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Geothermal systems of northern Nevada

Description: Hot springs are numerous and nearly uniformly distributed in northern Nevada. Most occur on the flanks of basins, along Basin and Range (late Miocene to Holocene) faults, while some occur in the inner parts of the basins. Surface temperatures of the springs range from slightly above ambient to boiling; some springs are superheated. Maximum subsurface water temperatures calculated on the basis of quartz solubility range as high as 252/sup 0/C, although most are below 190/sup 0/C. Flows range from a trickle to several hundred liters per minute. The Nevada geothermal systems differ markedly from the power-producing system at The Geysers, Calif., and from those areas with a high potential for power production (e.g., Yellowstone Park, Wyo.; Jemez Mountains, N. Mex.). These other systems are associated with Quaternary felsic volcanic rocks and probably derive their heat from cooling magma rather high in the crust. In northern Nevada, however, felsic volcanic rocks are virtually all older than 10 million years, and analogous magmatic heat sources are, therefore, probably lacking. Nevada is part of an area of much higher average heat flow than the rest of the United States. In north-central Nevada, geothermal gradients are as great as 64/sup 0/C per kilometer in bedrock and even higher in basin fill. The high gradients probably result from a combination of thin crust and high temperature upper mantle. It is suggested that the geothermal systems of northern Nevada result from circulation of meteoric waters along Basin and Range faults and that their temperature chiefly depends upon (1) depth of circulation and (2) the geothermal gradient near the faults.
Date: January 1, 1974
Creator: Hose, R. K. & Taylor, B. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Report on equipment availability for the ten-year period, 1966--1975

Description: This is an annual report of availability and outage statistics for electric power generating facilities operating in the United States. A list of utility organizations voluntarily participating in the EEI Equipment Availability Program in 1975 is located in Appendix F. All summary reports in this publication are for the 10-year period 1966-1975. Each reporting utility company has received reports on individual units for which data were submitted. Also, selected major equipment manufacturers receive copies of computer reports showing an analysis of the data for their equipment. Revised reporting instructions to incorporate Safety and Environmental Requirement Cause Codes were issued effective January 1, 1976. In addition, provisions were made for identifying major equipment manufactured outisde of the United States or under foreign license. Recognizing that an Annual Report contains only a limited amount of general outage data in selected categories, the Task Force has agreed to perform special analyses of the data bank if the cost of computer services is met by the requestor and if the required analysis conforms to some designated policy guidelines.
Date: December 1, 1976
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Crystallography of preferred growth in lead--tin alloys

Description: The preferred growth of the lead--tin eutectic alloy was studied by use of electron channeling techniques in a scanning electron microscope. Four distinct crystallographic modes were found to exist depending on the imposed growth velocity. The extent of the range of the stability of each mode was experimentally determined in a directional solidification apparatus and rationalized in terms of simple physical reasoning. Microstructural observations are discussed in terms of the nature of the extent of the stability of the various crystallographic relationships. Lamellar spiraling about the growth direction was found to occur in one crystallographic mode and the parameters controlling it, growth velocity and temperature gradient, were investigated. The rate of lamellar spiraling was found to increase by increasing solidification rate or temperature gradient. The study suggests that considerably more control over the microstructural and crystallographic characteristics of a eutectic structure is possible than was previously believed. 17 figures, 34 references.
Date: June 1, 1976
Creator: Mourer, D. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Systems analysis of instrumentation for in situ examination of rock properties. Final report. [Telemetered instrumentation for monitoring buried nuclear waste]

Description: If salt beds or shale beds are used for burial of nuclear wastes, then boreholes that penetrate the beds will be sealed to prevent transport of water into the beds via the boreholes. There will be interest in monitoring the environment in local regions of the borehole for years to come. Such monitoring may be aimed at providing assurance that the integrity of the borehole plug and the integrity of borehole wall seals have not degraded. Of course, there will be interest in monitoring the burial vault geology as well, and the results of this study are relevant to this requirement also. A study of buried instrumentation in boreholes without any wires between the buried instruments and the surface of the earth was performed. Consequently, buried power supplies and through-the-earth communications systems are required. Study ground rules included the following: burial depths to range between 150 m and 1500 m; maximum temperature of 100/sup 0/C at the burial depth; and system target lifetime of 10 to 100 years. The instrumentation system is separable into four functional subsystems: (A) a basic instrument subsystem; (B) a command, control, and data processing (CCD) subsystem; (C) a communication subsystem; and (D) a power supply subsystem. The major findings of the study are listed by subsystem. (WHK)
Date: October 1, 1976
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Void trapping of hydrogen in sintered iron

Description: The effect of void trapping of hydrogen in iron was studied using the gas-phase permeation technique. Iron membranes of controlled void density, varying from 92% to 98% were prepared by press and sintering of electrolytic iron powder. The presence of internal voids showed no effect on the steady state flux of hydrogen through the membrane. The effective diffusivity, obtained by the time lag method, increased with the increase of input hydrogen partial pressure. This disagreement with the prediction of the theory in literature was explained by the existence of hydrogen in both the diatomic gaseous form and as adsorbed hydrogen. This explanation was further confirmed by examining the dependence of trapped hydrogen concentration with pressure. The linear dependence of trapped hydrogen concentration in voids with external hydrogen partial pressure for samples of 96%, 94% and 92% dense were given respectively by C/sub g/ = (1.5 +- 0.2) x 10/sup 15/ P + (3.2 +- 0.5) x 10/sup 14/ atoms of H/c.c. C/sub g/ = (2.1 +- 0.6) x 10/sup 15/ P + (1.7 +- 0.5) x 10/sup 15/ atoms of H/c.c. C/sub g/ = (4.5 +- 0.3) x 10/sup 15/ P + (6.5 +- 0.2) x 10/sup 15/ atoms of H/c.c. The discrepancy between the reported values and the values predicted by theory was explained by the poisoning of some of the voids by surface oxides.
Date: September 1, 1976
Creator: Wong, K. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experimental study of diffusion charging of aerosols

Description: The electrical charging of aerosol particles by unipolar gaseous ions was studied theoretically and experimentally. The primary objective of the study was to make precise determinations of the aerosol particle charge under various conditions of charging and to compare the experimental results with those predicted by theory. Experiments were performed using monodisperse oleic acid aerosols generated by a vibrating orifice generator, monodisperse NaCl and DOP (di-octyl phthalate) aerosols generated by an electrostatic classification method, and sulfuric acid aerosols generated by the photo-chemical conversion of gaseous SO/sub 2/ in the smog chamber. The experiments covered a particle size range of 0.0075 ..mu..m to 5.04 ..mu..m diameter. The corresponding range in Knudsen number (Kn = lambda/sub i//a, lambda/sub i/ = mean free path of ions, a = particle radius) was from 0.0056 to 3.86. The charging parameter, n/sub 0/t, was varied between 2.56 x 10/sup 6/ to 5.1 x 10/sup 7/ ion-s/cc, where n/sub 0/ is the concentration of ions and t is the charging time. Comparisons of the results with available aerosol charging theories indicate that there is reasonable agreement between the theory and experiment in the continuum regime (Kn << 1) where the classical Fuchs--Pluvinage equation is expected to apply. However, in the free molecular (Kn >> 1) and the transition regimes (Kn approx. or equal to 1), where the ion mean free path is no longer small in comparison with particle size, there is considerable discrepancy between the experimental data and available charging theories. A semi-empirical equation was developed which agrees well with the experimental data over the entire range of particle size and charging parameters covered in the experiments. Theoretical results are presented showing the distribution of charges on the particles as a function of particle size and the charging parameter n/sub 0/t. 70 figures, 24 tables, 112 ...
Date: March 1, 1976
Creator: Pui, D. Y. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Application of fusion plasma technology. Final report

Description: This report presents principal findings of studies conducted at Iowa State on Applications of Fusion Plasma Technology. Two tasks were considered. The first was to identify and investigate plasma processes for near term industrial applications of already developed plasma technology. The second was to explore the potential of reprocessing the fuel for fusion test facilities in a closed-cycle system. For the first task, two applications were considered. One was alumina reduction in magnetically confined plasmas, and the other was uranium enrichment using plasma centrifuges. For the second task, in-core and ex-core plasma purification were considered. Separation techniques that are compatible with the plasma state were identified and preliminary analysis of their effectiveness were carried out. The effects of differential ionization of impurities on the separation effectiveness are considered. Possible technical difficulties in both tasks are identified and recommendations for future work are given.
Date: June 1, 1976
Creator: Sabri, Z. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of a high resolution, high sensitivity cylindrical crystal spectrometer for line shape diagnostics of x-rays emitted from hot plasmas

Description: This report outlines progress towards development of a high resolution, high throughput, curved crystal spectrometer suitable for line shape diagnostics of X-rays emitted from hot plasmas. The instrument is designed to interface with the MIT Tokamak (Alcator) with the initial aim of studying the prominent MoL lines which occur in the X-ray spectrum. However, it will have the versatility to function over an energy range of at least 1.5 keV to 7 keV allowing determination of temperature, charge state and density distributions for important impurity ions. The spectrometer employs a large, cylindrically bent crystal which focuses the dispersed X-rays along the cylinder axis where they are recorded by a position sensitive high resistance anode proportional counter. Thus a wide energy range of the spectrum can be recorded simultaneously and sensitively from a short duration plasma. Computer control of data acquisition and analysis will allow real-time diagnostics. The report includes an analysis and optimization of spectrometer parameters for interface with Alcator and an analysis of monolithic and individual silicon diode arrays as alternative position sensitive detectors. A Si(Li) detector with computer-controlled ADC system has been on line at Alcator providing several time sequenced spectra during each shot. Bremsstrahlung and impurity ion spectra are discussed and results for electron temperatures as a function of time and position in the plasma are presented.
Date: May 1, 1977
Creator: Schnopper, H. & Taylor, P. O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Assigned lines of the A/sup 1/. sigma. /sup +/--X/sup 1/. sigma. /sup +/ bands of /sup 6/LiH, /sup 6/LiD, /sup 7/LiH, and /sup 7/LiD

Description: Tabulations are presented of the lines assigned to the A/sup 1/..sigma../sup +/--X/sup 1/..sigma../sup +/ transitions of the isotopic variants of lithium hydride. The /sup 7/LiD and most of the /sup 7/LiH lines are taken from the thesis of Jorgensen. The /sup 6/LiH, /sup 6/LiD and some of the /sup 7/LiH lines are taken from the thesis of Li and are a subset of the observed emission lines reported in companion reports. Spectral constant determinations from these lines and construction of improved Rydberg-Klein-Rees potential energy curves (including Born-Oppenheimer breakdown) is in progress. These spectra are now being compared with spectra obtained in this laboratory from collisions of fast (approximately 5 eV) H atoms with a Li/sub 2/ crossed beam.
Date: January 1, 1976
Creator: Li, K. C. & Stwalley, W. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CRBRP flow induced vibration program

Description: The program to assure the structural adequacy of CRBRP components during its planned 30 years of operation is described. The program includes (1) an assessment of reactor components relative to their susceptibility to FIV, (2) designing to minimize component excitation due to FIV, (3) scale model tests to measure structural response during simulated operating conditions and (4) preoperational tests. An overview of the CRBRP test program is described. Additionally, details of scale model testing of reactor internals and the steam generator is described in more detail.
Date: January 1, 1977
Creator: Novendstern, E H; Grochowski, F A; Yang, T M; Ryan, J A & Mulcahy, T M
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Neutron scattering study of spin waves in the amorphous ferromagnet (Fe/sub 0/ /sub 3/Ni/sub 0/ /sub 7/)/sub 0/ /sub 75/P/sub 0/ /sub 16/B/sub 0/ /sub 06/Al/sub 0/ /sub 03/

Description: The neutron inelastic scattering technique was used to measure the collective magnetic excitation spectrum in the ferromagnetic (T/sub C/ approximately 255/sup 0/K) metallic glass (Fe/sub 0/./sub 3/Ni/sub 0/./sub 7/)/sub 0/./sub 75/P/sub 0/./sub 16/B/sub 0/./sub 06/Al/sub 0/./sub 03/. In this system only the iron atoms appear to be magnetic, and the observation of relatively well-defined spin waves is striking in comparison with other amorphous systems where the spin waves rapidly broaden with decreasing iron concentration. The spin waves obey the conventional quadratic dispersion relation E/sub sw/ = DQ/sup 2/, with D = 35 MeV-A/sup 2/. Contributions from fourth and higher order terms in the dispersion relation are not in evidence for wave vectors in the region investigated (Q less than or approximately 0.25 A/sup -1/).
Date: January 1, 1976
Creator: Lynn, J. W.; Shirane, G.; Birgeneau, R. J. & Chen, H. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The current status of ARAC (Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability) and its application to the Chernobyl event

Description: The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) project, developed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), provides real-time dose assessments and estimates of the extent of surface contamination that may result from an atmospheric release of radioactivity. It utilizes advanced computer-based data communication and processing systems to acquire the meteorological and source term information needed by the three-dimensional atmospheric dispersion models to derive the consequence assessments. The ARAC responded to the recent Chernobyl reactor accident in the Soviet Union by estimating the source term and the radiation dose distribution due to exposure to the radioactive cloud over Europe and the Northern Hemisphere. This analysis revealed that approximately 50% of the estimated core inventories of I-131 and Cs-137 were released. The estimated committed effective dose equivalent due to inhalation of radioactivty during cloud passage is of the order of 10 mrem within parts of Scandinavia and eastern Europe, while most of the populations within central Europe were exposed to levels ranging from 1 to 10 mrem. The amount of Cs-137 released by the Chernobyl accident far exceeds that released by previous reactor accidents, but is only about 6% of the Cs-137 produced by the atmospheric weapon testing programs. 9 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.
Date: October 1, 1986
Creator: Gudiksen, P. H.; Sullivan, T. J. & Harvey, T. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Little Tom Thermal Recovery Demonstration Project, Zavala County, Texas. Final report. [In-situ combustion/water injection]

Description: The objective of the project was to demonstrate the efficiency and economics of recovering low gravity, viscous crude oil from a relatively thin, low permeability reservoir utilizing a combination thermal drive process in conjunction with thermal stimulation of the producing wells. The combination thermal drive process combines forward in-situ combustion with sequential water injection to provide maximum heat transfer efficiency along the burning front. Thermal stimulation (short-term in-situ combustion at the producing well) allows productivity increases to be realized long before the burning front approaches the producing well. Delays and events caused Phase I of the project to be extended from 4 months to 1/sup 1///sub 2/ years. During Phase 1, thermal stimulation operations were conducted on two producing wells, Ned Matthews Nos. 8 and 9. Effort and monies were also expended to upgrade lease and well test facilities, roads and locations, and to obtain a reliable gas supply for compressor fuel and formation ignition operations. The high injection pressures experienced in both wells, sometimes exceeding the 2,000 psig compressor design rating, resulted in frequent injection equipment repairs and high maintenance costs. After the thermal stimulation operations proved unsuccessful, the Little Tom Thermal Recovery Project was terminated. (DLC)
Date: January 1, 1977
Creator: Ireton, E. T. & Johnson, F. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of tube-support interaction on the vibration of a tube on multiple supports

Description: The effects of tube orientation (horizontal/vertical), tube/support misalignment, fluid medium (air/water), tube/support-hole clearance, support thickness, exciting force amplitude, and support spacing on the vibrational characteristics (resonant frequencies, mode shapes, and damping) and displacement response amplitude of a multi-span tube were determined from thirteen different tests. The test model features a 15.875 mm (0.625 in.) dia x 3.175 mm (0.125 in.) thick x 5.232 m (206 in.) long seamless Croloy (2-/sup 1///sub 4/% Cr--1% Mo) tube, and combinations of four support thicknesses (12.70 mm (/sup 1///sub 2/ in.), 19.05 mm (/sup 3///sub 4/ in.), 38.10 mm (1/sup 1///sub 2/ in.), and 50.80 mm (2 in.)) and three sizes of diametral clearance of tube/support-hole (0.254 mm (10 mils), 0.508 mm (20 mils), and 0.762 mm (30 mils)). The test results were compared with the analytical results based on the multi-span beam with ''knife-edge'' supports.
Date: January 1, 1977
Creator: Shin, Y. S.; Jendrzejczyk, J. A. & Wambsganss, M. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Project SAGE: Solar Assisted Gas Energy Project. United States special format report

Description: The purpose of the report is to give a preliminary description of Project SAGE, the solar assisted gas energy (SAGE) water heating system currently being tested and evaluated in Southern California. The report contains a statement of the goals and objectives of the SAGE water heating program, a general description of the project in addition to system performance data, evaluations and economic analyses of the various pilot studies and field test installations. (WDM)
Date: August 1, 1976
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

New particles and interactions

Description: The Working Group on New Particles and Interactions met as a whole at the beginning and at the end of the Workshop. However, much of what was accomplished was done in five subgroups. These were devoted to: (1) new quarks and leptons; (2) technicolor; (3) supersymmetry; (4) rare decays and CP; and (5) substructure of quarks and leptons. Other aspects of new particles, e.g., Higgs, W', Z', fell to the Electroweak Working Group to consider. The central question of this Workshop of comparing anti pp (with L = 10/sup 32//cm/sup 2/-sec) with pp (with L = 10/sup 33//cm/sup 2/-sec) colliders carried through to all these subgroups. In addition there were several other aspects of hadron colliders which were considered: what does an increase in ..sqrt..s gain in cross section and resultant sensitivity to new physics versus an increase in luminosity; will polarized beams or the use of asymmetries be essential in finding new interactions; where and at what level do rate limitations due to triggering or detection systems play a role; and how and where will the detection of particles with short, but detectable, lifetimes be important. 25 references.
Date: April 1, 1984
Creator: Gilman, F. J. & Grannis, P. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Solvent extraction in HTGR reprocessing. Interim development report

Description: Acid-Thorex flowsheets using tributyl phosphate (TBP) to process feed which simulated that from HTGR fuels were tested in pulsed solvent extraction columns. Tests were performed to study the effects of solvent degradation and solids in the feed and decontamination performance using tracer Zr-95. Equipment recommendations for each process step are made. The Acid-Thorex process is expected to provide relatively trouble-free operation in commercial reprocessing of HTGR fuel. (auth)
Date: February 1, 1976
Creator: Reddick, G. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Computer program for determining the thermodynamic properties of light hydrocarbons

Description: This program was written to be used as a subroutine. The program determines the thermodynamics of light hydrocarbons. The following light hydrocarbons can be analyzed: butane, ethane, ethylene, heptane, hexane, isobutane, isopentane, methane, octane, pentane, propane and propylene. The subroutine can evaluate a thermodynamic state for the light hydrocarbons given any of the following pairs of state quantities: pressure and quality, pressure and enthalpy, pressure and entropy, temperature and pressure, temperature and quality and temperature and specific volume. These six pairs of knowns allow the user to analyze any thermodynamic cycle utilizing a light hydrocarbon as the working fluid. The Starling-Benedict-Webb-Rubin equation of state was used. This report contains a brief description, flowchart, listing and required equations for each subroutine.
Date: July 1, 1976
Creator: Riemer, D. H.; Jacobs, H. R.; Boehm, R. F. & Cook, D. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reaction studies of hot silicon and germanium radicals. Progress report, September 1, 1976--August 31, 1977

Description: The experimental approach to attaining the goals of this research program is briefly outlined and the progress made in the last year is reviewed in sections entitled: (a) primary steps in the reactions of recoiling silicon and germanium atoms and the identification of reactive intermediates; (b) thermally induced silylene and germylene reactions; (c) the role of ionic reactions in the chemistry of recoiling silicon atoms and other ion-molecule reaction studies; (d) silicon free radical chemistry.
Date: August 31, 1977
Creator: Gaspar, P. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Project characteristics monitoring report: BWIP (Basalt Waste Isolation Program) repository project

Description: This monitoring report has been prepared to show compliance with provisions of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA) and to provide local and state government agencies with information concerning the Basalt Waste Isolation Program (BWIP). This report contains data for the time period May 26, 1986 to February 1988. The data include employment figures, salaries, project purchases, taxes and fees paid, worker survey results, and project closedown personal interview summaries. This information has become particularly important since the decision in December 1987 to stop all BWIP activities except those for site reclamation. The Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987 requires nonreclamation work at the Hanford Site to stop as of March 22, 1988. 7 refs., 6 figs., 28 tabs.
Date: March 1, 1988
Creator: Friedli, E. A.; Herborn, D. I.; Taylor, C. D. & Tomlinson, K. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ERDA programs and objectives: energy conservation in food processing

Description: A workshop on energy conservation in the agriculture processing industry sponsored by ERDA in March 1976 resulted in 87 conservation research recommendations to ERDA. These recommendations and their incorporation into ongoing and planned ERDA research and development programs are discussed. Information is included on using food processing wastes, energy conservation in hot processes and waste heat recovery, ERDA responses to specific workshop recommendations on the processing of chemical fertilizers, dairy products, fruits, meats, vegetables, grain, and textiles.
Date: July 1, 1977
Creator: Towne, E A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Exploratory development of fusion cast calcium fluoride for 1. 06 micrometer pulsed laser optics. Progress report, December 25, 1976--March 25, 1977

Description: This program is an assessment of fusion cast polycrystalline calcium fluoride for optical components of 1.064 micrometer pulsed laser fusion systems. Task areas include casting of essentially stress-free 33 centimeter diameter, 5 centimeter thick ingots, developing surface finishing techniques for optically figured plane and spherical surfaces, and evaluating state-of-the-art antireflection coatings deposited onto specimens of the cast material. During the third quarter, three casting runs were completed in the large casting furnace, none of which was wholly successful. A decision to limit the remainder of the casting effort to six-inch (15-centimeter) diameter pieces was made. Two chemically homogeneous castings of CaF/sub 2//Nd were made in a second furnace. Diamond abrasive polishing techniques were used successfully to fabricate a 15-centimeter radius convex spherical surface on one polycrystalline casting and a quarter wave plane surface on a second. Both surfaces were free of grain boundary relief which is commonly produced by standard techniques. Antireflection coatings obtained from two vendors were found to be physically durable and optically uniform. The components of these coatings are those also used by the vendors for their laser damage resistant coatings on glass, so it is reasonable to anticipate that they will be damage resistant on the fluoride as well. Damage testing will be carried out during the final quarter of the program.
Date: April 1, 1977
Creator: Willingham, C. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department