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Defense Authorization and Appropriations Bills: FY1961-FY2019

Description: This report is a research aid that lists the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) authorization and appropriations bills for FY1961-FY2019 including: bill numbers, report numbers, dates reported and passed, recorded vote numbers and vote tallies, dates of passage of the conference reports with their numbers and votes, vetoes, substitutions, dates of final passage, and public law numbers. Significant definitions are also included.
Date: November 27, 2018
Creator: DeBruyne, Nese F. & Torreon, Barbara Salazar
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Connecting to the Internet Securely; Protecting Home Networks CIAC-2324

Description: With more and more people working at home and connecting to company networks via the Internet, the risk to company networks to intrusion and theft of sensitive information is growing. Working from home has many positive advantages for both the home worker and the company they work for. However, as companies encourage people to work from home, they need to start considering the interaction of the employee's home network and the company network he connects to. This paper discusses problems and solutions related to protection of home computers from attacks on those computers via the network connection. It does not consider protection of those systems from people who have physical access to the computers nor does it consider company laptops taken on-the-road. Home networks are often targeted by intruders because they are plentiful and they are usually not well secured. While companies have departments of professionals to maintain and secure their networks, home networks are maintained by the employee who may be less knowledgeable about network security matters. The biggest problems with home networks are that: Home networks are not designed to be secure and may use technologies (wireless) that are not secure; The operating systems are not secured when they are installed; The operating systems and applications are not maintained (for security considerations) after they are installed; and The networks are often used for other activities that put them at risk for being compromised. Home networks that are going to be connected to company networks need to be cooperatively secured by the employee and the company so they do not open up the company network to intruders. Securing home networks involves many of the same operations as securing a company network: Patch and maintain systems; Securely configure systems; Eliminate unneeded services; Protect remote logins; Use good passwords; Use current ...
Date: November 27, 2002
Creator: Orvis, W J; Krystosek, P & Smith, J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Significant volume reduction of tank waste by selective crystallization: 1994 Annual report

Description: The objective of this technology task plan is to develop and demonstrate a scaleable process of reclaim sodium nitrate (NaNO{sub 3}) from Hanford waste tanks as a clean nonradioactive salt. The purpose of the so-called Clean Salt Process is to reduce the volume of low level waste glass by as much as 70%. During the reporting period of October 1, 1993, through May 31, 1994, progress was made on four fronts -- laboratory studies, surrogate waste compositions, contracting for university research, and flowsheet development and modeling. In the laboratory, experiments with simulated waste were done to explore the effects of crystallization parameters on the size and crystal habit of product NaNO{sub 3} crystals. Data were obtained to allows prediction of decontamination factor as a function of solid/liquid separation parameters. Experiments with actual waste from tank 101-SY were done to determine the extent of contaminant occlusions in NaNO{sub 3} crystals. In preparation for defining surrogate waste compositions, single shell tanks were categorized according to the weight percent NaNO{sub 3} in each tank. A detailed process flowsheet and computer model were created using the ASPENPlus steady state process simulator. This is the same program being used by the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) program for their waste pretreatment and disposal projections. Therefore, evaluations can be made of the effect of the Clean Salt Process on the low level waste volume and composition resulting from the TWRS baseline flowsheet. Calculations, using the same assumptions as used for the TWRS baseline where applicable indicate that the number of low level glass vaults would be reduced from 44 to 16 if the Clean Salt Process were incorporated into the baseline flowsheet.
Date: September 27, 1994
Creator: Herting, D. L. & Lunsford, T. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fundamental mechanisms in flue gas conditioning. Quarterly report, April 1992--June 1992

Description: SEM pictures of the three mixtures of sorbent and ash from the DITF and the base line ESP hopper ash from Muskingum are shown in Figures 1 through 4. The effects of sorbent addition on particle morphology are evident in Figures 2 through 4 by the presence of irregularly shaped particles and deposits on the surfaces of the spherical fly ash particles. In contrast, the base Ene ash particles have the characteristic relatively smooth, spherical morphology normally associated with pulverized-coal (PC) fly ashes. Resistivity determinations made on these four ashes in ascending and descending temperature modes. These data are shown in Figures 5 and 6. Sorbent injection processes performed at the DITF lowered the duct temperature to around 165{degrees}F from about 350{degrees}F for base line operation. Consequently, during collection in the ESP, the particulate matter from the sorbent injection processes had a significantly lower resitivity (approximately 4 {times} 10{sup 7} {Omega}-cm) than the base line ash (approximately 3 {times} 10{sup 11} {Omega}-cm at 350{degrees}F). Specific surface areas and true particle densities have been measured for the four samples obtained from the DOE/PETC Duct Injection Test Facility. These data are summarized in Table 4. The primary difference indicated by these initial analyses of these four samples is the significant increase in specific surface area due to sorbent addition. The specific surface areas of the three sorbent and ash mixtures from the DITF are quite similar.
Date: July 27, 1992
Creator: Snyder, T. R. & Vann Bush, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Polymeric Species of Pu in Low Ionic Strength Media

Description: The US Government has declared that approximately 50 tons of plutonium is surplus to US needs and should be set aside for eventual disposition. The US is currently following a dual path for the disposition of this plutonium: immobilization and irradiation of mixed-oxide fuel. Some fraction of this plutonium material that is undesirable for use in mixed-oxide fuel will be immobilized in a titanate ceramic and disposed of in a geologic repository for high level waste. The reminder of Pu will be fabricated into mixed-oxide fuel and irradiated in domestic light-water reactors. The resulting spent fuel would also be disposed of in a geologic repository for high level waste. The proposed US repository would be at the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada. Plutonium present in the disposal forms, either ceramics or spent fuel, must remain isolated from the biosphere over the geologic repository regulatory performance period, which is currently 10,000 years. Contamination of the biosphere could result from slow dissolution of the disposal forms followed by transport of the dissolution products into the biosphere by flowing ground water. Measurable amounts of apparently soluble plutonium can be released if plutonium dioxide is exposed to water under some conditions. Furthermore, recent studies in Nevada near the Yucca Mountain Site revealed that plutonium, associated with the colloidal fraction of the groundwater, was detected over a kilometer from its source within 30 years after it was placed underground for a nuclear weapons testing. It was not clear whether plutonium was transported as an intrinsic plutonium colloid or as plutonium sorbed onto colloidal clay or zeolite particles.
Date: January 27, 2000
Creator: Romanovski, V V; Palmer, C E; Shaw, H F; Bourcier, W L & Jardine, L J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sampling the marine gas-hydrate reservoir: Assessing the methane inventory, internal dynamics, and potential of methane discharges to the atmosphere. Final progress report

Description: The status of the pore water and sediment core analysis of the surface sediments that overlie a major gas-hydrate field on the Carolina Continental Rise and Blake Ridge is reported here. Funding from NIGEC`s southern regional center provided support for a cruise of the RV Cape Hatteras in September 1992 (CH-11-92) on which 20 piston cores were taken. However, over the last 18 months we have had the opportunity to collect an additional 35 piston cores in this region, in part through the assistance of another DOE funded project that is being run by the USGS. At this date, we have pore water data from 55 piston cores which gives us both a regional and a site-specific insight into the processes in this region. It is our intention to combine the results of all these cores to arrive at a unified understanding of the processes acting on the continental margin which influence gas-hydrate formation and distribution. Some of the highlights of this work and some of accomplishments of this project to-date are outlined.
Date: August 27, 1993
Creator: Paull, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Enhancing the use of coals by gas reburning-sorbent injection. Environmental monitoring quarterly report No. 8, April 1--June 30, 1992

Description: Clean Coal Technology implies the use of coal in an environmentally acceptable manner. Coal combustion results in the emission of two types of acid rain precursors: oxides of sulfur (sox) and oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}). This Clean Coal Technology project will demonstrate a combination of two developed technologies to reduce both NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} emissions. Gas reburning and calcium based dry sorbent injection. The demonstrations will be conducted on two pre-NSPS utility boilers representative of the US boilers which contribute significantly to the inventory of acid rain precursor emissions. Gas reburning is a combustion modification technique that consists of firing 80--85 percent of the fuel (corresponding to the total heat release) in the lower furnace. Reduction of NO{sub x} to molecular nitrogen (N{sub 2}) is accomplished via the downstream injection of the remaining fuel requirement in the form of natural gas (which also reduces the total SO{sub x} emissions). In a third stage, burnout air is injected at lower temperatures in the upper furnace to complete the combustion process without generating significant additional NO{sub x}. Dry sorbent injection consists of injecting calcium based sorbents (such as limestone, dolomite, or hydrated lime) into the combustion products. For sulfation of the sorbent to CaSO{sub 4}, an injection temperature of about 1230{degrees}C is optimum, but calcium-sulfur reactions can also take place at lower temperatures. Thus, the sorbent may be injected at different locations, such as with the burnout air, at the exit from the superheater, or into the ducting downstream of the air heater with H{sub 2}O added for humidification. The specific goal of this project is to demonstrate NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} emission reductions of 60 percent and 50 percent, respectively, on two coal fired utility boilers having the design characteristics mentioned above.
Date: July 27, 1992
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Position paper, need for additional waste storage capacity and recommended path forward for project W-236a, Multi-function Waste Tank Facility

Description: Project W-236a, Multi-function waste Tank Facility (MWTF), was initiated to increase the safe waste storage capacity for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) by building two new one million gallon underground storage tanks in the 200 West Area and four tanks in the 200 East Area. Construction of the tanks was scheduled to begin in September 1994 with operations beginning in calendar year (CY) 1998. However, recent reviews have raised several issues regarding the mission, scope, and schedule of the MWTF. The decision to build new tanks must consider several elements, such as: Operational risk and needs -- Operational risk and flexibility must be managed such that any identified risk is reduced as soon as practicable; The amount of waste that will be generated in the future -- Additional needed tank capacity must be made available to support operations and maintain currently planned safety improvement activities; Safety issues -- The retrieval of waste from single-shell tanks (SSTs) and watch list tanks will add to the total amount of waste that must be stored in a double-shell tank (DST); Availability of existing DSTs -- The integrity of the 28 existing DSTs must be continuously managed; and Affect on other projects and programs -- Because MWTF systems have been integrated with other projects, a decision on one project will affect another. In addition the W-236a schedule is logically tied to support retrieval and safety program plans. Based on the above, two new tanks are needed for safe waste storage in the 200 West Area, and they need to be built as soon as practicable. Design should continue for the tanks in the 200 East Area with a decision made by September, on whether to construct them. Construction of the cross-site transfer line should proceed as scheduled. To implement this recommendation several actions ...
Date: September 27, 1994
Creator: Awadalla, N. G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final report - Sundyne Company

Description: Solar cookers offer a viable alternative to conventional cooking methods in many areas, and can be an effective tool in the fight against the deforestation and desertification that plague many developing countries. However, there have been numerous obstacles to the successful dissemination of solar cookers in the past. The purpose of this paper is to identify opportunities, review constraints and develop a marketing strategy to disseminate the Sundyne Solar Cooker (SSC) in developing countries.
Date: September 27, 1994
Creator: Long, J. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experimental study of interactions of highly charged ions with atoms at keV energies. Progress report, February 16, 1993--April 15, 1994

Description: Experimental study of low energy, highly charged ions with other atomic species requires an advanced ion source such as an electron beam ion source, EBIS or an electron cyclotron ion source, ECRIS. Five years ago we finished the design and construction of the Cornell superconducting solenoid, cryogenic EBIS (CEBIS). Since then, this source has been in continuous operation in a program whose main purpose is the experimental study of interactions of highly charged ions with atoms at keV energies. This progress report for the period February 16, 1993 to April 15, 1994 describes the work accomplished during this time in the form of short abstracts.
Date: April 27, 1994
Creator: Kostroun, V. O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cost reduction study for the LANL KrF laser-driven LMF design

Description: This report is in fulfillment of the deliverable requirements for the optical components portions of the LANL-KrF Laser-Driven LMF Design Cost Reduction Study. This report examines the future cost reductions that may accrue through the use of mass production, innovative manufacturing techniques, and new materials. Results are based on data collection and survey of optical component manufacturers, BDM experience, and existing cost models. These data provide a good representation of current methods and technologies from which future estimates can be made. From these data, a series of scaling relationships were developed to project future costs for a selected set of technologies. The scaling relationships are sensitive to cost driving parameters such as size and surface figure requirements as well as quantity requirements, production rate, materials, and manufacturing processes. In addition to the scaling relationships, descriptions of the selected processes were developed along with graphical representations of the processes. This report provides a useful tool in projecting the costs of advanced laser concepts at the component level of detail. A mix of the most diverse yet comparable technologies was chosen for this study. This yielded a useful, yet manageable number of variables to examine. The study has resulted in a first-order cost model which predicts the relative cost behavior of optical components within different variable constraints.
Date: October 27, 1989
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Theoretical study of the noble metals on semiconductor surfaces and Ti-base shape memory alloys

Description: The electronic and structural properties of the ({radical}3 {times} {radical}3) R30{degrees} Ag/Si(111) and ({radical}3 {times} {radical}3) R30{degrees} Au/Si(111) surfaces are investigated using first principles total energy calculations. We have tested almost all experimentally proposed structural models for both surfaces and found the energetically most favorable model for each of them. The lowest energy model structure of the ({radical}3 {times} {radical}3) R30{degrees} Ag/Si(111) surface consists of a top layer of Ag atoms arranged as ``honeycomb-chained-trimers`` lying above a distorted ``missing top layer`` Si(111) substrate. The coverage of Ag is 1 monolayer (ML). We find that the honeycomb structure observed in STM images arise from the electronic charge densities of an empty surface band near the Fermi level. The electronic density of states of this model gives a ``pseudo-gap`` around the Fermi level, which is consistent with experimental results. The lowest energy model for the ({radical}3 {times} {radical}3) R30{degrees} Au/Si(111) surface is a conjugate honeycomb-chained-trimer (CHCT-1) configuration which consists of a top layer of trimers formed by 1 ML Au atoms lying above a ``missing top layer`` Si(111) substrate with a honeycomb-chained-trimer structure for its first layer. The structures of Au and Ag are in fact quite similar and belong to the same class of structural models. However, small variation in the structural details gives rise to quite different observed STM images, as revealed in the theoretical calculations. The electronic charge density from bands around the Fermi level for the ({radical}3 {times} {radical}3) R30{degrees}, Au/Si(111) surface also gives a good description of the images observed in STM experiments. First principles calculations are performed to study the electronic and structural properties of a series of Ti-base binary alloys TiFe, TiNi, TiPd, TiMo, and TiAu in the B2 structure.
Date: July 27, 1994
Creator: Ding, Yungui
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radon discrimination for work place air samples

Description: Gross alpha/beta measurement systems are designed solely to identify an incident particle as either an alpha or a beta and register a count accordingly. The tool of choice for radon identification, via decay daughters, is an instrument capable of identifying the energy of incident alpha particles and storing that information separately from detected alpha emissions of different energy. In simpler terms, the desired instrument is an alpha spectroscopy system. K Basins Radiological Control (KBRC) procured an EG&G ORTEC OCTETE PC alpha spectroscopy system to facilitate radon identification on work place air samples. The alpha spectrometer allows for the identification of any alpha emitting isotope based on characteristic alpha emission energies. With this new capability, KBRC will explicitly know whether or not there exists a true airborne concern. Based on historical air quality data, this new information venue will reduce the use of respirators substantially. Situations where an area remains ``on mask`` due solely to the presence of radon daughters on the grab air filter will finally be eliminated. This document serves to introduce a new method for radon daughter detection at the 183KE Health Physics Analytical Laboratory (HPAL). A new work place air sampling analysis program will be described throughout this paper. There is no new technology being introduced, nor any unproven analytical process. The program defined over the expanse of this document simply explains how K Basins Radiological Control will employ their alpha spectrometer.
Date: September 27, 1994
Creator: Bratvold, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Travel to Battelle Memorial Institute to discuss the progress of subcontract research on both the natural uranium and the enriched uranium fuel element programs. Trip report, May 10--11 and 23--24, 1955

Description: A summary of research progress is given in this report. (1) Half-dollar size corrosion samples of aluminum-clad uranium, which were pressed with 3, 4, 5, and 6 thousand psi, have begun to fail by undercutting between 7 and 21 days. This behavior is contradictory to that of previous samples similarly pressed with 6,000 psi; corrosion of these samples was restricted to pimples, which grew slowly in diameter and did not undercut. (2) Moczik Tool and Die Co. has designed a streamlined die and a mandrel tip for use with the extrusion cladding equipment at BMI. Other methods of extrusion cladding are still under consideration. (3) Experiments on the internal cladding of tubes are awaiting the completion of tools. (4) Casting of uranium-aluminum alloy billets has begun for the purpose of determining the affects of the rate of solidification on segregation in the alloy. (5) An accurate determination of the uranium-aluminum constitution diagram in the range 16 w/o to 40% has been inconclusive to date. (6) Nickel-tin alloy plated over a flash coat of nickel did not provided to satisfactory bonding material on samples of uranium press-clad with aluminum at 950 C, 6,000 psi for 5 minutes.
Date: May 27, 1955
Creator: Herries, R. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Directional solidification of the alumina-zirconia ceramic eutectic system

Description: It is possible to produce alumina-zirconia ceramic samples through existing solidification techniques. The resulting microstructures typically consist of rods of zirconia in an alumina matrix, although a lamellar structure has been noted in some cases. In nearly all cases, colony growth was present which may possibly result from grain size, repeated nucleation events, and lamellar oscillations. In the same vein, it appears that the amount of impurities within the system might be the underlying cause for the colony growth. Colony growth was diminished through impurity control as the higher purity samples exhibited colony free behavior. In addition to colony formations, faceted alumina dendrites or nonfaceted zirconia dendrites may result in the ceramic if the sample is solidified out of the coupled zone. In all cases, for larger-sized Bridgman samples, a lower limit in the eutectic spacing was noted. The solidification model which includes the kinetic effect has been developed, although the effect appears to be negligible under present experimental conditions. A spacing limit might also occur due to the result of heat flow problems. Heat flow out of the ceramic is difficult to control, often causing radial and not axial growth. This behavior is exaggerated in the presence of impurities. Thus, higher purity powders should always be used. Higher purity samples, in addition to yielding a more microstructurally uniform ceramic, also showed increased directionality. In the future, the kinetic model needs to be examined in more detail, and further research needs to be accomplished in the area of molten ceramics. Once better system constants are in place, the kinetic model will give a better indication of the behavior in the alumina-zirconia system.
Date: July 27, 1994
Creator: Boldt, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Novel absorption detection techniques for capillary electrophoresis

Description: Capillary electrophoresis (CE) has emerged as one of the most versatile separation methods. However, efficient separation is not sufficient unless coupled to adequate detection. The narrow inner diameter (I.D.) of the capillary column raises a big challenge to detection methods. For UV-vis absorption detection, the concentration sensitivity is only at the {mu}M level. Most commercial CE instruments are equipped with incoherent UV-vis lamps. Low-brightness, instability and inefficient coupling of the light source with the capillary limit the further improvement of UV-vis absorption detection in CE. The goals of this research have been to show the utility of laser-based absorption detection. The approaches involve: on-column double-beam laser absorption detection and its application to the detection of small ions and proteins, and absorption detection with the bubble-shaped flow cell.
Date: July 27, 1994
Creator: Xue, Y.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department