. CWFs prepared from both standard grind and microfine grind coals were evaluated. In addition a microfine CWF was fired at fuel temperatures up to 220{degree}F to evaluate the effect of thermal atomization on performance. 8 refs., 16 figs., 12 tabs.
Date: July 1, 1987
Creator: Chow, O.K.; Durant, J.F.; Griffith, B.F.; Miemiec, L.S.; Levasseur, A.A. & Teigen, B.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ancillary operation in coal preparation instrumentation: On-line low cost sulfur and ash analysis

Description: Progress in reported on ancillary operations in coal preparation instrumentation, and on-line low cost sulfur and ash analysis of coal. This quarter's activities consisted of the following; the assembly of the sample preparation and delivery (SPAD) system was completed and laboratory pretesting performed; the entire system was assembled and debugged at C.Q. Inc.; field tests were executed according to the Field Test Plan with certain modifications necessitated by actual field conditions and C.Q. test schedule; coal slurry samples collected at C.Q. Inc. were either sent to the Homer City Coal Lab or brought back to B W for ICP analysis; and Homer City Coal Lab analysis of field collected slurry samples was completed and results reported to B W.
Date: January 1, 1990
Creator: Available, Not
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development and evaluation of highly-loaded coal slurries. Phase I summary report, October 15, 1977-December 31, 1978

Description: Slurry fuels comprised of either bituminous, subbituminous, or lignite coal, and either aqeuous media or emulsions of No. 6 oil in water as the carrier were developed and evaluated at solids loadings up to 70% by weight. Emphasis was placed on aqueous slurries of bituminous coal. These slurries were developed for use in place of No. 6 oil in oil-fired burners. High solids loadings were attained by use of bimodal particle size distributions, which are blends of coarse-grind coal (approx. 50 to 85% -50 mesh) and fine-grind coal (generally 90% -200 mesh). The effect of the blends on slurry viscosity was determined to find the blends that minimize viscosity. The effect of mill conditions on particle size distribution was determined for each coal, using a hammermill pulverizer. A large number of water-soluble resins were evaluated for effect on slurry stability and viscosity. The best of these was found to be hydroxypropylated corn starch. Slurries based on the use of 3% solutions of the starch in water were prepared with up to 70% by weight bituminous coal and up to 65% subbituminous coal. The slurries are pourable pseudo-plastic fluids having room-temperature viscosities in the range of 550 to 1100 cp at a shear rate of 3000 sec/sup -1/, depending on the type of coal, solids loading, and particle size distribution. None of the slurries exhibited hard pack settling, even after room-temperature storage up to 74 days. Oil-in-water emulsions made with polyethylene glycol (23) lauryl ether as an emulsifier were found to be stable with respect to phase separation when stored at 160/sup 0/F. Slurries made with these emulsions do not exhibit hard pack settling after one week storage at 160/sup 0/F.
Date: May 1, 1979
Creator: Scheffee, R.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Quarterly technical progress report for the period ending June 30, 1984

Description: The Magnetohydrodynamics Program (Component Development and Integration Facility) in Butte, Montana, continued its site preparation for the TRW first-stage combustor installation. In the area of flue gas cleanup, our in-house research program is continuing its investigation into the causes of sorbent attrition in PETC's fluidized-bed copper oxide process for simultaneous SO/sub 2//NO/sub x/ removal. Interwoven with these tests is a series of spray dryer/electrostatic precipitator tests that are being conducted with the cooperation of Wheelabrator-Frye, Inc. This test series was completed this quarter, and the data show that when using a Kentucky coal, Wheelabrator-Frye's electrostatic precipitator provides excellent particulate control efficiency while using a spray dryer for sulfur dioxide removal. A unique project at Carnegie-Mellon University is looking at the concept of integrated environmental control for coal-fired power plants making use of precombustion, combustion, and postcombustion control, including systems for the simultaneous removal of more than one pollutant. The objective of this research is to develop a computer model and assessment for integrated environmental control systems that utilize conventional or advanced systems. The Liquid Phase Methanol Project Development Unit in LaPorte, Texas, was restarted after a successful shakedown run was completed. PETC has recently begun an in-house research project aimed at exploring the basic chemistry of liquefying coal in the presence of water under supercritical conditions. In the Alternative Fuels Technology Program, the Gulf Research and Development Company has completed the preliminary testing phase of its erosion test loop. Their results indicate that when pumping a coal-water slurry fuel through a flow loop, the erosion rate increases as velocity increases, suggesting a well-defined relationship between these two parameters.
Date: October 1, 1984
Creator: Available, Not
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary investigation of the effects of coal-water slurry fuels on the combustion in GE coal fueled diesel engine (Task 1. 1. 2. 2. 1, Fuels)

Description: In prior work with the coal fired diesel research engine, a necessity to determine the sensitivity of the engine to a wider range of fuels was resolved and included in the R and D Test Plan submitted on 2/9/89. In general, the economic viability and universal acceptance of the commercial engine will be a factor of its ability to tolerate the widest range of source fuels with minimal fuel beneficiation. As detailed in the R and D Test Plan, a preliminary investigation on the effects of coal-water slurry (CWS) fuels on the combustion in a GE single cylinder test engine was conducted. The following conclusions are obtained from this investigation. All the test CWS fuels were successfully burned in the GE engine combustion system. They include: 3 to 15 microns mean particle size; 0.7 to 2.8% ash level; KY Blue Gem and PA Mariana bituminous coal, WY Kemmer and Spring Creek Sub-Bituminous coal; coal beneficiated with physical and chemical processes; two kinds of additives for OTISCA CWS; and burnout is not effected by ash or particle size within the test range. For each kind of CWS fuel, the detail design parameters of the fuel injection system has to be compatible. With sufficiently high fuel injection pressure, the 3 micron mean particle size OTISCA fuel burns faster than the 5 micron ones. For OTISCA fuel, the burn rate using Ammonium Lignosulfonate as additive is faster than using Ammonium Condensed Naphthalene Sulfonate. Appendices contain data on heat release, fuel characterization reports from two laboratories, general engine test data, and particulate size distribution. 3 refs.
Date: June 1, 1990
Creator: Available, Not
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

New and improved dispersion and recovery techniques for slurry phase catalysis. Quarterly report, October 1, 1983-December 31, 1983

Description: This quarterly report covers an extensive review of the literature in the area of catalyst deactivation and regeneration. The literature review, which is presented here in three sections, namely, carbonaceous deposit formation, metal deposit formation and methods of analysis and regeneration, served as an invaluable aid in the initiation of experimental work required to fulfill the task objectives. Since the literature survey is applicable to all five tasks, no attempt has been made to divide it in terms of contract tasks. 21 references.
Date: January 1, 1983
Creator: Available, Not
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Combustion and fuel characterization of coal-water fuels

Description: Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) of the Department of Energy initiated a comprehensive effort in 1982 to develop the necessary performance and cost data and to assess the commercial viability of coal-water fuels (CWFs) as applied to representative utility and industrial units. The effort comprised six tasks beginning with coal resource evaluation and culminating in the assessment of the technical and economic consequences of switching representative commercial units from oil to state-of-the-art CWF firing. Extensive bench, pilot and commercial-scale tests were performed to develop necessary CWF combustion and fireside performance data for the subsequent boiler performance analyses and retrofit cost estimates. Discussions on transport, rheology, combustion properties, and ash characterization are included. 11 refs., 9 figs., 7 tabs.
Date: July 1, 1987
Creator: Chow, O.K.; Patel, R.L. & Levasseur, A.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Transportation costs for new fuel forms produced from low rank US coals

Description: Transportation costs are examined for four types of new fuel forms (solid, syncrude, methanol, and slurry) produced from low rank coals found in the lower 48 states of the USA. Nine low rank coal deposits are considered as possible feedstocks for mine mouth processing plants. Transportation modes analyzed include ship/barge, pipelines, rail, and truck. The largest potential market for the new fuel forms is coal-fired utility boilers without emission controls. Lowest cost routes from each of the nine source regions to supply this market are determined. 12 figs.
Date: September 1, 1990
Creator: Newcombe, R.J.; McKelvey, D.G. (TMS, Inc., Germantown, MD (USA)) & Ruether, J.A. (USDOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (USA))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Aerated atomization of coal-water slurry fuels

Description: Despite the body of work describing the performance of effervescent atomizers, its potential for use with coal water slurries (CWS) had not been evaluated prior to this study. This programs was therefore undertaken: to demonstrate that effervescent atomization can produce CWS sprays with mean drop sizes below 50 {mu}m; to determine a lower size limit for effervescent atomizer produced CWS sprays; to determine the mechanism(s) responsible for the formation of effervescent atomizer produced sprays. This report describes results of a mathematical analysis in order to better understand physical phenomena involved. 12 figs.
Date: April 1, 1989
Creator: Buckner, H.N.; Sojka, P.E. & Lefebvre, A.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Combustion and fuel characterization of coal-water fuels

Description: Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) of the Department of Energy initiated a comprehensive effort in 1982 to develop the necessary performance and cost data and to assess the commercial viability of coal water fuels (CWFs) as applied to representative utility and industrial units. The effort comprised six tasks beginning with coal resource evaluation and culminating in the assessment of the technical and economic consequences of switching representative commercial units from oil to state-of-the-art CWF firing. Extensive bench, pilot and commercial-scale tests were performed to develop necessary CWF combustion and fireside performance data for the subsequent boiler performance analyses and retrofit cost estimates. This report (Volume 2) provides a review of the fuel selection and procurement activities. Included is a discussion on coal washability, transport of the slurry, and characterization. 20 figs., 26 tabs.
Date: July 1, 1989
Creator: Available, Not
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mechanics/heat-transfer relation for particulate materials

Description: Work continued on heat transfer of particulate materials. In this quarter, we have been continuing with the dry granular shear cell experiments and have extended our previous results to different materials. We are also continuing with the development of a new particle pressure probe, but ran into drift problems in the calibration, which we hope have been resolved. Thermal conductivity measurements are described. 9 figs.
Date: October 1, 1990
Creator: Campbell, C.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CWS-Fired Residential Warm-Air Heating System

Description: Objective of the Coal/Water Slurry (CWS) Fired Warm-Air Heating System program is the development of a reliable, efficient, compact and safe CWS-burning residential furnace. This report summarizes results of the fourth quarter of the first phase of the program effort carried out by Tecogen Inc. During the first phase ,Tecogen is developing several key components of the furnace, which may be grouped into: components directly related to combustion processes; a heat exchanger that transfers sensible heat from the flue gases to a circulating water loop, and a gas cleanup system. During the fourth quarter, work continued on, Testing and Development of Initial Prototype Components. It was found that the entire furnace system, including the combustor, peristaltic pump, Y-jet atomizer, and heat exchanger performed reliably. The combustor, which is best denoted as an Inertial Reactor with Internal Separation (IRIS) because it uses radial forces to detain particles, achieved a carbon conversion efficiency of over 96%.
Date: March 1, 1988
Creator: Balsavich, J.; Becker, F.E. & Smolensky, L.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Data review and operating experience evaluation of the SRC II process

Description: Scientific Design Company (SD) has reviewed the Ft. Lewis pilot plant operation and data gathered in the SRC II Solvent Refined Coal (liquid fuel production) program, which tested Kentucky, Illinois, and Pittsburgh Seam coals. The aim of this review is to further the understanding of the process, help to evaluate its potential and assist the Department of Energy (DOE) in future development decisions. The major conclusions that SD has reached are summarized: Extensive and varied operating experience gained in the program has demonstrated the basic feasibility and stability of the process. A high on-stream factor was achieved throughout the program and the reaction section showed no tendency to plug or coke. The total data base, including all of the data which Gulf obtained at its Harmarville laboratory in conjunction with published information obtained at Ft. Lewis, could be used to design a commercial plant with reasonable confidence, within the range of variables explored. The equipment, procedures and programs of Ft. Lewis to date have not been appropriate to the gathering of complete process development data. This multi-functional plant is better suited to its other tasks of demonstrating the basic operability of the process, testing components, and accumulating large product and residue samples for combustion and gasification tests. This report points out the types of necessary additional process development data, obtainable in pilot plants, which would be needed for a commercial plant design. It is essential that all future data analysis and pilot plant operation in the SRC II development effort should be directed toward what is needed for a commercial plant design.
Date: September 1, 1978
Creator: Beskind, M.M. & Cascone, R.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Combustion and fuel characterization of coal-water fuels

Description: Activities conducted under this contract include studies on the combustion and fireside behavior of numerous coal-water fuels (CWFs). The work has been broken down into the following areas: Task 1 -- Selection of Candidate Fuels; Task 2 -- Bench Scale Tests; Task 3 -- CWF Preparation and Supply; Task 4 -- Combustion Characterization; Task 5 -- Ash Deposition and Performance Testing; Task 6 -- Commercial Applications. This report covers Task 6, the study of commercial applications of CWFs as related to the technical and economic aspects of the conversion of existing boilers and heaters to CWF firing. This work involves the analysis of seven units of various sizes and configurations firing several selected CWFs. Three utility boilers, two industrial boilers, and two process heater designs are included. Each of the units was considered with four primary selected CWFs. A fifth fuel was considered for one of the utility units. A sixth fuel, a microfine grind CWF, was evaluated on two utility units and one industrial unit. The particular fuels were chosen with the objective of examining the effects of coal source, ash level, ash properties, and beneficiation on the CWF performance and economics of the seven units. 10 refs., 81 figs., 80 tabs.
Date: June 1, 1987
Creator: Beal, H.R.; Gralton, G.W.; Gronauer, T.W.; Liljedahl, G.N. & Love, B.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Coal slurry combustion optimization on single cylinder engine

Description: Under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center, GE Transportation System has been conducting a proof of concept program to use coal water slurry (CWS) fuel to power a diesel engine locomotive since 1988. As reported earlier [1], a high pressure electronically controlled accumulator injector using a diamond compact insert nozzle was developed for this project. The improved reliability and durability of this new FIE allowed for an improved and more thorough study of combustion of CWS fuel in a diesel engine. It was decided to include a diesel pilot fuel injector in the combustion system mainly due to engine start and low load operation needs. BKM, Inc. of San Diego, CA was contracted to develop the electronic diesel fuel pilot/starting FIE for the research engine. As a result, the experimental combustion study was very much facilitated due to the ability of changing pilot/CWS injection timings and quantities without having to stop the engine. Other parameters studied included combustion chamber configuration (by changing CWS fuel injector nozzle hole number/shape/angle), as well as injection pressure. The initial phase of this combustion study is now complete. The results have been adopted into the design of a 12 cylinder engine FIE, to be tested in 1992. This paper summarizes the main findings of this study.
Date: September 1, 1992
Creator: Available, Not
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characterization and supply of coal-based fuels

Description: Contract objectives are as follows: Develop fuel specifications to serve combustor requirements. Select coals having appropriate compositional and quality characteristics as well as an economically attractive reserve base; Provide quality assurance for both the parent coals and the fuel forms; and deliver premium coal-based fuels to combustor developers as needed for their contract work. Progress is discussed, particulary in slurry fuel preparation and particle size distribution.
Date: June 1, 1989
Creator: Available, Not
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Correlation of stability/rheology relationship with coal properties and chemical additives

Description: A methodology has been developed in order to determine the influence of individual particle size fractions on coal water slurry rheology. This involves the determination of the packaging concentrations and rheology of the separate particle size fractions; {minus}400 mesh, {minus}400/325, {minus}325/270, {minus}270/200 mesh, {minus}200/140 mesh, {minus}140/100 mesh and {minus}100/80 mesh as a function of solids loading. The packaging concentrations of the separate particle size fractions and that of several blends of these sizes have been determined. The packaging concentrations were determined from particle size distribution measurements and a program based on truncated log-normal distribution which has been developed at the Adelphi Center for Energy Studies. 5 refs., 7 figs., 10 tabs.
Date: January 1, 1990
Creator: Ohene, F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department