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Management of solid wastes from the Limestone Injection Dry Scrubbing (LIDS) clean coal technology. Final report

Description: The objectives of this project were to characterize by-products from a pilot Limestone Injection Dry Scrubbing (LIDS) process and to develop processes directed toward the safe and economic use or disposal of these wastes. Because LIDS is a developing Clean Coal technology, a database of chemical and physical characteristics of the by-product was first developed. During the course of this project, it was found that the waste alone did not form high-strength products sufficient for use in construction and engineering applications. Therefore, the project was redirected to evaluate the by-product as a soil-cement and Portland cement raw material, agricultural liming agent, backfill/landfill material component, and mine reclamation/neutralizing agent. Based on these evaluations, the most viable uses for the LIDS byproduct include use in mine reclamation or as a neutralization agent. If soluble sulfites can be minimized by avoiding a dolomitic LIDS reagent, use as an agricultural liming agent has promise. Interest from an Ohio utility in the LIDS process suggests possible application of results at the demonstration or commercial stages.
Date: March 1, 1993
Creator: Musiol, W. F. Jr. & Czuczwa, J. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pilot-scale testing of a new sorbent for combined SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} removal. Final report

Description: A new regenerable sorbent concept for SO{sub 2} and NOx removal was pilot-tested at Ohio Edison`s Edgewater generating station at a 1.5 to 2-MW(e) level. A radial panel-bed filter of a new dry, granular sorbent was exposed to flue gas and regenerated in an experimental proof-of-concept program. The project was successful in demonstrating the new sorbent`s ability to achieve 90% SO{sub 2} removal, 30% NOx removal, and over 80% removal of residual particulates with realistic approach temperatures and low pressure drops. Based on the results of this project, the retrofit cost of this technology is expected to be on the order of $400 per ton of SO{sub 2} and $900 per ton of NOx removed. This assumes that gas distribution is even and methane regeneration is used for a 30% average utilization. For a 2.5%-sulfur Ohio coal, this translates to a cost of approximately $17 per ton of coal. Two by-product streams were generated in the process that was tested: a solid, spent-sorbent stream and a highly-concentrated SO{sub 2} or elemental-sulfur stream. While not within the scope of the project, it was found possible to process these streams into useful products. The spent sorbent materials were shown to be excellent substrates for soil amendments; the elemental sulfur produced is innocuous and eminently marketable.
Date: June 1, 1994
Creator: Nelson, S. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Management of high sulfur coal combustion residues, issues and practices: Proceedings

Description: Papers presented at the following sessions are included in this proceedings: (1) overview topic; (2) characterization of coal combustion residues; (3) environmental impacts of residues management; (4) materials handling and utilization, Part I; and (5) materials handling and utilization, Part II. Selected paper have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.
Date: October 1, 1994
Creator: Chugh, Y. P. & Beasley, G. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Heat-activated cooling devices: A guidebook for general audiences

Description: Heat-activated cooling is refrigeration or air conditioning driven by heat instead of electricity. A mill or processing facility can us its waste fuel to air condition its offices or plant; using waste fuel in this way can save money. The four basic types of heat-activated cooling systems available today are absorption cycle, desiccant system, steam jet ejector, and steam turbine drive. Each is discussed, along with cool storage and biomass boilers. Steps in determining the feasibility of heat-activated cooling are discussed, as are biomass conversion, system cost and integration, permits, and contractor selection. Case studies are given.
Date: February 1, 1994
Creator: Wiltsee, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Gasifier feed - Tailor-made from Illinois coals. [Quarterly] report, March 1, 1992--May 31, 1992

Description: The main purpose of this project is to produce a feedstock from preparation plant fines from an Illinois coal that is ideal for a slurry fed, slagging, entrained-flow coal gasifier. The high sulfur content and high Btu value of Illinois coals are particularly advantageous in such a gasifier; preliminary calculations indicate that the increased cost of removing sulfur from the gas from a high sulfur coal is more than offset by the increased revenue from the sale of the elemental sulfur; additionally the high Btu Illinois coal concentrates more energy into the slurry of a given coal to water ratio. This project will bring the expertise of four organizations together to perform the various tasks. The Illinois Coal Association will help direct the project to be the most beneficial to the Illinois coal industry. DESTEC Energy, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Dow Chemical Company, will provide guidelines and test compatibility of the slurries developed for gasification feedstock. Williams Technology will provide their expertise in long distance slurry pumping, and test selected products for viscosity, pumpability, and handlability. The Illinois State Geological Survey will study methods for producing clean coal/water slurries from preparation plant wastes including the concentration of pyritic sulfur into the coal slurry to increase the revenue from elemental sulfur produced during gasification operations, and decrease the pyritic sulfur content of the waste streams. ISGS will also test the gasification reactivity of the coals. As reported earlier, a variety of possible samples of coal have been analyzed and the gasification performance evaluation reported. Additionally, commercial sized samples of -28 mesh {times} 100 mesh coal -100 {times} 0 coal were subjected to pumpability testing. Neither the coarse product nor the fine product by themselves proved to be good candidates for trouble free pumping, but the mix of the two proved to ...
Date: October 1, 1992
Creator: Ehrlinger, H. P. III; Lytle, J.; Frost, R. R.; Lizzio, A.; Kohlenberger, L. & Brewer, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization utilizing fossil fuel combustion waste materials

Description: A laboratory study was conducted at the Western Research Institute to evaluate the ability of innovative clean coal technology (ICCT) waste to stabilize organic and inorganic constituents of hazardous wastes. The four ICCT wastes used in this study were: (1) the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) atmospheric fluidized bed combustor (AFBC) waste, (2) the TVA spray dryer waste, (3) the Laramie River Station spray dryer waste, and (4) the Colorado-Ute AFBC waste. Four types of hazardous waste stream materials were obtained and chemically characterized for use in evaluating the ability of the ICCT wastes to stabilize hazardous organic and inorganic wastes. The wastes included an API separator sludge, mixed metal oxide-hydroxide waste, metal-plating sludge, and creosote-contaminated soil. The API separator sludge and creosote-contaminated soil are US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-listed hazardous wastes and contain organic contaminants. The mixed metal oxide-hydroxide waste and metal-plating sludge (also an EPA-listed waste) contain high concentrations of heavy metals. The mixed metal oxide-hydroxide waste fails the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) for cadmium, and the metal-plating sludge fails the TCLP for chromium. To evaluate the ability of the ICCT wastes to stabilize the hazardous wastes, mixtures involving varying amounts of each of the ICCT wastes with each of the hazardous wastes were prepared, allowed to equilibrate, and then leached with deionized, distilled water. The leachates were analyzed for the hazardous constituent(s) of interest using the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure.
Date: September 1, 1993
Creator: Netzel, D. A.; Lane, D. C.; Brown, M. A.; Raska, K. A.; Clark, J. A. & Rovani, J. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of options for CO{sub 2} capture/utilization/disposal

Description: The project objective is to develop engineering evaluations of technologies for the capture, use, and disposal of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). This project emphasizes CO{sub 2}-capture technologies combined with integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power systems. Complementary evaluations win address CO{sub 2} transportation, CO{sub 2} use, and options for the long-term sequestration of unused CO{sub 2}. Commercially available CO{sub 2}-capture technology will provide performance and economic baselines for comparing innovative technologies. The intent of this research is to provide the CO{sub 2} budget, or an ``equivalent CO{sub 2}`` budget associated with each of the individual energy-cycle steps, in addition to process design capital and operating costs. The value used for the ``equivalent CO{sub 2}`` budget is 1 kg CO{sub 2}/kWh{sub e}. The base case is a 458-MW IGCC system using an air-blown Kellogg Rust Westinghouse (KRW) agglomerating fluidized bed gasifier, Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal feed, and in-bed sulfur removal. Three commercial CO{sub 2} recovery technologies are under study: Amine scrubbing, Selexol, and Rectisol. Three emerging CO{sub 2} recovery technologies are also being evaluated: High-temperature CO{sub 2} separation with calcium- or magnesium-based sorbents, high-temperature molten-carbonate membranes for acid-gas removal, and ambient-temperature facilitated-transport membranes for acid-gas separation.
Date: September 1, 1993
Creator: Schmalzer, D. K.; Doctor, R. D. & Livengood, C. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Plasma-chemical waste treatment of acid gases

Description: The research to date has shown that a H{sub 2}S waste-treatment process based on plasma-chemical dissociation technology is compatible with refinery and high-carbon-oxide acid-gas streams. The minor amounts of impurities produced in the plasma-chemical reactor should be treatable by an internal catalytic reduction step. Furthermore, the plasma-chemical technology appears to be more efficient and more economical than the current technology. The principal key to achieving high conversions with relatively low energies of dissociation is the concept of the high-velocity, cyclonic-flow pattern in the plasma reaction zone coupled with the recycling of unconverted hydrogen sulfide. Future work will include testing the effects of components that might be carried over to the plasma reactor by ``upset`` conditions in the amine purification system of a plant and testing the plasma-chemical process on other industrial wastes streams that contain potentially valuable chemical reagents. The strategy for the commercialization of this technology is to form a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement with the Institute of Hydrogen Energy and Plasma Technology of the Russian Scientific Center/Kurchatov Institute and with an American start-up company to develop an ``American`` version of the process and to build a commercial-scale demonstration unit in the United States. The timetable proposed would involve building a ``field test`` facility which would test the plasma-chemical reactor and sulfur recovery unit operations on an industrial hydrogen sulfide waste s at a scale large enough to obtain the energy and material balance data required for a final analysis of the commercial potential of this technology. The field test would then be followed by construction of a commercial demonstration unit in two to three years. The commercial demonstration unit would be a fully integrated plant consisting of one commercial-scale module.
Date: September 1, 1993
Creator: Harkness, J. B. L.; Doctor, R. D. & Daniels, E. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Plant response to FBC waste-coal slurry solid mixtures. Technical report, 1 March--31 May 1994

Description: The goal of this project is to test the feasibility of stabilizing coal slurry solids (CSS) wastes by directly seeding plants into the waste. This is not done conventionally because the waste can generate toxic amounts of sulfuric acid. The approach is to neutralize the potential acidity by mixing fluidized bed combustion (FBC) waste into the slurry. If successful, this approach would both help dispose of FBC wastes while providing a more economical slurry stabilization technique. The project involves growing forage plants in CSS-FBC mixtures in the greenhouse. In the first two quarters the authors designed the experiment, secured greenhouse space, purchased the seeds, collected, dried, analyzed the FBC and CSS samples. The samples represent a typical range of properties. They retrieved two FBC and two CSS samples. One CSS sample had a relatively high CaCO{sub 3} content relative to the pyrite content and required no FBC to neutralize the potential acidity. The other CSS sample required from 4.2 to 2.7% FBC material to neutralize its potential acidity. This report covers the third quarter of the project. The authors produced the CSS-FBC mixtures, analyzed the soil fertility parameters of the mixtures,, planted the crops, and monitored their growth. All mixtures support at least some plant growth, although some plants did better than others. It is too early to analyze the results statistically. Next quarter the plants will be harvested, yields calculated, mineral uptake evaluated, and a final report will be written on plant response to CSS-FBC mixtures.
Date: September 1, 1994
Creator: Darmody, R. G.; Dunker, R. E.; Dreher, G. B.; Roy, W. R. & Steel, J. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geochemistry of a reclaimed coal slurry impoundment. Technical report, 1 March--31 May 1994

Description: The highly alkaline residue from the fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) of coal may be an environmentally acceptable material for use in neutralizing acid produced by the oxidation of pyrite in coal slurry solids (CSS). Previous research indicated that FBC residues in mixtures with pyrite-rich CSS neutralized the acid produced by or attenuated the oxidation of pyrite in CSS. The intent in this research was to collect cores of unconsolidated material and sample pore gases from a reclaimed coal slurry impoundment. The gas composition data would provide background data for the development of a predictive computer model of the generation and migration of acid in a reclaimed coal slurry impoundment. Cores of coal slurry were collected on May 16--18, 1994 from four holes in a reclaimed coal slurry impoundment. There was no unsaturated zone in the coal, so no gas samples can be collected from that zone. The authors installed three samplers in one hole. Two of the samplers are in the saturated zone (in the coal) and the third one might be in the unsaturated zone, but in the soil cover above the coal particles. They plan to collect samples in about mid-June. The water and solids from the cores are being separated for chemical analysis. The computer model for the oxidation of pyrite at near-neutral conditions is being developed. The first portion of code, the calculation of thermodynamic equilibrium without consideration of ionic strength, has been written. The methods of Morel and Hering (1993) and Westall (1986) are the basis for the model, however, the model does not follow the matrix solution used by them. Rather, an algebraic solution is used. A matrix similar to the one reported last quarter was used to formulate mass balance and material balance equations.
Date: September 1, 1994
Creator: Dreher, G. B.; Roy, W. R.; Steele, J. D. & Heidari, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Laboratory procedures for waste form testing

Description: The 100 and 300 areas of the Hanford Site are included on the US Environmental Protection Agencies (EPA) National Priorities List under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). Soil washing is a treatment process that is being considered for the remediation of the soil in these areas. Contaminated soil washing fines can be mixed or blended with cementations materials to produce stable waste forms that can be used for beneficial purposes in mixed or low-level waste landfills, burial trenches, environmental restoration sites, and other applications. This process has been termed co-disposal. The Co-Disposal Treatability Study Test Plan is designed to identify a range of cement-based formulations that could be used in disposal efforts in Hanford in co-disposal applications. The purpose of this document is to provide explicit procedural information for the testing of co-disposal formulations. This plan also provides a discussion of laboratory safety and quality assurance necessary to ensure safe, reproducible testing in the laboratory.
Date: September 19, 1994
Creator: Mast, E. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Land application uses of pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) ash

Description: Dry alkaline flue gas desulfurization by-products (dry lime and limestone FGD scrubber ashes) including the American Electric Power (AEP) Tidd PFBC bed and cyclone ash, are being evaluated for beneficial uses via land application for agriculture, mine reclamation, and soil stabilization in a 5 year study that began December, 1990. A 1989 Battelle Memorial Institute report had recommended that the highest priority in stimulating reuse of FGD by-products was the sponsoring of in-field research of coal combustion products generated from high sulfur midwestern coals to (a) better understand and quantify the leach rate, fate and transport of sulfates and trace metals and (b) demonstrate the level of protection necessary to build public acceptance of land-based reuses (1). The specific objectives of the demonstration project are as follows: To characterize the material generated from dry FGD processes; to demonstrate the utilization of dry FGD by-products as an soil amendment material on agricultural lands and on abandoned and active surface coal mines in Ohio; to demonstrate the use of dry FGD by-product as an engineering material for soil stabilization; to determine the quantities of dry FGD material than can be utilized in each of these applications; to determine the environmental and economic impact of utilizing the material.
Date: September 1, 1993
Creator: Beeghly, J. H.; Dick, W. A. & Wolfe, W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Market assessment and technical feasibility study of PFBC ash use

Description: The overall objectives of this study are to determine the market potential and the technical feasibility of using PFBC ash in high volume ash use applications. The information will be of direct use to the utility industry in assessing the economics of PFBC power generation in light of ash disposal avoidance through ash marketing. In addition, the research is expected to result in the generation of generic data on the use of PFBC ash that could lead to novel processing options and procedures. The specific objectives of the proposed research and demonstration effort are: Define resent and future market potential of PFBC ash for a range of applications (Phase I); assess the technical feasibility of PFBC ash use in construction, civil engineering and agricultural applications (Phase II); and demonstrate the most promising of the market and ash use options in full-scale field demonstrations (Phase III).
Date: October 1, 1994
Creator: Smith, V. E.; Bland, A. E.; Brown, T. H.; Georgiou, D. N. & Wheeldon, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Regeneration of FGD waste liquors: Production of ammonium and potassium sulfate mixed fertilizer. Quarterly technical report, April 1993--June 1993

Description: Precipitation and hydrolysis of the N-S compounds in the waste scrubbing liquor provided by Dravo Lime Co. was investigated. Precipitation of N-S compounds by a metathetical reaction with potassium sulfate was performed in continuous crystallizers. A preliminary operation showed that compared to a typical Mixed-Suspension-Mixed-Product-Removal (MSMPR) crystallizer, the Double-Draw-Off (DDO) crystallizer was superior by increasing the average size of the precipitated crystals of N-S compounds from 173 {mu}m to 218 {mu}m. However, the hydrolysis characteristics of the precipitated crystals were not dependent upon crystallizer type. A brief description of a new process which uses lime/limestone for precipitation of N-S compounds in the scrubbing liquor is presented. Preliminary investigations showed the lime/limestone process is efficient in precipitating N-S compounds and the precipitated crystals were shown to be more easily hydrolyzed than potassium salts of N-S compounds. This lime/limestone process is a novel process which seems better than the K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} process because one does not need to purchase/introduce a new chemical additive to precipitate in the lime/limestone Fe-EDTA wet scrubbing processes. Up to the present, the authors focused on developing the K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} process following their original proposal. However, the new lime/limestone process seems more advantageous in terms of economy and environmental safety. Therefore, it seems desirable changing research phase and putting an emphasis on the development of the lime/limestone process. Future study will include investigation of the DDO crystallizer operation to increase the size of precipitated crystals and thus to enhance their processibility. This study seems to be essential to the new lime/limestone process since the precipitated crystals are relatively small in size and thus poor in filterability.
Date: December 1, 1993
Creator: Randolph, A. D. & Kwon, T. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Regeneration of FGD waste liquors: Production of ammonium and potassium sulfate mixed fertilizer. Quarterly technical report, July 1993--September 1993

Description: Regeneration of the Fe{sup II}-EDTA scrubbing liquors for simultaneous removal of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} in flue gas involves removing the nitrogen-sulfur (N-S) compounds accumulated in the liquor. In this paper, the authors investigated a simple regeneration process which selectively precipitates the N-S compounds as potassium salts and then hydrolyzes them to yield ammonium/potassium sulfate as a marketable byproduct. They believe this is the first report on precipitation and hydrolysis characteristics of the N-S compounds in actual waste scrubbing liquor. Precipitation of the N-S compounds was achieved by adding K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} to the scrubbing liquor. Effects of the amount of added K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} on the amount of removed N-S compounds, precipitated crystals, and the potassium left over in the scrubbing liquor were studied. Hydrolysis of the precipitated N-S compounds to ammonium sulfate was performed in a sulfuric acid environment. Effects of acidity, concentration of N-S compounds, and temperature on the hydrolysis are discussed. Analysis of the observed hydrolysis pattern showed that the reaction proceeded following first order kinetics in terms of N-S compound concentration.
Date: December 1, 1993
Creator: Randolph, A. D. & Kwon, T. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation and utilization of Illinois FBC residues for construction materials. Technical progress report, March 1, 1992--May 31, 1992

Description: The overall objective of this program is to investigate the extent to which fluidized bed combustion (FBC) by-products can be properly utilized as viable construction materials. This investigation focuses primarily on the properties of residues derived from fluidized combustion burning of Illinois high-sulfur coal. The research plan calls for evaluation of physics-chemical and engineering characteristics of the FBC-based cement and non-cement mixes. The results of this study will be used to compare the physical and mechanical properties of the FBC-based mixtures with those of conventional mixes. The suitability of using FBC residues as a filler or binder aggregate for Portland cement-based mixtures and Non-Portland cement mixes in the form of conventional and roller compacted materials will be evaluated. During this reporting period, physics-chemical properties of class F fly ash, supplied by the American Fly Ash Company of Naperville, Illinois, were completed. Work on all major tasks, sulfate durability of FBC cement-based mixtures and Engineering characteristics of roller compacted non-cement FBC mixes (task II), are on-going.
Date: October 1, 1992
Creator: Ghafoori, N. & Sami, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The use of FBC wastes in the reclamation of coal slurry solids. Technical report, March 1, 1992--May 31, 1992

Description: Fluidized bed combustion (FBC) is a relatively new technology that is used commercially for the combustion of coal. In Illinois, this technology is valuable because it allows the combustion of Illinois high sulfur coal without pollution of the atmosphere with vast quantities of sulfur oxides. In FBC, coal is mixed with limestone or dolomite either before injection into the combustion chamber or in the combustion chamber. As the coal burns, sulfur in the coal is oxidized to S0{sub 2} and this is trapped by reaction with the limestone or dolomite to form gypsum (CaSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 2H{sub 2}O). Solid by-products from FBC are generally a mixture of calcium oxide, gypsum, coal ash, and unburned coal. The present research project is designed to provide initial data on one possible use of FBC waste. FBC wastes from five different locations in Illinois are mixed with coal slurry solids (CSS) from two different coal preparation plants at Illinois coal mines. In mixtures of FBC waste and coal slurry solids, the alkaline components of the FBC waste are expected to react with acid produced by the oxidation of pyrite in the coal slurry solid. An objective of this research is to determine the chemical composition of aqueous leachates from mixtures of FBC wastes, generated under various operating conditions, and the coal slurry solids. These data will be used in future research into the ability of such mixtures to support seed germination and plant growth. The final goal of this and future research is to determine whether mixed FBC waste and coal slurry solids can be used as a satisfactory growing medium in slurry pond reclamation. The chemical analyses of the 8 starting solids (5 FBC wastes, 2 Css samples, and 1 agricultural limestone sample) were completed.
Date: October 1, 1992
Creator: Dreher, G. B.; Roy, W. R. & Steele, J. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Refining technology for the recycling of stainless steel radioactive scrap metals, FY 94 bi-annual report

Description: The research addressed under this project is the recycling of metallic nuclear-related by-product materials under the direction of Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company (WINCO). The program addresses the recycling of radioactive scrap metals (RSM) for beneficial re-use within the DOE complex; in particular, this program addresses the recycling of stainless steel RSM. It is anticipated that various stainless steel components under WINCO control at the Idaho Falls Engineering Laboratory (INEL), such as fuel pool criticality barriers and fuel storage racks will begin to be recycled in FY94-95. The end product of this recycling effort is expected to be waste and overpack canisters for densified high level waste for the Idaho Waste Immobilization Facility and/or the Universal Canister System for dry (interim) storage of spent fuel. The specific components of this problem area that are presently being, or have been, addressed by CAAMSEC are: (1) the melting/remelting of stainless steel RSM into billet form; (2) the melting/remelting initial research focus will be on the use of radioactive surrogates to study; (3) the cost effectiveness of RSM processing oriented towards privatization of RSM reuse and/or resale. Other components of this problem that may be addressed under program extension are: (4) the melting/remelting of carbon steel; (5) the processing of billet material into product form which shall meet all applicable ASTM requirements; and, (6) the fabrication of an actual prototypical product; the present concept of an end product is a low carbon Type 304/316 stainless steel cylindrical container for densified and/or vitrified high level radioactive waste and/or the Universal Canister System for dry (interim) storage of spent fuel. The specific work reported herein covers the melting/remelting of stainless steel {open_quotes}scrap{close_quotes} metal into billet form and the study of surrogate material removal effectiveness by various remelting techniques.
Date: August 1, 1994
Creator: Mizia, R. E.; Atteridge, D. G.; Buckentin, J.; Carter, J.; Davis, H. L.; Devletian, J. H. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Western Environmental Technology Office (WETO), Butte, Montana, technology summary

Description: This document has been prepared by the DOE Environmental Management (EM) Office of Technology Development (OTD) to highlight its research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities funded through the Western Environmental Technology Office (WETO) in Butte, Montana. Technologies and processes described have the potential to enhance DOE`s cleanup and waste management efforts, as well as improve US industry`s competitiveness in global environmental markets. WETO`s environmental technology research and testing activities focus on the recovery of useable resources from waste. Environmental technology development and commercialization activities will focus on mine cleanup, waste treatment, resource recovery, and water resource management. Since the site has no record of radioactive material use and no history of environmental contamination/remediation activities, DOE-EM can concentrate on performing developmental and demonstration activities without the demands of regulatory requirements and schedules. Thus, WETO will serve as a national resource for the development of new and innovative environmental technologies.
Date: September 1, 1994
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Field evaluation of natural gas and dry sorbent injection for MWC emissions control

Description: The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), in cooperation with the Olmsted Waste-to-Energy Facility (OWEF) and with subcontracted engineering services from the Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER), has completed the detailed engineering and preparation of construction specifications for an Emissions Reduction Testing System (ERTS). The ERTS has been designed for retrofit to one of two 100-ton/day municipal waste combustors at the OWEF, located in Rochester, Minnesota. The purpose of the retrofit is to conduct a field evaluation of a combined natural gas and sorbent injection process (IGT`s METHANE de-TOX{sup SM}, IGT Patent No. 5,105,747) for reducing the emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}), hydrochloric acid (HCI), oxides of sulfur (SO{sub x}), carbon monoxide (CO), total hydrocarbons (THC), and chlorinated hydrocarbons (dioxin/furans). In addition, the design includes modifications for the control of heavy metals (HM). Development of the process should allow the waste-to-energy industry to meet the Federal New Source Performance Standards for these pollutants at significantly lower costs when compared to existing technology of Thermal deNO{sub x} combined with spray dryer scrubber/fabric filters. Additionally, the process should reduce boiler corrosion and increase both the thermal and power production efficiency of the facility.
Date: October 1, 1993
Creator: Wohadlo, S.; Abbasi, H. & Cygan, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geotechnical/geochemical characterization of advanced coal process waste streams: Task 2

Description: Successful disposal practices for solid wastes produced from advanced coal combustion and coal conversion processes must provide for efficient management of relatively large volumes of wastes in a cost-effective and environmentally safe manner. At present, most coal-utilization solid wastes are disposed of using various types of land-based systems, and it is probable that this disposal mode will continue to be widely used in the future for advanced process wastes. Proper design and operation of land-based disposal systems for coal combustion wastes normally require appropriate waste transfer, storage, and conditioning subsystems at the plant to prepare the waste for transport to an ultimate disposal site. Further, the overall waste management plan should include a by-product marketing program to minimize the amount of waste that will require disposal. In order to properly design and operate waste management systems for advanced coal-utilization processes, a fundamental understanding of the physical properties, chemical and mineral compositions, and leaching behaviors of the wastes is required. In order to gain information about the wastes produced by advanced coal-utilization processes, 55 waste samples from 16 different coal gasification, fluidized-bed coal combustion (FBC), and advanced flue gas scrubbing processes were collected. Thirty-four of these wastes were analyzed for their bulk chemical and mineral compositions and tested for a detailed set of disposal-related physical properties. The results of these waste characterizations are presented in this report. In addition to the waste characterization data, this report contains a discussion of potentially useful waste management practices for advanced coal utilization processes.
Date: September 1, 1992
Creator: Moretti, C. J. & Olson, E. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

LWA demonstration applications using Illinois coal gasification slag: Phase II. Technical report, 1 March--31 May 1994

Description: The major objective of this project is to demonstrate the suitability of using ultra-lightweight aggregates (ULWA) produced by thermal expansion of solid residues (slag) generated during the gasification of Illinois coals as substitutes for conventional aggregates, which are typically produced by pyroprocessing of perlite ores. To meet this objective, expanded slag aggregates produced from an Illinois coal slag feed in Phase I will be subjected to characterization and applications-oriented testing. Target applications include the following: aggregates in precast products (blocks and rooftiles); construction aggregates (loose fill insulation and insulating concrete); and other applications as identified from evaluation of expanded slag properties. The production of value-added products from slag is aimed at eliminating a solid waste and possibly enhancing the overall economics of the gasification process, especially when the avoided costs of disposal are taken into consideration.
Date: September 1, 1994
Creator: Choudhry, V. & Steck, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of western shale-oil residue as an additive to petroleum asphalt for use as a pavement crack and joint sealant material

Description: The objective of this study was to perform a preliminary evaluation of using a distillation residue from Green River Formation (western) shale oil as an additive to a petroleum asphalt for use as a crack and joint filler material in portland cement concrete and asphaltic pavements. A commercially available rubberized asphalt crack and joint filler material was also tested for comparison. ASTM specification tests for sealant materials used in concrete and asphalt pavements were performed on the sealant materials. Portland cement concrete briquets prepared with an asphalt material sandwiched between two concrete wafers were tested in a stress-relaxation experiment to evaluate the relaxation and recovery properties of the sealant materials. The results show that the shale-oil modified petroleum asphalts and the neat petroleum asphalt do not pass the extension portion of the ASTM test; however, there is indication of improvement in the adhesive properties of the shale-oil modified asphalts. There is also evidence that the addition of shale-oil residue to the petroleum asphalt, especially at the 20% level, improves the relaxation and recovery properties compared with the petroleum asphalt.
Date: November 1, 1992
Creator: Harnsberger, P. M.; Wolf, J. M. & Robertson, R. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Integrated solid waste management in Japan

Description: The Japanese, through a combination of public policy, private market conditions, a geographic necessity, practice integrated municipal solid waste (MSW) management. The approach of MSW management in Japan is as follows: The basic concept of refuse treatment consists of recycling discharged refuse into usable resources, reusing such resources as much as possible, and then treating or disposing of the usable portion into a sanitary condition. Considering the difficulty of procuring land or seaside areas for such purpose as a refuse disposal site, it will be necessary to minimize the volume of refuse collected for treatment or disposal.
Date: October 1, 1993
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department