510 Matching Results

Search Results

Advanced search parameters have been applied.

Intermediate-field transport of contaminants

Description: This report is about intermediate-field'' transport or the migration of contaminants from arrays of discrete waste packages or sources. In constructing nuclear waste repositories in rock, it may be necessary to place a waste package across a rock fracture, or a rock fracture may develop some time after waste packages have been emplaced. To predict the spatial and temporal distribution of contaminant species from a line of waste packages facing a rock fracture may be important, because such fractures may now be considered a preferential pathway for released radionuclides to re-enter the biosphere. In land disposal of hazardous wastes, individual barrels may contain especially toxic material whose dispersion special attention. We have published analytic solutions for the multidimensional advective transport of contaminants from arrays of waste packages and multiple areal sources into a planar fracture. The results show a near region in which the concentrations vary greatly in the direction transverse to ground-water flow, an intermediate region in which the array can be treated as an infinite plane source of dissolving species, and a far-field region in which the array can be treated as a plane source of finite extent. The array equations have been developed for both porous and fractured media. In this paper we summarize and compare the work with multiple areal sources facing a planar fracture and an array of point sources in porous media. 5 refs., 5 figs.
Date: June 1, 1989
Creator: Ahn, J. (Tokyo Univ. (Japan)); Kim, C. L. (Korea Advanced Energy Research Inst., Seoul (Republic of Korea)); Chambre, P. L.; Pigford, T. H. & Lee, W. W. L. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Quality assurance and verification of the MACCS (MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System) code, Version 1. 5

Description: An independent quality assurance (QA) and verification of Version 1.5 of the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS) was performed. The QA and verification involved examination of the code and associated documentation for consistent and correct implementation of the models in an error-free FORTRAN computer code. The QA and verification was not intended to determine either the adequacy or appropriateness of the models that are used MACCS 1.5. The reviews uncovered errors which were fixed by the SNL MACCS code development staff prior to the release of MACCS 1.5. Some difficulties related to documentation improvement and code restructuring are also presented. The QA and verification process concluded that Version 1.5 of the MACCS code, within the scope and limitations process concluded that Version 1.5 of the MACCS code, within the scope and limitations of the models implemented in the code is essentially error free and ready for widespread use. 15 refs., 11 tabs.
Date: February 1, 1990
Creator: Dobbe, C. A.; Carlson, E. R.; Marshall, N. H.; Marwil, E. S. & Tolli, J. E. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Dispersion study of buried elemental mercury

Description: Waste elemental mercury disposed of by burial in trenches has been found to have no probable environmental effects. (This method of disposal has been discontinued.) Transport modes by which buried mercury would be expected to reach man in the environment were modeled mathematically using experimentally determined and estimated parameters. Calculations established that elemental mercury is the stable chemical form in the soil matrix. Consequently, only diffusion of mercury vapor to the atmosphere and transport of mercury in soil water to the water table merited consideration. Aqueous transport occurs by both dissolution of mercury in water (maximum = 57 ppB) and suspension of mercury on oxide colloids of iron and silicon in soil water (maximum = 6 ppM).
Date: July 1, 1976
Creator: Orebaugh, E. G. & Hale, W. H. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Research and Development in support of the five-year plan

Description: To support its 30-year cleanup goal and significantly reduce overall program cost, the Department of Energy (DOE) has committed to increase its investment in, and coordinate its management of, applied Research, Development, Demonstration, Testing, and Evaluation (RDDT E) to resolve existing issues and rapidly advance beyond currently available waste management and waste site cleanup technologies. DOE has established a national applied RDDT E program that will include involvement of DOE Operations Office, national laboratories, other Federal agencies, universities, and industry and that will seek the advice of external advisory and technical review groups. This paper describes a plan that clearly maps out a time-phased, needs-driven RDDT E program to provide technologies over the next two decades for the safe, expeditious, and economical completion of DOE site environmental restoration and improved waste management operations.
Date: January 1, 1990
Creator: Frank, C. W. (USDOE, Washington, DC (USA)); Craig, R. B.; Clark, L. W. & Middleman, L. I. (Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant, TN (USA))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Review of multiphase flow and pollutant transport models for the Hanford site

Description: This report provides a review of the physical processes, geochemical reactions, and microbiological kinetics that interact to determine the migration and fate of these pollutants. This review of processes and reactions provides a background from which codes for the analysis of contaminant migration and fate can be evaluated. Single codes representing classes of pollutant migration problems are cited to show how commonly employed and publicly available codes are not always applicable to the complex problems of multiphase fluid flow and pollutant migration. This review provides guidance on selecting and using codes; it also provides recommendations for development work needed to address deficiencies identified in existing models, codes, and data bases.
Date: November 1, 1986
Creator: Kincaid, C. T. & J., Mitchell. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS)

Description: This report describes the MACCS computer code. The purpose of this code is to simulate the impact of severe accidents at nuclear power plants on the surrounding environment. MACCS has been developed for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to replace the previously used CRAC2 code, and it incorporates many improvements in modeling flexibility in comparison to CRAC2. The principal phenomena considered in MACCS are atmospheric transport, mitigative actions based on dose projection, dose accumulation by a number of pathways including food and water ingestion, early and latent health effects, and economic costs. The MACCS code can be used for a variety of applications. These include (1) probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of nuclear power plants and other nuclear facilities, (2) sensitivity studies to gain a better understanding of the parameters important to PRA, and (3) cost-benefit analysis. This report is composed of three volumes. Volume I, the User's Guide, describes the input data requirements of the MACCS code and provides directions for its use as illustrated by three sample problems. Volume II, the Model Description, describes the underlying models that are implemented in the code, and Volume III, the Programmer's Reference Manual, describes the code's structure and database management. 59 refs., 14 figs., 15 tabs.
Date: February 1, 1990
Creator: Jow, H. N.; Sprung, J. L.; Ritchie, L. T. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Rollstin, J. A. (GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (USA)) & Chanin, D. I. (Technadyne Engineering Consultants, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (USA))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Commercial production and distribution of fresh fruits and vegetables: A scoping study on the importance of produce pathways to dose

Description: This letter report summarizes a scoping study that examined the potential importance of fresh fruit and vegetable pathways to dose. A simple production index was constructed with data collected from the Washington State Department of Agriculture (WSDA), the United States Bureau of the Census, and the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project staff from Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, in cooperation with members of the Technical Steering Panel (TSP), selected lettuce and spinach as the produce pathways most likely to impact dose. County agricultural reports published in 1956 provided historical descriptions of the predominant distribution patterns of fresh lettuce and spinach from production regions to local population centers. Pathway rankings and screening dose estimates were calculated for specific populations living in selected locations within the HEDR study area.
Date: September 1, 1992
Creator: Marsh, T. L.; Anderson, D. M.; Farris, W. T.; Ikenberry, T. A.; Napier, B. A. & Wilfert, G. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project Monthly Report

Description: The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation doses that populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is divided into technical tasks which address each of the primary steps in the path from radioactive releases to dose estimates. Included are source terms, environmental transport, environmental monitoring data, demographics, agriculture, and food habits, and environmental pathways and dose estimates. The source terms task will develop estimates of radioactive emissions from Hanford facilities since 1944. The environmental transport task will reconstruct the movement of radioactive materials from the areas of release to populations via the atmosphere, surface water, and ground water. The environmental monitoring task will assemble, evaluate, and report historical environmental monitoring data. The demographics, agriculture, and food habits task will develop the data needed to determine the populations that could have been affected by the releases. Population and demographic information will be developed for the general population within the study area. In addition to population and demographic data, the food and water consumption patterns and sources of food and water for these populations must be estimated since these provide a primary pathway for the intake of radionuclides. The environmental pathways and dose estimates task will use the information produced by the other tasks to estimate the radiation doses populations could have received from Hanford. 1 tab., 1 fig.
Date: February 1, 1990
Creator: Dennis, B. S. (comp.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Variation in the annual average radon concentration measured in homes in Mesa County, Colorado

Description: The purpose of this study is to examine the variability in the annual average indoor radon concentration. The TMC has been collecting annual average radon data for the past 5 years in 33 residential structures in Mesa County, Colorado. This report is an interim report that presents the data collected up to the present. Currently, the plans are to continue this study in the future. 62 refs., 3 figs., 12 tabs.
Date: April 1, 1990
Creator: Rood, A. S.; George, J. L. & Langner, G. H. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Data base of accident and agricultural statistics for transportation risk assessment

Description: A state-level data base of accident and agricultural statistics has been developed to support risk assessment for transportation of spent nuclear fuels and high-level radioactive wastes. This data base will enhance the modeling capabilities for more route-specific analyses of potential risks associated with transportation of these wastes to a disposal site. The data base and methodology used to develop state-specific accident and agricultural data bases are described, and summaries of accident and agricultural statistics are provided. 27 refs., 9 tabs.
Date: November 1, 1989
Creator: Saricks, C. L.; Williams, R. G. & Hopf, M. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project monthly report, November 1992

Description: The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is to estimate the radiation doses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The TSP consists of experts in environmental pathways, epidemiology, surface-water transport, ground-water transport, statistics, demography, agriculture, meteorology, nuclear engineering, radiation dosimetry, and cultural anthropology. Included are appointed members representing the states of Oregon, Washington. and Idaho, a representative of Native American tribes, and an individual representing the public. The project is divided into the following technical tasks: Source terms; environmental transport; environmental monitoring data; demography, food consumption and agriculture; environmental pathways and dose estimates.
Date: January 1, 1992
Creator: Cannon, S. D. & Finch, S. M. (comps.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of closure alternatives for the Building 3001 Storage Canal at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

Description: The Bldg. 3001 Storage Canal at ORNL is leaking approximately 400 gal of water per day. This report presents the Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) Team's evaluation of plans and presents recommendations for interim closure alternatives to stop the release of radionuclides and potential release of heavy metals into the environment. This is a conceptual evaluation and does not include detailed engineering of physical mitigation methods. The alternatives address only interim closure measures and not final decommissioning of the canal.
Date: February 1, 1992
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Screening of contaminants in Waste Area Grouping 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

Description: Waste Area Grouping 2 (WAG 2) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is located in the White Oak Creek Watershed and is composed of White Oak Creek Embayment, White Oak Lake and associated floodplain, and portions of White Oak Creek (WOC) and Melton Branch downstream of ORNL facilities. Contaminants leaving other ORNL WAGs in the WOC watershed pass through WAG 2 before entering the Clinch River. Health and ecological risk screening analyses were conducted on contaminants in WAG 2 to determine which contaminants were of concern and would require immediate consideration for remedial action and which contaminants could be assigned a low priority or further study. For screening purposes, WAG 2 was divided into four geographic reaches: Reach 1, a portion of WOC; Reach 2, Melton Branch; Reach 3, White Oak Lake and the floodplain area to the weirs on WOC and Melton Branch; and Reach 4, the White Oak Creek Embayment, for which an independent screening analysis has been completed. Screening analyses were conducted using data bases compiled from existing data on carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic contaminants, which included organics, inorganics, and radionuclides. Contaminants for which at least one ample had a concentration above the level of detection were placed in a detectable contaminants data base. Those contaminants for which all samples were below the level of detection were placed in a nondetectable contaminants data base.
Date: July 1, 1992
Creator: Blaylock, B. G.; Frank, M. L.; Hoffman, F. O.; Hook, L. A.; Suter, G. W. & Watts, J. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The long-term problems of contaminated land: Sources, impacts and countermeasures

Description: This report examines the various sources of radiological land contamination; its extent; its impacts on man, agriculture, and the environment; countermeasures for mitigating exposures; radiological standards; alternatives for achieving land decontamination and cleanup; and possible alternatives for utilizing the land. The major potential sources of extensive long-term land contamination with radionuclides, in order of decreasing extent, are nuclear war, detonation of a single nuclear weapon (e.g., a terrorist act), serious reactor accidents, and nonfission nuclear weapons accidents that disperse the nuclear fuels (termed ''broken arrows'').
Date: November 1, 1986
Creator: Baes, C. F. III
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Review of the chronic exposure pathways models in MACCS (MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System) and several other well-known probabilistic risk assessment models

Description: The purpose of this report is to document the results of the work performed by the author in connection with the following task, performed for US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, (USNRC) Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, Division of Systems Research: MACCS Chronic Exposure Pathway Models: Review the chronic exposure pathway models implemented in the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS) and compare those models to the chronic exposure pathway models implemented in similar codes developed in countries that are members of the OECD. The chronic exposures concerned are via: the terrestrial food pathways, the water pathways, the long-term groundshine pathway, and the inhalation of resuspended radionuclides pathway. The USNRC has indicated during discussions of the task that the major effort should be spent on the terrestrial food pathways. There is one chapter for each of the categories of chronic exposure pathways listed above.
Date: June 1, 1990
Creator: Tveten, U. (Institutt for Energiteknikk, Kjeller (Norway))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radioactive contamination of fish, shellfish, and waterfowl exposed to Hanford effluents: Annual summaries, 1945--1972

Description: The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project (HEDR) is to estimate the potential radiation doses received by people living within the sphere of influence of the Hanford Site. A potential critical pathway for human radiation exposure is through the consumption of waterfowl that frequent onsite waste-water ponds or through eating of fish, shellfish, and waterfowl that reside in/on the Columbia River and its tributaries downstream of the reactors. This document summarizes information on fish, shellfish, and waterfowl radiation contamination for samples collected by Hanford monitoring personnel and offsite agencies for the period 1945 to 1972. Specific information includes the types of organisms sampled, the kinds of tissues and organs analyzed, the sampling locations, and the radionuclides reported. Some tissue concentrations are also included. We anticipate that these yearly summaries will be helpful to individuals and organizations interested in evaluating aquatic pathway information for locations impacted by Hanford operations and will be useful for planning the direction of future HEDR studies.
Date: July 1, 1992
Creator: Hanf, R. W.; Dirkes, R. L. & Duncan, J. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tritium in the Savannah River environment addendum to WSRC-RP--90-424-1, Revision 1

Description: This document is an addendum to Tritium in the Savannah River Site Environment,'' WSRC-RP90-424- 1, released in May of 1991. The purpose of this report is to update the information found in WSRC-RP-90-424-1 for the four year period 1987--1990. Some data has also been included from 1991. The report includes summaries of atmospheric and aqueous monitoring of tritium and estimates of the dose to the population surrounding the Savannah River Site.
Date: May 28, 1992
Creator: Murphy, C. E. Jr. & Carlton, W. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Performance assessment handbook for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

Description: Performance assessments of proposed low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities must be conducted to support licensing. This handbook provides a reference document that can be used as a resource by management and staff responsible for performance assessments. Brief discussions describe the performance assessment process and emphasize selected critical aspects of the process. References are also provided for additional information on many aspects of the performance assessment process. The user's manual for the National Low-Level Waste Management Program's Performance Assessment Center (PAC) on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Cray computer is included as Appendix A. The PAC provides users an opportunity to experiment with a number of performance assessment computer codes on a Cray computer. Appendix B describes input data required for 22 performance assessment codes.
Date: February 1, 1992
Creator: Seitz, R. R.; Garcia, R. S.; Kostelnik, K. M. & Starmer, R. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary assessment report for Fort Jacob F. Wolters, Installation 48555, Mineral Wells, Texas. Installation Restoration Program

Description: This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at the Texas Army National Guard (TXARNG) property near Mineral Wells, Texas. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for completing preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing corrective actions in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining site activities, quantities of hazardous substances present, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment. This PA satisfies, for the Fort Wolters property, the requirement of the Department of Defense Installation Restoration Program.
Date: August 1, 1993
Creator: Dennis, C. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary assessment report for Camp Carroll Training Center, Installation 02045, Anchorage, Alaska. Installation Restoration Program

Description: This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at the Alaska Army National Guard property known as Camp Carroll Training Center, located on the Fort Richardson Army facility near Anchorage, Alaska. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for the completion of preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing, corrective actions in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining site activities, types and quantities of hazardous substances used, the nature and amounts of wastes generated or stored at the facility, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment. The primary environmentally significant operations (ESOs) associated with the property are (1) the Alaska Air National Guard storage area behind Building S57112 (Organizational Maintenance Shop [OMS] 6); (2) the state of Alaska maintenance facility and the soil/tar-type spill north of the state of Alaska maintenance facility; (3) the waste storage area adjacent to OMS 6; (4) the contaminated area from leaking underground storage tanks (USTs) and the oil-water separator; and (5) soil staining in the parking area at the Camp Carroll Headquarters Building. Camp Carroll appears to be in excellent condition from an environmental standpoint, and current practices are satisfactory. Argonne recommends that the Alaska Department of Military Affairs consider remediation of soil contamination associated with all storage areas, as well as reviewing the practices of other residents of the facility. Argonne also recommends that the current methods of storing waste material behind Building S57112 (OMS 6) be reviewed for alternatives.
Date: August 1, 1993
Creator: Krokosz, M. & Sefano, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

RESRAD. Site-Specific Residual Radioactivity

Description: RESRAD is designed to derive site-specific guidelines for allowable residual concentrations of radionuclides in soil. A guideline is defined as a radionuclide concentration or a level of radiation or radioactivity that is acceptable if a site is to be used without radiological restrictions. Guidelines are expressed as (1) concentrations of residual radionuclides in soil, (2) concentrations of airborne radon decay products, (3) levels of external gamma radiation, (4) levels of radioactivity from surface contamination, and (5) concentrations of residual radionuclides in air and water. Soil is defined as unconsolidated earth material, including rubble and debris that may be present. The controlling principles of all guidelines are (1) the annual radiation dose received by a member of the critical population group from the residual radioactive material - predicted by a realistic but reasonably conservative analysis and averaged over a 50 year period - should not exceed 100 mrem/yr, and (2) doses should be kept as low as reasonably achievable. All significant exposure pathways for the critical population group are considered in deriving soil guidelines. These pathways include direct exposure to external radiation from the contaminated soil material; internal radiation from inhalation of airborne radionuclides; and internal radiation from ingestion of plant foods grown in the contaminated soil, meat and milk from livestock fed with contaminated fodder and water, drinking water from a contaminated well, and fish from a contaminated pond.
Date: June 1, 1989
Creator: Yu, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Site Environmental Report, 1993

Description: The Site Environmental Report (SER) is prepared annually in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, ``General Environmental Protection Program.`` This 1993 SER provides the general public as well as scientists and engineers with the results from the site`s ongoing Environmental Monitoring Program. Also included in this report is information concerning the site`s progress toward achieving full compliance with requirements set forth by DOE, US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and Ohio EPA (OEPA). For some readers, the highlights provided in the Executive Summary may provide sufficient information. Many readers, however, may wish to read more detailed descriptions of the information than those which are presented here.
Date: June 1, 1994
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Site Environmental Report summary, 1993

Description: This report describes the Fernald site mission, exposure pathways, and environmental standards and guidelines. Environmental monitoring activities measure and estimate the amount of radioactive and nonradioactive materials that may leave the site and enter the surrounding environment. This presents an overall view of the impact these activities have on the local environment and public health.
Date: June 1, 1994
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

RESRAD benchmarking against six radiation exposure pathway models

Description: A series of benchmarking runs were conducted so that results obtained with the RESRAD code could be compared against those obtained with six pathway analysis models used to determine the radiation dose to an individual living on a radiologically contaminated site. The RESRAD computer code was benchmarked against five other computer codes - GENII-S, GENII, DECOM, PRESTO-EPA-CPG, and PATHRAE-EPA - and the uncodified methodology presented in the NUREG/CR-5512 report. Estimated doses for the external gamma pathway; the dust inhalation pathway; and the soil, food, and water ingestion pathways were calculated for each methodology by matching, to the extent possible, input parameters such as occupancy, shielding, and consumption factors.
Date: October 1, 1994
Creator: Faillace, E. R.; Cheng, J. J. & Yu, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department