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Factors Influencing Student Achievement in Texas

Description: This study examines the relationships among student socioeconomic status, school district enrollment, minority enrollment, district expenditure per pupil, and the teaching experience of faculty as these variables influence the achievement scores of secondary students in Texas. Data from a total of 1,061 Texas school districts were used to determine the effects of the indicated district-level predictor variables on three criterion variables: reading, mathematics, and writing scores for the 11th-grade Texas Education Assessment of Minimum Skills (TEAMS). The study led to the following conclusions: 1. Low socioeconomic status of students in Texas, as in the rest of the United States, insures that test scores will be lower if all other variables are held constant. 2. Large minority populations are strong predictors of low test scores, especially in mathematics and reading. 3. Students in districts whose faculty had a high average of years of teaching experience also scored high in achievement tests, especially in mathematics and writing. 4. High average district expenditure per pupil predicts high test scores, especially in reading. 5. School district size or enrollment has low predictive value of test scores. Among several specific recommendations, this study advises that further study be done concerning the most effective ways to educate minority and socioeconomically disadvantaged student populations. The study also recommends that better ways be found to retain experienced teachers in the classroom, including monetary compensation, extra allowances for staff development, and additional resources. The study cautions against simply adding money to a district's budget to increase student achievement scores, asserting that districts should make thorough studies before higher expenditures per pupil are alone used to increase test scores.
Date: May 1989
Creator: Pickering, Sarah Kelley
Partner: UNT Libraries

Effect of Non-Uniform Calculation of Grade Point Average and Rank in Class by Texas Public School Districts upon Admissions to Public Four-Year Higher Education Institutions in Texas

Description: This study sought to determine the ways in which Texas public school districts differ in their calculation of Grade Point Average/Rank in Class (GPA/RIC), how district size affects weighting practices, and the effect of non-uniform calculation of GPA/RIC on admissions to college. Descriptive and non-parametric analysis techniques were used.
Date: December 1990
Creator: Carr, Sandra B. (Sandra Butters)
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effect of Remediation on Students Who Have Failed the TEAMS Minimum Competency Test

Description: This qualitative case study provided a narrative portrait of 12 students in the 11th grade in one north Texas district who failed the initial administration of the Texas Educational Assessment of Minimum Skills (TEAMS) exit-level test. It also presented an account of their perceptions of the test and their efforts to overcome this educational hurdle. The following conclusions were drawn from the study. Limited English proficiency (LEP) students had difficulty mastering the language arts section of the test. A majority of the students reported that TEAMS failure had no social impact. Most of the students declined district-offered remediation. Students tended to perceive the test as a personal challenge. Those students who attended remedial tutoring sessions performed better on the following retest than those who declined remediation. Hispanic and Asian students expressed additional study as being the key to passing the test. Black students felt that the key to passing was to spend sufficient time while taking the test. Those students who were more verbal during their interviews tended to be more successul in passing the language arts section of the TEAMS. The following recommendations were made from the study: (a) students who fail the TEAMS by minimal margins should be encouraged to take remediation; (b) an intensive remedial English course for LEP students should be offered; (c) "high interest" TEAMS mini-lessons should be presented daily for several weeks as a lead-up to the TEAMS; (d) a TEAMS ex it-level orientation program which stresses the importance of the test for the student's future should be implemented; and (e) additional research should be conducted on older students' verbal responses to see if a rich language approach in English classes including listening, reading, writing, and speaking will develop higher level language skills.
Date: August 1988
Creator: Bragg, John M. (John Morris), 1949-
Partner: UNT Libraries

An Examination of the Behavioral Dimensions of Behaviorally Disordered Students Across Grade Levels Utilizing Confirmatory Factor Analysis

Description: A review of the literature regarding behavioral characteristics and underlying factors for behaviorally disordered (BD) students revealed that both elementary school aged and secondary school aged BD students may be able to be described by a similar factor structure. Utilizing ratings obtained on a national sample of BD students with the Behavioral Dimensions Rating Scale (BDRS). Research Edition, the pattern of item ratings for students in grades kindergarten through five (K-5) and grades six through eleven (6-11) was examined to confirm this literature-based theory. Multigroup simultaneous confirmatory factor analysis using maximum likelihood estimation procedures was utilized to compare the covariance structures of students in grades K-5 and grades 6-11. A goodness-of-fit index revealed that the covariance matrices of the two groups were invariant. Since the same factor structure could be used to describe BD students in grades K-5 and grades 6-11, the means for the two groups were compared using Hotelling's T^2 statistic for two independent samples. The analysis resulted in finding a significant difference between the two groups' means. A univariate F test was conducted for the behavioral dimensions to locate the source of the mean difference. A significant difference was found only for Factor I: Aggressive/Acting Out, indicating that teachers perceive these types of behavior to be more problematic for students in grades K-5. No significant differences were found between the two groups' means on Factor II: Socially Withdrawn, Factor III: Irresponsible/Inattentive, or Factor IV: Fearful/Anxious. This investigation has demonstrated that teachers can use the BDRS, Research Edition with confidence when assessing the behaviors of both elementary and secondary school aged students. Areas for further investigation include an examination for invariance across (a) more narrowly defined grade distributions, (b) gender, and (c) socioeconomic status.
Date: December 1987
Creator: Sarnacki, Ronald L. (Ronald Leonard)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Job Satisfaction Among Faculty Members at Non-Metropolitan Teachers Colleges in Central Thailand

Description: The Faculty Job Satisfaction/Dissatisfaction Scale developed by Olin R. Wood (1973) was employed in this study to determine what significant differences and level of faculty job satisfaction existed on each facet of job satisfaction and in overall job satisfaction among faculty members at non-metropolitan teachers colleges in central Thailand. The results of this study were compared with the findings of Vatthaisong (1982) in a similar study of faculty members at teachers colleges in northeast Thailand. The instrument consists of two parts: the first part includes seven demographic items, and the second part has 68 items and uses a six-point rating scale for ten facets of job satisfaction, including one-single item of overall satisfaction. A sample of 288 faculty members at non-metropolitan teachers colleges in central Thailand was randomly selected. A total of 253 faculty members or 87.85 percent of the sample participated in this study. Frequencies, percentages, means, one-way ANOVA, and two-way ANOVA were used for analyses. The level of significance was set at .05. The Scheffe method for post hoc comparison was adopted following one-way ANOVA.
Date: May 1986
Creator: Karoonlanjakorn, Suthep
Partner: UNT Libraries

Comparison and Contrast of Perceptions of Current and Ideal Levels of Involvement with Tasks Performed by School Library Media Supervisors

Description: Comparison and contrast of perceptions of current and ideal levels of Involvement with 50 tasks by 45 district level school library media supervisors in Texas public schools was accomplished using a survey instrument eliciting information in three areas: Curriculum and Instruction, Public Relations and Communication, Actainistration and Budget. Using tasks based on a Texas Education Agency publication, i, tests for correlated means were used to determine statistically significant differences between means for current and ideal levels of involvement for supervisors grouped by age, degree and certification as well as for the group as a whole. Findings showed that most demographic groupings perceived a need for greater involvement with various curriculum planning and design activities, evaluation of noncertlficated library media personnel and with various public relations activities.
Date: December 1989
Creator: McCulley, Lois P. (Lois Perry)
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Comparison of the Effectiveness of an Abstract and a Concrete Approach in Teaching Selected Algebraic Concepts to Ninth and Tenth Grade Students

Description: One purpose of this study was to determine whether any differences in immediate achievement or retention existed between students using manipulatives and students not using manipulatives. Also addressed in this study is whether or not the use of manipulatives is more beneficial for girls than boys and whether the use of manipulatives is more beneficial for low-ability students than for high-ability students. Students selected for this study were from a large suburban school district in Texas. The students were from eight intact classes, four of which were designated as the experimental group and the other four as the control group. The sample consisted of one hundred eighty-seven students. All students were tested with a test developed by the researcher. This same test was administered as a pretest, posttest, and retention test. The following supplemental data were also gathered on the students: mathematics scores from the California Test of Basic Skills and scores from the mathematics section of the Texas Educational Assessment of Minimum Skills test. Analysis of the data revealed no statistical difference in the mean scores of students instructed with or without manipulatives when the test was administered immediately after instruction. Nor was there any statistical difference in the mean scores when the test was administered two months after instruction. There was no statistical difference in the mean gain scores from the pretest to the posttest between boys and girls or between high- and low-achieving students. Nor was there any statistical difference between the mean gain scores from the pretest to the retention test between boys and girls or between high- and low-achieving students. It is recommended that further studies be conducted to investigate achievement and retention of students using manipulatives at the secondary level. It is also recommended that variables other than achievement be studied to determine the ...
Date: May 1989
Creator: Wohlgehagen, James L. (James Lee)
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Study of the Relationship of Selected Wage Criteria to Administrative Salaries in Suburban School Districts in Texas

Description: The focus of this study was to determine the unique contribution to administrative salaries of the following criteria: gender, ethnicity, total years' experience in education, district years' experience in education, degrees held, per pupil expenditure, and school size. The sample was comprised of 1,866 administrators in 27 Texas suburban school districts with an Average Daily Attendance (ADA) over 10,000. The 1986-87 salaries of the following 11 administrative positions were analyzed using a multiple regression equation: deputy superintendent, assistant and associate superintendent, business officer, personnel officer, senior high principal and assistant principal, junior high principal and assistant principal, elementary principal and assistant principal.
Date: August 1989
Creator: McKenzie, Carol Millis
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Relationship of Sex and Age at Entrance to School to Second Grade Achievement

Description: This investigation compared achievement of boys and girls in second grade who were seven years old in June, July, and August of 1983 to the boys and girls in second grade who were eight years old in September, October, and November of 1983. The students were tested using the Iowa Test of Basic Skills using the following areas: reading, total math, and composite scores. The study also looked at the correlation of sex and age of students who had been retained in first grade. A comparison of teacher grades to standardized test scores and ability grouping was also presented. One way analysis of variance was applied to the test results. A chi square test of independence was conducted on students retained in the first grade to determine if interaction between sex and age was indicated. Older children scored higher in all three areas measured, while girls scored higher in reading. This may seem contradictory, but is not. Age was significant beyond the .05 level, while sex was significant beyond the .001 level. This difference is explained by the extremes in means for younger boys and older girls. Since first grade curriculum emphasizes reading, this gave girls a definite advantage over boys. Boys, however, scored significantly higher in math. The results indicate a need for restructuring curriculum to meet the needs of boys and girls. Younger boys in second grade scored the lowest in all areas tested, except math. These scores would have been even more significant if the boys who were not promoted to second grade could have been included in the second grade testing. These findings indicate that total developmental age is the most important factor when considering admission for school. A closer look should be taken at the requirements for school entrance. The factors that must be considered ...
Date: December 1986
Creator: Jernigan, Sharon Reynolds
Partner: UNT Libraries

Job Satisfaction of Secondary School Principals in the Rivers State of Nigeria

Description: This study addresses these questions: (1) What is the relationship between secondary school principals' job satisfaction and their ages, educational level, salary, and years of experience on the job, size of school, and location of school? and (2) What is the relationship between two instruments that measure job satisfaction--The Job Descriptive Index (JDI) and The Job in General (JIG).
Date: May 1986
Creator: Maduagwu, Samuel Nwankwo
Partner: UNT Libraries

Differences in School Districts' Decision-Making Processes Before and After Tax Limitation Elections: A Case Study

Description: Using a case study approach, this investigation focused on the decision-making processes involved in developing budgets in two Texas school districts following a tax limitation, or rollback, election. Factors influencing the decision-making processes included the rollback election's outcome in each district, the participants, the perceptions participants held of themselves, the perceptions participants held of others in the district and community, the decisions made, and the factors influencing participants' decisions. Two Texas school districts were selected as subjects of this study which used qualitative data collection methods. In one school district, the rollback election passed. In the other, it failed. Data collection included observations of school board meetings and budget workshops. Structured interviews of school board members and administrators, pro- and antirollback proponents, and newspaper editors were conducted. Questions focused on the budgetary decision-making processes before and after the rollback elections. They also solicited information fromsubjects regarding rollback elections, the factors precipitating the rollback elections and the impact of the rollback election campaign upon each school district. Document analyses were triangulated with the observations and interviews to identify the factors influencing the budgetary decision-making process. Following the rollback elections, school officials in both districts adopted a conservative approach to budgetary decision-making. In both districts, school board members and administrators listened more carefully to citizens' concerns. Citizen finance committees were formed in both districts following the rollback elections to receive community input into the 1989-90 budgets. The decision-making processes in both districts were influenced by school board members' and administrators' personal philosophies, the presence or absence of long-range district goals, and pressures to finance unfunded and underfunded state mandates. The budget documents produced in both districts following the rollback elections reflected a commitment to funding curricular rather than extracurricular programs. School officials protected teachers' and support staffers' salaries, recognizing the importance of ...
Date: May 1990
Creator: Travis, Rosemary Fechner
Partner: UNT Libraries

Alternative Funding Models for Public School Finance in Texas

Description: This study examined different funding methods for financing public education in order to solve the problems associated with large numbers of school districts and great disparities in property wealth without abandonment of property tax as the major revenue source. Using enrollment and State Property Tax Board data for the 1,061 school districts in Texas in 1986-87, four alternative funding plans were studied to compare the equity and fiscal impact of each on public school finance in Texas. The state and local shares of the total cost of education were computed using a combination of three per-pupil expenditure levels and four funding formulas. The per-pupil expenditure levels used were $3,850, $4,200, and $4,580. The formulas used were representative of a full state funding plan, a percentage equalization plan, a power equalization plan, and a foundation school program plan. Since each of the four plans used significantly higher per-pupil expenditure values, all required a greater monetary investment on the part of the state. However, all plans were found to be equalizing in nature if set per-pupil expenditure values were maintained and no local enrichment was permitted. In addition, each of the four plans, as studied, met the fiscal neutrality standard of the 1987 Edqewood v. Kirbv case. The percentage and power equalization plans required less monetary investment on the part of the state than either full state funding or the foundation school program. As a result of the study, it is recommended that the state consider a combination of plans. For example, the state could employ a full state funding model up to the $3,850 per-pupil expenditure level with added permissible local millage being limited and power equalized. In addition, while each of the plans studied reduces inequity, the increased cost of an adequate public school education suggests that the state consider ...
Date: August 1989
Creator: Hair, Janet C. (Janet Cantrell)
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Cognitive Styles on Summarization of Expository Text

Description: The study investigated the relationship among three cognitive styles and summarization abilities. Both summarization products and processes were examined. Summarizing products were scored and a canonical correlation analysis was performed to determine their relationship with three cognitive styles. Summarizing processes were examined by videotaping students as they provided think aloud protocols. Their processes were recorded on composing style sheets and analyzed qualitatively. Subjects were sixth-grade students in self-contained classes in a suburban school district. Summarizing products were collected over a two week period in the fall. Summarizing processes were collected over an eight week period in the spring of the same school year. The results of the summarizing products analysis suggest that cognitive styles are related to summarization abilities. Two canonical correlations among the two variable sets were statistically significant at the .05 level of significance (.33 and .29). The results further suggest that students who are field independent, reflective, and flexible in their attentional style may be more adept at organizing their ideas and using written mechanics while summarizing. Students who are impulsive and constricted in attentional style may exhibit strength in expressing their ideas while summarizing. Results of the summarizing processes analysis suggest that students of one cognitive style combination may exhibit different behaviors while summarizing than those of other cognitive style combinations. Students who are field independent, reflective, and flexible in their attentional style seem to display more mature, interactive behaviors while summarizing than their peers of other cognitive style combinations.
Date: August 1988
Creator: Mast, Cynda Overton
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Comparative Analysis of Curricular Programs in Private, Public Choice, and Public Attendance-Zone Schools in San Antonio, Texas

Description: The purpose of this study was to examine curricular programs in private, public choice, and public attendance-zone schools to determine whether differences exist among curricular programs in the three types of schools. The findings from the student survey data indicated that private school students reported their curriculum to be more challenging than public school students, but no other significant differences were noted. Findings from the teacher survey showed more positive results for private schools in indicators of a challenging curriculum, expectations of students, school climate, and external support than public schools. This study showed that of the types of schools examined, Catholic schools exhibited the most consistent and well written curriculum that reflected the four research questions. Future research needs to be done to establish whether these indicators of a challenging curriculum result in higher student achievement.
Date: December 1997
Creator: Miller, Alice Elizabeth Owen
Partner: UNT Libraries

An Investigation of School Administrator Personality Type and Gender to Leader Effectiveness, Flexibility, and Years of Experience

Description: The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a relationship between four selected personality categories as measured by Myers-Briggs Type Indicator® (MBTI) and gender to leader effectiveness and flexibility as measured by Leader Behavior Analysis II Self-A® (LBAII Self-A) and years of experience in school administration. A review of literature traced leadership to the Situational Leadership II model utilized in this study. The model was based on selecting the appropriate leadership style for the individual situation and development level of followers. MBTI® measured sixteen combinations of four personality types which included Extravert® or Introvert, Sensing or iNtuitive®, Thinking or Feeling, and Judging or Perceiving. Four types were selected for this study (ISTJ, ESTJ, INTP, and ESFJ). The LBAII Self-A® instrument measured leader effectiveness and flexibility. The sample was 80 Texas school administrators in eleven school districts. Statistics utilized to test the hypotheses included Hotelling's T2, Multiple Analysis of Variance, Analysis of Variance, and Multiple Regression. Independent variables were gender and personality type. Dependent variables were leader effectiveness, flexibility, and years of experience in school administration. Findings reported a significant difference in leader effectiveness scores of the ESTJ personality type. Additionally, Judging/Perceiving was a significant predictor of years of experience of school administrators. In conclusion, a significant difference was found in leader effectiveness scores which showed that ESTJ personality types had higher scores. Another significant finding was Judging/ Perceiving as a predictor of years of administrative experience. As years of experience increased, Judging (preference for order) increased as a personality variable rather than Perceiving (preference for spontaneity). It was recommended that MBTI® and LBAII® be administered to school administrators as part of pre-service leadership training and for ongoing staff development. These instruments can be utilized as tools to help administrators understand personality type and effective leadership practices.
Date: August 1995
Creator: Anderson, Linda K., 1950-
Partner: UNT Libraries

An Analysis of Texas Special Education Due Process Hearings from September 1, 1983, to September 1, 1992: Implications for the Administration of Special Education Programs

Description: The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of selected characteristics on the outcomes of those special education due process hearings brought forth in the state of Texas from September 1, 1983, to September 1, 1992. A further purpose was to determine if district characteristics of size or location affect the likelihood of a district's becoming involved in a special education due process hearing. Data for the study was collected for all special education due process hearings conducted in the State of Texas from September 1, 1983, to September 1, 1992. A coding system was used to record the data for the study and the Chi-square test of independence was used to determine whether a relationship existed between the selected variable (hearing issue, disability classifications and restrictiveness of placement) and hearing outcome. The frequency of involvement in hearings for districts of various size and urban characteristics was displayed as a percentage.
Date: August 1994
Creator: Webb, Paula J. (Paula Jean)
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Qualitative Study of Nine Elementary Principals Providing Inclusion for the Differently Abled

Description: This is a qualitative description of the decision making processes that nine elementary principals use in determining campus level services for the differently abled and of how their administrative styles and values impact those decisions. Both the literature on leadership and on special education inclusion are reviewed. This review creates the framework in which the research questions are examined and structures the reporting of the findings. The defining attributes of leadership styles in conjunction with the defining attributes of inclusion are the heart of this study. Audiotaped interviews with each principal provide the data related to questions of leadership style, decision making, philosophy and autonomy. Separate site visits in which teachers from both regular and special education are queried as to the actual practices on their respective campuses and to their reactions to program changes involving the differently abled students. The combination of data gathered from the principal interviews, from the site visitations and the use of triangulation of data provide the basis for the findings.
Date: December 1994
Creator: Hastings, Cloyd L. (Cloyd Lee)
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Role of the Principal in Implementing Change in the Professional Development School

Description: This qualitative research study investigated the role of the principal in implementing change in the professional development school (PDS). The study involved 7 elementary schools and 4 school-university collaboratives in the Texas network of 17 Centers for Professional Development and Technology (CPDTs). The research questions focused on the role, leadership, and management concerns of the PDS principal.
Date: May 1996
Creator: Bowen, Gail Ann
Partner: UNT Libraries

Perceptions of the Changing Roles of Central Instructional Support Staff as Site-Based Decision Making is Implemented in One School District: A Descriptive Study

Description: The purpose of this study was to analyze ways in which the roles of instructional support staff as perceived by principals and instructional support staff members in a large, suburban school district have been affected by the implementation of site-based decision making (SBDM). Research questions focused on changes which have occurred in the roles of instructional support staff and in the services provided to schools by support staff since the implementation of SBDM, the roles which support staff members believe they have in SBDM, the perceptions of principals regarding the roles of instructional support staff in SBDM, and a comparison of the views of instructional support staff and principals regarding the district's implementation of SBDM.
Date: May 1995
Creator: Barnum, Rebecca Ann
Partner: UNT Libraries

Effective Teachers in an Effective School: A Case Study

Description: The purpose of this investigation was to describe the behavior of effective teachers working within the context of an effective school. The study focused on both the content and techniques of instruction utilized by the teachers. In addition, the research examined teacher behaviors that were external to the classroom setting, including teacher-to-teacher relationships, teacher-to-parent relationships, and teacher-to-principal relationships. A qualitative research design was selected for this study. The site was an inner city elementary campus. Data were collected from eleven K-3 teachers using participant observation and interviews over a seven-month period. Documents were also used as a source of data. The analysis of data was ongoing and cyclical based on the constant comparative method. The final analysis of data resulted in nine themes based on recurring patterns of teacher behavior. The findings suggest that a caring school culture plays an important role in a school's success and the effectiveness of its teachers. Furthermore, there does not appear to be a universal description that fits all effective teachers. Instead, effective teachers in an effective school function as autonomous decision makers in their classrooms, choosing the curriculum and techniques that work best for them and their students. They tend to focus on basic skills, especially reading and mathematics, using explicit direct instruction methods. However, these teachers frequently digress from their planned lessons to teach life skills and test-taking strategies. Findings for this study also support the creation of structured school and classroom environments for low-income inner city students. Student self-esteem and parental support are not negatively impacted when firm discipline is administered fairly in a caring, supportive school climate. The conclusions of this investigation have implications for teacher staff development and campus administrator training. The findings also suggest further research in the areas of school culture, direct instruction, student discipline, and classroom ...
Date: May 1996
Creator: Seamster, Delores Stubblefield
Partner: UNT Libraries

Effects of Change Facilitator Styles on Elementary Teachers' Concerns about Adoption of Outcome-Based Education

Description: The impact of change facilitator styles (CFS) on elementary teachers' stages of concerns (SoC) about adopting outcome-based education (OBE) in their schools was studied. The group studied was 266 teachers from the Texas Network for Outcome-Based Education. Principal styles are based on the Concerns-Based Adoption Model (CBAM. Styles were determined by the Change Facilitator Style Questionnaire, and teachers' concerns profiles were measured by the Stages of Concern Questionnaire. ANOVA and t tests were conducted to assess the effects of CFS at each of the seven stages of concern. ANOVA assessed teachers' educational level, experience with teaching and OBE, principal gender and type of community related to SoC. Chi-square addressed the relationship among the demographic variables and CFS. With schools as the unit of analysis, significant differences at stages 0,1,2 were found. When teachers were the unit of analysis, significant differences were found at stages 0,1,2, and 3. Concerns of teachers with Initiator style principals were significantly lower at these stages. All teachers demonstrated concerns typical of nonusers, indicating resistance to OBE. Concerns were significantly lower for teachers with master's degree than for bachelor's at stages 0 to 3. Teachers with the least experience with OBE had significantly higher concerns. Chi-square compared change facilitator styles with the demographic variables. The only significant results were more males at the management style than expected. These findings support the CBAMtheory that the initiator style is more effective at impacting SoC and improving success in adopting an innovation. Teacher demographic variables do not affect SoC or CFS. The study indicates problems implementing OBE but suggests effective leadership could impact teachers' concerns.
Date: August 1996
Creator: Waddell, Stephen F. (Stephen Fred)
Partner: UNT Libraries