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Woelter Instrument-Optical Design

Description: Hundreds of target assemblies will be constructed annually for use on NIF or OMEGA in the near future. Currently, we do not have the capability to tomographically characterize the target assemblies at the desired resolution. Hence, we cannot verify if an assembly has been assembled correctly. The Engineering Directorate, through the LDRD program, is currently funding an x-ray instruments that could solve this problem. This instrument is based on a Woelter [1] Type-I design. We will refer to this design as the Woelter instrument in the remainder of the report. Ideally, the Woelter instrument will create images with sub-micrometer resolution. Moreover, the instrument will have a field-of-view large enough to cover an entire target assembly (up to a 2 mm square), which would eliminate the need to take multiple radiographs to get one complete target image. This report describes the optical design of the Woelter instrument.
Date: October 11, 2002
Creator: Nederbragt, W W
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

100 Areas water treatment specifications

Description: This memorandum discussed review of the data from tests using alum in the treatment of pile process water, and using activated silica as a coagulant aid during period of low water temperature, which shows that this method should be substituted for the present method of treating pile process water in all 100 Areas. It was recommended that the water treatment procedures and specifications attached to this memorandum be initiated as standard practice in all 100 Areas as soon as it is possible to make the necessary equipment modifications and installations.
Date: July 11, 1952
Creator: Greninger, A. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The USC macro data-flow simulator. Technical report

Description: As device technology develops to the limit of speed of light, parallel processing comes into play for high performance calculation. Conventional von Neumann computation show difficulty because of its single threadness. Many hybrid models have been proposed; they are reviewed, leading to the macro data-flow model. This macro data-flow is a scheme having a multilevel of model of execution which higher model is a tagged data-flow and lower level is von Neumann. Partitioning should be carefully done. A simple simulator has been developed, executing a macro data-flow graph. Micro instructions within a macro actor can access and process those vector data from higher data-flow level. Architectural description of this simulator and some special actors supporting this hybrid model are discussed. Details of instructions are explained as user reference manual, including sample programs and statistic gathering methods. In addition to the hardware simulator, a graph simulator was developed for simple execution of data-flow graph without resource limit of hardware details.
Date: October 11, 1989
Creator: Yoo, N. & Gaudiot, J. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

What Do We Know About Ethanol and Alkylates as Pollutants?

Description: Gov. Davis issued Executive Order D-5-99 in March 1999 calling for removal of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) from gasoline no later than December 31, 2002. The Executive Order required the California Air Board, State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) and Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA) to prepare an analysis of potential impacts and health risks that may be associated with the use of ethanol as a fuel oxygenate. The SWRCB contracted with the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to lead a team of researchers, including scientists from Clarkson University, University of Iowa, and University of California, Davis, in evaluating the potential ground and surface water impacts that may occur if ethanol is used to replace MTBE. These findings are reported in the document entitled Health and Environmental Assessment of the Use of Ethanol as a Fuel Oxygenate. This document has been peer reviewed and presented to the California Environmental Policy Council and may be viewed at: http://www-erd.llnl.gov/ethanol/. Ethanol used for fuels is made primarily from grains, but any feed stock containing sugar, starch, or cellulose can be fermented to ethanol. Ethanol contains 34.7% oxygen by weight. It is less dense than water, but infinitely soluble in water. Ethanol vapors are denser than air. One and a half gallons of ethanol have the same energy as one gallon of gasoline. Pure fuel ethanol, and gasoline with ethanol, conducts electricity, while gasoline without ethanol is an insulator. Corrosion and compatibility of materials is an issue with the storage of pure ethanol and gasoline with high percentages of ethanol, but these issues are less important if gasoline with less than 10% ethanol is used.
Date: May 11, 2001
Creator: Rich, D W; Marchetti, A A; Buscheck, T & Layton, D W
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Liquid Effluent Monitoring Information System test plans release 1.2

Description: The Liquid Effluent Monitoring Information System (LEMIS) is being developed as the organized information repository facility in support of the liquid effluent monitoring requirements of the Tri-Party Agreement. It is necessary to provide an automated repository into which the results from liquid effluent sampling will be placed. This repository must provide for effective retention, review, and retrieval of selected sample data by authorized persons and organizations. This System Architecture document is the aggregation of the DMR P+ methodology project management deliverables. Together they represent a description of the project and its plan through four Releases, corresponding to the definition and prioritization of requirements defined by the user.
Date: October 11, 1994
Creator: Adams, R. T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Structure of Cool Flame Fronts of Pentane, Iso-Pentane and Their Mixture

Description: An experimental study of the combustion of two isomers of pentane, n-pentane and iso-pentane, in laminar cool flames has been carried out. Three flames were studied, one with n-pentane, the second with iso-pentane, and the third with an equimolar mixture of the two isomers. Particular attention has been given to the low temperature region ahead of the hot region of the flame and the cool flame chemistry occurring there. A unique experimental facility has been used to provide access to this cool flame region. Comparisons are made of the structures of the three flames, with particular attention on the different intermediate species produced and the correlations between the fuel molecule structure and the specific intermediates produced.
Date: January 11, 2000
Creator: Mansurov, Z A; Mironenko, A A; Bodykov, D U; Rakhimetkaliev, K N & Westbrook, C K
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

FY2002 Final Report for EMSP Project No.70108 Effects of Fluid Distribution on Measured Geophysical Properties for Partially Saturated, Shallow Subsurface Conditions

Description: Our goal is to improve geophysical imaging of the vadose zone. We are achieving this goal by providing new methods to improve interpretation of field data. The purpose of this EMSP project is to develop relationships between laboratory measured geophysical properties and porosity, saturation, and fluid distribution, for partially saturated soils. Algorithms for relationships between soil composition, saturation, and geophysical measurements will provide new methods to interpret geophysical field data collected in the vadose zone at sites such as Hanford, WA. This report summarizes work after 32 months of a 3-year project. We modified a laboratory ultrasonics apparatus developed in a previous EMSP project (No.55411) so that we can make velocity measurements for partially-saturated samples rather than fully-saturated or dry samples. Modifications included adding tensiometers and changing the fluid system so that pore fluid pressure can be controlled and capillary pressure can be determined. We made a series of measurements to determine properties of partially saturated Ottawa sand and Santa Cruz aggregate samples as well as sand-clay samples and some preliminary measurements on natural soils. Current measurements include investigations of effects of pore fluid chemistry on grain cementation and velocities for calcite-cemented sand samples. We analyzed these measurements as well as velocity and electrical properties measurements made as part of the earlier EMSP project and developed relationships between measured geophysical properties and parameters of interest, including lithology, fluid content and distribution, and soil microstructure. Our laboratory velocity measurements have confirmed recent field observations of extremely low seismic velocities of a few hundred m/s in shallow soils, and we have shown that these values are consistent with effective medium theories. We have shown that the laboratory velocities for partially saturated sands, collected at ultrasonic frequencies, behave as predicted by Gassmann's static result, and thus laboratory ultrasonic velocities can be considered analogous ...
Date: June 11, 2002
Creator: Berge, P A; Bonner, B P; Roberts, J J; Wildenschild, D; Aracne-Ruddle, C M; Berryman, J G et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Surface Project: Project plan. Revision 1

Description: The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA) [Public Law (PL) 95-604, 42 United States Code (USC) 7901], hereinafter referred to as the ``Act,`` authorizes the US Department of Energy (DOE) to stabilize and control surface tailings and ground water contamination. To fulfill this mission, the DOE has established two projects under the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Office. The Ground Water Project was established in April 1991 as a major project and a separate project plan will be prepared for that portion of the mission. This project plan covers the UMTRA Surface Project, a major system acquisition (MSA).
Date: August 11, 1993
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Liquid Effluent Monitoring Information System (LEMIS) System Construction

Description: The liquid effluent sampling program is part of the effort to minimize adverse environmental impact during the cleanup operation at the Hanford Site. Of the 33 Phase I and Phase II liquid effluents, all streams actively discharged to the soil column will be sampled. The Liquid Effluent Monitoring Information System (LEMIS) is being developed as the organized information repository facility in support of the liquid effluent monitoring requirements of the Tri-Party Agreement. It is necessary to provide an automated repository into which the results from liquid effluent sampling will be placed. This repository must provide for effective retention, review, and retrieval of selected sample data by authorized persons and organizations. This System Construction document is the aggregation of the DMR P+ methodology project management deliverables. Together they represent a description of the project and its plan through four Releases, corresponding to the definition and prioritization of requirements defined by the user.
Date: October 11, 1994
Creator: Adams, R. T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The cost of wetland creation and restoration. Final report, [February 12, 1992--April 30, 1994]- Draft

Description: This report examines the economics of wetland creation, restoration, and enhancement projects, especially as they are used within the context of mitigation for unavoidable wetland losses. Complete engineering-cost-accounting profiles of over 90 wetland projects were developed in collaboration with leading wetland restoration and creation practitioners around the country to develop a primary source database. Data on the costs of over 1,000 wetland projects were gathered from published sources and other available databases to develop a secondary source database. Cases in both databases were carefully analyzed and a set of baseline cost per acre estimates were developed for wetland creation, restoration, and enhancement. Observations of costs varied widely, ranging from $5 per acre to $1.5 million per acre. Differences in cost were related to the target wetland type, and to site-specific and project-specific factors that affected the preconstruction, construction, and post-construction tasks necessary to carry out each particular project. Project-specific and site-specific factors had a much larger effect on project costs than wetland type for non-agricultural projects. Costs of wetland creation and restoration were also shown to differ by region, but not by as much as expected, and in response to the regulatory context. The costs of wetland creation, restoration, and enhancement were also analyzed in a broader economic context through examination of the market for wetland mitigation services, and through the development of a framework for estimating compensation ratios-the number of acres of created, restored, or enhanced wetland required to compensate for an acre of lost natural wetland. The combination of per acre creation, restoration, and enhancement costs and the compensation ratio determine the overall mitigation costs associated with alternative mitigation strategies.
Date: July 11, 1994
Creator: King, D. & Costanza, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Description of work for 216-U-Pond test pits

Description: This description of work (DOW) details the field activities associated with the test pit excavation and soil sampling at the 216- U-10 Pond (U-10 Pond) in the 200 West Area and will serve as a field guide for those performing the work. It will be used in conjunction with the 200-UP-2 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) Facility Investigation/Corrective Measures Study (DOE-RL 1993a, [LFI]) and Site Characterization Manual (WHC 1988a). Test pits will be constructed to characterize the vertical extent of contaminants in sediments within and beneath the former U-10 pond.
Date: August 11, 1993
Creator: Kelty, G. G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

NLC Polarized Positron Photon Beam Target Thermal Structural Modeling

Description: The NLC polarized positron photon beam target is a 0.4 radiation length thick titanium target. Energy deposition from one pulse occurs over 266 nano-seconds and results in heating of the target and pressure pulses straining the material. The 22.1 MeV photon beam has a spot size of 0.75 mm and results in a maximum temperature jump of 233 C. Stresses are induced in the material from thermal expansion of the hotter material. Peak effective stresses reach 19 Ksi (1.34 x 10{sup 8} Pa), which is lower than the yield strength of a titanium alloy by a factor of six.
Date: June 11, 2002
Creator: Stein, W & Sheppard, J C
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of sludge screening limit for Tank Farm Low Level Waste

Description: High Level Waste (HLW) generated during Separations processing in the F- and H-Canyons is transferred to the 241-F/H Tank Farms for storage in 61 underground, carbon steel tanks. The waste is an aqueous solution containing dissolved sodium salts and insoluble metal oxides/hydroxides. As the waste is collected in a receipt tank, the insoluble solids settle to form the sludge phase. The supernatant solution is decanted to an evaporator to reduce the volume. The evaporator concentrate is transferred to another waste tank and is cooled, causing the sodium salts to precipitate from solution and form the saltcake phase. Eventually, the soluble and insoluble components will be separately prepared for processing within the DWPF for final disposal. As a result of routine and non-routine activities that are part of managing these highly radioactive wastes, secondary solid waste is generated. Low level waste (LLW) such as protective clothing, plastic sheeting, plastic huts, etc. are connected for disposal in B-25, B-12 and other waste containers. The wastes are transferred to the E-Area Vaults (EAV) for disposal, and must comply with the Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) for disposal of LLW. Compliance with the WAC includes manifesting the quantities of certain radioisotopes and declaring that the waste containers are not hazardous. However, solid waste is not amenable to routine smearing and analysis to determine the required information. This report documents the evaluation to ensure that LLW contaminated with sludge at 10,000 dpm/100 cm{sup 2} of alpha emitters is nonhazardous. The hazardous constituent present in the greatest ratio to its Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) limit is identified, and the concentration of that component in the leachate from a TCLP test is calculated. Finally, implications of this evaluation on screening LLW in the field are identified.
Date: August 11, 1994
Creator: Georgeton, G. K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The office of real soon now, western pilot (projectors in offices project)

Description: The ASCI VIEWS program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been investigating a variety of display technologies, motivated by the large size, high resolution and complexity of some data sets that ASCI users explore and analyze. The purpose of this report is to describe the design, deployment and initial user reactions to one display system. The inspiration for the system comes from a similar experimental deployment at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), one of the VIEWS program's academic partners. The display system features the use of multiple projectors in individual offices creating oversized displays to replace standard monitors. Some discussion on alternative multi-projector display systems provides context for this description.The VIEWS program began exploring the possibilities of alternative displays by building large, tiled displays and supporting the development of extremely high-pixel density LCD panels [ASCI]. The same considerations have led to partnerships with several groups of researchers working on various aspects of multi-projector display systems including groups at UNC, Stanford University, Princeton University, the University of Utah, Argonne National Lab, and the two NSF supercomputer centers, NCSA and SDSC. This report is divided into eight sections. The following section describes the background for the development of this multi-projector display system, including brief descriptions of other large-format and high-resolution display projects, and provides some LLNL motivations for exploring further. Section III covers the evolution of the design intended specifically for LLNL and explains some of the factors that influenced the decisions made. Section IV provides a detailed description of the two installations, including materials and resources involved. After a few weeks of experience with the systems, the users were interviewed and their reactions and comments are summarized in Section V. Conclusions, recommendations, and a short list of references complete this report.
Date: March 11, 2002
Creator: Uselton, S L
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Magnetron sputtered boron films and Ti/B multilayer structures

Description: A method is described for the production of thin boron and titanium/boron films by magnetron sputter deposition. The amorphous boron films contain no morphological growth features, unlike those found when thin films are prepared by various physical vapor 5 deposition processes. Magnetron sputter deposition method requires the use of a high density crystalline boron sputter target which is prepared by hot isostatic pressing. Thin boron films prepared by this method are useful for ultra-thin band pass filters as well as the low Z element in low Z/high Z mirrors which enhance reflectivity 10 from grazing to normal incidence.
Date: March 11, 1991
Creator: Makowiecki, D. M. & Jankowski, A. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Surge suppressors for the PRTR process tube flow meters

Description: Each tube of the PRTR is provided with flow monitoring equipment consisting of a venturi flow meter in the inlet piping, sensing lines containing valves, and a Panellit flow transmitter. The flow transmitter does three things: converts the pressure drop signal of the venturi to a visual readout; provides an electrical signal for recording; and provides a signal to the safety circuit which causes a reactor scram should the flow increase or decrease beyond pre-set valves. After startup of the PRTR, it was found that the readings of flow meters on those process tubes which connect near the inlet of the bottom ring headers were fluctuating excessively. As an interim measure during the power tests at low reactor powers, the meter fluctuations were reduced by throttling the valves in the sensing lines from the flow venturi to the flow meter. This was recognized as being questionable for a permanent solution since this practice introduces an unknown and variable lengthening of the response characteristics of the meter. An experimental program was therefore undertaken to determine the degree of valve throttling which might be appropriate for fluctuation suppression and to device other and better methods of suppression. The experiments show that throttling of valves in the flow transmitter sensing lines is not a satisfactory way of decreasing the fluctuations. The valves must be closed to about 1/4 open before they decrease fluctuations significantly. Further closure to about 1/8 open causes an excessive lengthening of the response characteristics of the transmitter. This provides only a very narrow range of valve positions which are permissible and effective. The increased hydraulic flow resistance of 3--5 foot lengths of 1/16-inch tubing in the sensing line causes the flow transmitter system to become nearly critically damped. This will eliminate the oscillatory behavior of the readings without causing ...
Date: August 11, 1961
Creator: Hesson, G. M.; Thorne, W. L. & Batch, J. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Detection and quantitative analysis of ferrocyanide and ferricyanide: FY 93 Florida State University Raman spectroscopy report

Description: This report provides a summary of work to develop and investigate the feasibility of using Raman spectroscopy with tank waste materials. It contains Raman spectra from organics, such as ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), hydroxyethylenediaminetetraacteic acid (HEDTA), imino diacetic acid (IDA), kerosene, tributyl phosphate (TBP), acetone and butanol, anticipated to be present in tank wastes and spectra from T-107 real and BY-104 simulant materials. The results of investigating Raman for determining moisture content in tank materials are also presented. A description of software algorithms developed to process Raman spectra from a dispersive grating spectrometer system and an in initial design for a data base to support qualitative and quantitative application of remote Raman sensing with tank wastes.
Date: October 11, 1994
Creator: Mann, C. K. & Vickers, T. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Safety Issues of HG and PB as IFE Target Materials: Radiological Versus Chemical Toxicity

Description: We have performed a safety assessment of mercury and lead as possible hohlraum materials for Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) targets, including for the first time a comparative analysis of the radiological and toxicological consequences of an accidental release. In order to calculate accident doses to the public, we have distinguished between accidents at the target fabrication facility and accidents at other areas of the power plant. Regarding the chemical toxicity assessment, we have used the USDOE regulations to determine the maximum allowable release in order to protect the public from adverse health effects. Opposite to common belief, it has been found that the chemical safety requirements for these materials appear to be more stringent than the concentrations that would result in an acceptable radiological dose.
Date: November 11, 2002
Creator: Reyes, S; Latkowski, J F; Cadwallader, L C; Moir, R W; Rio, G. D & Sanz, J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Transport Properties of Fluid Mixtures at High Pressures and Temperatures. Applications to the Detonation Products of HMX

Description: The detonation of modern high explosives (HE) leaves behind a mixture of fluid and dispersed solid phases at high pressures and temperatures. The last decades have witnessed tremendous progress in the equation of state modeling of realistic fluid mixtures and mixed phases, that has been already successfully applied to the prediction of HE detonation properties [1]. The calculation of transport properties on the other hand, e.g. viscosity and thermal conductivity, has advanced at a much slower pace due to inherent theoretical and computational difficulties. We show here, with the help of molecular dynamics simulations, that the Enskog transport theory can be successfully used to predict the viscosity and thermal conductivity of realistically modeled hot, dense fluid mixtures, such as those obtained after the detonation of HMX (C{sub 4}H{sub 8}N{sub 8}O{sub 8}). We also analyze the effect of the resulting carbon clusters on the transport properties of the post-detonation multiphase system, and find that their contribution is very significant.
Date: June 11, 2002
Creator: Bastea, S
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Magnetic field dependence of the correlation gap in SmB{sub 6}

Description: We have used magnetoresistance measurements to probe the effect of large magnetic fields on the stability of the electronic gap {delta} in SmB{sub 6}. Although the Zeeman splitting in a 18 Telsa field is comparable to the ambient pressure {delta}, and even exceeds {delta} at 56 kbar, {delta} is in both cases almost completely unaffected by the magnetic field.
Date: June 11, 1994
Creator: Cooley, J. C.; Aronson, M. C.; Lacerda, A.; Canfield, P. C. & Fisk, Z.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department