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The LCLS X-Ray FEL at SLAC

Description: The design status and R and D plan of a 1.5 Angstrom SASE-FEL at SLAC, called the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), are described. The LCLS utilizes one third of the SLAC linac for the acceleration of electrons to about 15 GeV. The FEL radiation is produced in a long undulator and is directed to an experimental area for its utilization. The LCLS is designed to produce 300 fsec long radiation pulses at the wavelength of 1.5 Angstrom with 9 GW peak power. This radiation has much higher brightness and coherence, as well as shorter pulses, than present 3rd generation sources. It is shown that such leap in performance is now within reach, and is made possible by the advances in the physics and technology of photo-injectors, linear accelerators, insertion devices and free-electron lasers.
Date: February 9, 1999
Creator: Cornacchia, Massimo
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Kick and phase errors in spontaneous and amplified radiation.

Description: Two types of magnet errors are considered--the random phase error (RPE), in which the phase errors are evenly distributed along the magnet, and the random kick error (RKE), in which the errors in the derivative of the phase are evenly distributed. We compute the reduction in performance of both spontaneous radiation and high-gain free-electron lasers for both types of errors within the framework of 1-D free-electron laser theory.
Date: August 31, 1999
Creator: Kim, K.-J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electron beam bunch length characterizations using incoherent and coherent radiation on the APS SASE FEL project.

Description: The Advanced Photon Source (APS) injector linac has been reconfigured with a low-emittance rf thermionic gun and a photocathode (PC) rf gun to support self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) free-electron laser (FEL) experiments. One of the most critical parameters for optimizing SASE performance (gain length) is the electron beam peak current, which requires a charge measurement and a bunch length measurement capability. We report here initial measurements of the latter using both incoherent optical transition radiation (OTR) and coherent transition radiation (CTR), A visible light Hamarnatsu C5680 synchroscan streak camera was used to measure the thermionic rf gun beam's bunch length ({sigma} {approximately}2 to 3ps) via OTR generated by the beam at 220 MeV and 200 mA macropulse average current. In addition, a CTR monitor (Michelson Interferometer) based on a Golay cell as the far infrared (FIR) detector has been installed at the 40-MeV station in the beamline. Initial observation s of CTR signal strength variation with gun a-magnet current and interferograms have been obtained. Progress in characterizing the beam at these locations and a comparison to other bunch length determinations will be presented.
Date: August 28, 1999
Creator: Berg, W. J.; Happek, U.; Lewellen, J. W.; Lumpkin, A. H.; Sereno, N. S. & Yang, B. X.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effects of bunch density gradient in high-gain free-electron lasers.

Description: The authors investigate effects of the bunch density gradient in self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE), including the role of coherent spontaneous emission (CSE) in the evolution of the free-electron laser (FEL) process. In the exponential gain regime, the authors solve the coupled Maxwell-Vlasov equations and extend the linear theory to a bunched beam with energy spread. A time-dependent, nonlinear simulation algorithm is used to study the CSE effect and the nonlinear evolution of the radiation pulse.
Date: September 1, 1999
Creator: Huang, Z. & Kim, K.-J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Three-dimensional analysis of harmonic generation in self-amplified spontaneous emission.

Description: In a high-gain free-electron laser, strong bunching at the fundamental wavelength can drive substantial harmonic bunching and sizable power levels at the harmonic frequencies. In this paper, we investigate the three-dimensional evolution of the harmonic fields based on the coupled Maxwell-Vlasov equations that take into account the nonlinear harmonic interaction. Each harmonic field is the sum of a self-amplified term and a term driven by the nonlinear harmonic interaction. In the exponential gain regime, the growth rate of the dominant nonlinear term is much faster than that of the self-amplified harmonic field. As a result, the gain length and the transverse profile of the first few harmonics are completely determined by those of the fundamental. A percentage of the fundamental power level is found at the third harmonic frequency right before saturation for the current self-amplified spontaneous emission projects.
Date: September 1, 1999
Creator: Huang, Z. & Kim, K.-J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Parameter analysis for a high-gain harmonic generation FEL using a recently developed 3D polychromatic code.

Description: One possible design for a fourth-generation light source is the high-gain harmonic generation (HGHG) free-electron laser (FEL). Here, a coherent seed with a wavelength at a subharmonic of the desired output radiation interacts with the electron beam in an energy-modulating section. This energy modulation is then converted into spatial bunching while traversing a dispersive section (a three-dipole chicane). The final step is passage through a radiative section, an undulator tuned to the desired higher harmonic output wavelength. The coherent seed serves to remove noise and can be at a much lower subharmonic of the output radiation, thus eliminating the concerns found in self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) and seeded FELs, respectively. Recently, a 3D code that includes multiple frequencies, multiple undulatory (both in quantity and/or type), quadruple magnets, and dipole magnets was developed to easily simulate HGHG. Here, a brief review of the HGHG theory, the code development, the Accelerator Test Facility's (ATF) HGHG FEL experimental parameters, and the parameter analysis from simulations of this specific experiment will be discussed.
Date: September 10, 1999
Creator: Biedron, S. G.; Freund, H. P. & Yu, L.-H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

PERISCOPE POP-IN BEAM MONITOR.

Description: We have built monitors for use as beam diagnostics in the narrow gap of an undulator for an FEL experiment. They utilize an intercepting screen of doped YAG scintillating crystal to make light that is imaged through a periscope by conventional video equipment. The absolute position can be ascertained by comparing the electron beam position with the position of a He:Ne laser that is observed by this pop-in monitor. The optical properties of the periscope and the mechanical arrangement of the system mean that beam can be spatially determined to the resolution of the camera, in this case approximately 10 micrometers. Our experience with these monitors suggests improvements for successor designs, which we also describe.
Date: May 7, 1998
Creator: JOHNSON,E.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Microwave axial free-electron laser with enhanced phase stability

Description: Free-electron lasers (FELs) amplifiers have demonstrated high efficiencies and high output power at microwave wavelengths. However, measurements and simulations have indicated that the present level of phase stability for these devices is not sufficient for driving linear accelerators. Fluctuations in the diode voltage, which is needed to accelerate the electron beam, are the largest cause of the shifts in the phase of the output power. Present-day pulse-power technology cannot keep the voltage fluctuations less than 1/4%. However, we have found a scheme that win make the output phase much less sensitive to these fluctuations by exploiting the traveling-wave nature of the FEL interaction. In this paper we study the phase stability issue by analyzing the dispersion relation for an axial FEL, in which the rf field is transversely wiggled and the electron trajectories are purely longitudinal. The advantage of using the axial FEL interaction instead of the common transverse FEL interaction is that the dispersion relation is not additionally complicated by how the transverse electron motion depends on the diode voltage and such a device is simpler and less expensive to construct than a transverse-coupling FEL because there is no wiggler. By examination of the dispersion relation it is found that the effect of the phase dependency on the beam`s velocity can be cancelled by the effect of the phase dependency on the beam`s plasma wave, for an annular electron beam. This cancellation leads to first-order phase stability, which is not possible for standing-wave devices, such as klystrons. Detailed particle-in-cell simulations are included to demonstrate the transverse wiggling of the rf mode and the axial FEL interaction.
Date: September 1, 1995
Creator: Carlsten, B.E.; Fortgang, C.M.; Fazio, M.V.; Haynes, W.B.; May, L.M. & Potter, J.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The APS SASE FEL : modeling and code comparison.

Description: A self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) free-electron laser (FEL) is under construction at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Five FEL simulation codes were used in the design phase: GENESIS, GINGER, MEDUSA, RON, and TDA3D. Initial comparisons between each of these independent formulations show good agreement for the parameters of the APS SASE FEL.
Date: April 20, 1999
Creator: Biedron, S. G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High-brightness electron beams for production of high intensity, coherent radiation for scientific and industrial applications.

Description: Relativistic electron beams with high six-dimensional phase space densities, i.e., high-brightness beams, are the basis for efficient generation of intense and coherent radiation beams for advanced scientific and industrial applications. The remarkable progress in synchrotrons radiation facilities from the first generation to the current, third-generation capability illustrates this point. With the recent development of the high-brightness electron gun based on laser-driven rf photocathodes, linacs have become another important option for high-brightness electron beams. With linacs of about 100 MeV, megawatt-class infrared free-electron lasers can be designed for industrial applications such as power beaming. With linacs of about 10 GeV, 1-{angstrom} x-ray beams with brightness and time resolution exceeding by several orders of magnitude the current synchrotrons radiation sources can be generated based on self-amplified spontaneous emission. Scattering of a high-brightness electron beam by high power laser beams is emerging as a compact method of generating short-pulse, bright x-rays. In the high-energy frontier, photons of TeV quantum energy could be generated by scattering laser beams with TeV electron beams in future linear colliders.
Date: January 15, 1999
Creator: Kim, K.-J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effects of Beamtube Roughness on X-Ray FEL Performance

Description: In an X-Ray FEL like the Linear Coherent Light Source (LCLS) being designed at SLAC, electron bunches about 70 {micro}m FWHM long are sent into a beam tube only 5 mm in internal diameter and more than 100 m in length. Due to the surface roughness of the beam tube, wakefields can be generated that catch up to the bunch and interact with it, causing energy spread and emittance growth. The strength of this effect depends on the details of the roughness of the surface. We present here a study in which the roughness of the beam tube was measured, and the longitudinal impedance of the tube was calculated. Our result shows that commercially available beam tube can be made smooth enough so the resulting wakefield effects are within the tolerance determined by the requirement that the induced relative energy spread of the beam be less then 5 x 10{sup {minus}4}.
Date: April 5, 1999
Creator: Stupakov, Gennady
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High brightness beams and applications

Description: This paper describes the present research on attaining intense bright electron beams. Thermionic systems are briefly covered. Recent and past results from the photoinjector programs are given. The performance advantages and difficulties presently faced by researchers using photoinjectors is discussed. The progress that has been made in photocathode materials, both in lifetime and quantum efficiency, is covered. Finally, a discussion of emittance measurements of photoinjector systems and how the measurement is complicated by the non-thermal nature of the electron beam is presented.
Date: September 1, 1995
Creator: Sheffield, R.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A low-neutron background slow-positron source.

Description: The addition of a thermionic rf gun [1] and a photocathode rf gun will allow the Advanced Photon Source (APS) linear accelerator (linac) [2] [3] to become a free-electron laser (FEL) driver [4]. As the FEL project progresses, the existing high-charge DC thermionic gun will no longer be critical to APS operation and could be used to generate high-energy or low-energy electrons to drive a slow-positron source. We investigated possibilities to create a useful low-energy source that could operate semi-independently and would have a low neutron background.
Date: October 9, 1998
Creator: White, M. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Magnetic measurements and tuning of undulators for the APS FEL project.

Description: Two insertion device magnetic structures have been prepared for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) FEL project [1]. The magnetic structures are standard APS undulatory, 2.4 m long with a 3.3-cm period. Measurements and tuning of the undulatory have been completed at a magnetic gap of about 9.3 mm, where K is 3.1. Special measurement and tuning techniques were used to satisfy the tight trajectory straightness requirement that the second field integral be less than 3.3 kG-cm{sup 2}. The magnetic field strengths of the undulators must be well matched; this leads to the requirement that the magnetic gap must be controlled to better than 10 microns. Proper phasing between the undulatory is ensured by adjusting the length of the drift space between the undulatory. The drift space length that is needed is strongly affected by the end fields of the magnetic structures. The results of measurements of the magnetic field and calculations of the drift length are provided.
Date: April 20, 1999
Creator: Vasserman, I. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Multi-dimensional free-electron laser simulation codes : a comparison study.

Description: A self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) free-electron laser (FEL) is under construction at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Five FEL simulation codes were used in the design phase: GENESIS, GINGER, MEDUSA, RON, and TDA3D. Initial comparisons between each of these independent formulations show good agreement for the parameters of the APS SASE FEL.
Date: August 23, 1999
Creator: Biedron, S. G.; Chae, Y. C.; Dejus, R. J.; Faatz, B.; Freund, H. P.; Milton, S. V. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The FEL development at the Advanced Photon Source.

Description: Construction of a single-pass free-electron laser (FEL) based on the self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) mode of operation is nearing completion at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) with initial experiments imminent. The APS SASE FEL is a proof-of-principle fourth-generation light source. As of January 1999 the undulator hall, end-station building, necessary transfer lines, electron and optical diagnostics, injectors, and initial undulatory have been constructed and, with the exception of the undulatory, installed. All preliminary code development and simulations have also been completed. The undulator hall is now ready to accept first beam for characterization of the output radiation. It is the project goal to push towards fill FEL saturation, initially in the visible, but ultimately to W and VUV, wavelengths.
Date: March 15, 1999
Creator: Arnold, N. D.; Benson, C.; Berg, S.; Berg, W.; Biedron, S. G.; Chae, Y. C. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Selected topics in particle accelerators: Proceedings of the CAP meetings. Volume 5

Description: This Report includes copies of transparencies and notes from the presentations made at the Center for Accelerator Physics at Brookhaven National Laboratory Editing and changes to the authors` contributions in this Report were made only to fulfill the publication requirements. This volume includes notes and transparencies on nine presentations: ``The Energy Exchange and Efficiency Consideration in Klystrons``, ``Some Properties of Microwave RF Sources for Future Colliders + Overview of Microwave Generation Activity at the University of Maryland``, ``Field Quality Improvements in Superconducting Magnets for RHIC``, ``Hadronic B-Physics``, ``Spiking Pulses from Free Electron Lasers: Observations and Computational Models``, ``Crystalline Beams in Circular Accelerators``, ``Accumulator Ring for AGS & Recent AGS Performance``, ``RHIC Project Machine Status``, and ``Gamma-Gamma Colliders.``
Date: October 1, 1995
Creator: Parsa, Z.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

NSLS source development laboratory

Description: The National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) has initiated an ambitious project to develop fourth generation radiation sources. To achieve this goal, the Source Development Laboratory (SDL) builds on the experience gained at the NSLS, and at the highly successful BNL Accelerator Test Facility. The SDL accelerator system will consist of a high brightness short pulse linac, a station for coherent synchrotron and transition radiation experiments, a short bunch storage ring, and an ultra-violet free electron laser utilizing the NISUS wiggler. The electrons will be provided by a laser photocathode gun feeding a 210 MeV S-band electron linac, with magnetic bunch compression at 80 MeV. Electron bunches as short as 100 {mu}m with 1 nC charge will be used for pump-probe experiments utilizing coherent transition radiation. Beam will also be injected into a compact storage ring which will be a source of millimeter wave coherent synchrotron radiation. The linac will also serve as the driver for an FEL designed to allow the study of various aspects of single pass amplifiers. The first FEL configuration will be as a self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) FEL at 900 nm. Seeded beam and sub-harmonic seeded beam operations will push the output wavelength below 200 nm. Chirped pulse amplification (CPA) operation will also be possible, and a planned energy upgrade (by powering a fifth linac section) to 310 MeV will extend the wavelength range of the FEL to below 100 nm.
Date: September 1, 1995
Creator: Ben-Zvi, I.; Blum, E. & Johnson, E.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Circular polarization with crossed-planar undulators in high gain FELs.

Description: We propose a crossed undulator configuration for a high-gain free-electron laser to allow versatile polarization control. This configuration consists of a long (saturation length) planar undulator, a dispersive section, and a short (a few gain lengths) planar undulator oriented perpendicular to the first one. In the first undulator, a radiation component linearly polarized in the x-direction is amplified to saturation. In the second undulator, the x-polarized component propagates freely, while a new component, polarized in the y-direction, is generated and reaches saturation in a few gain lengths. By adjusting the strength of the dispersive section, the relative phase of two radiation components can be adjusted to obtain a suitable polarization for the total radiation field, including the circular polarization. The operating principle of the high-gain crossed undulator, which is quite different from that of the crossed undulator for spontaneous radiation, is illustrated in terms of 1-D FEL theory.
Date: August 31, 1999
Creator: Kim, K.-J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Calculations of the self-amplified spontaneous emission performance of a free-electron laser.

Description: The linear integral equation based computer code (RON: Roger Oleg Nikolai), which was recently developed at Argonne National Laboratory, was used to calculate the self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) performance of the free-electron laser (FEL) being built at Argonne. Signal growth calculations under different conditions are used for estimating tolerances of actual design parameters. The radiation characteristics are discussed, and calculations using an ideal undulator magnetic field and a real measured magnetic field will be compared and discussed.
Date: April 20, 1999
Creator: Dejus, R. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

First lasing of a high-gain harmonic generation free-electron laser experiment.

Description: We report on the first lasing of a high-gain harmonic generation (HGHG) free-electron laser (FEL). The experiment was conducted at the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). This is a BNL experiment in collaboration with the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory. A preliminary measurement gives a high-gain harmonic generation (HGHG) pulse energy that is 2 x 10{sup 7} times larger than the spontaneous radiation, In a purely self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) mode of operation, the signal was measured as 10 times larger than the spontaneous radiation in the same distance ({approximately}2 m) through the same wiggler. This means the HGHG signal is 2 x 10{sup 6} times larger than the SASE signal. To obtain the same saturated output power by the SASE process, the radiator would have to be 3 times longer (6 m).
Date: September 11, 1999
Creator: Babzien, M.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Biedron, S. G.; DiMauro, L. F.; Douryan, A.; Galayda, J. N. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Beam dynamics studies in a high-brightness photo-injector

Description: A high-brightness photo-injector has been developed at Fermilab in collaboration with the TTF project at DESY. Two systems have been commissioned, one at DESY and one at Fermilab. The injector [1] consists of a 1.625-cell cavity RF gun, a superconducting niobium cavity (both 1.3 GHz), and a magnetic chicane. The gun is designed for an electric field of up to 50 MV/m on the cathode. Emittance compensation solenoids surround the gun to correct the linear space charge emittance growth. A high quantum efficiency Cs{sub 2}Te photocathode located in the first half-cell produces electrons when illuminated by 263 nm wavelength light (fourth harmonic of the Nd:YLF laser). The laser [2] was designed to produce a train of up to 800 equal amplitude, 10 {micro}J UV pulses spaced by 1 {micro}s at 1 Hz repetition rate. The laser pulse length is adjustable between 1 and 20 ps FWHM. The superconducting cavity is a 9-cell Nb structure fabricated by industry for TTF. It was tested with RF at DESY before being sent to Fermilab. At present, the cavity is operated at {approx}11 MeV/m. Beam measurements with the injector at Fermilab are in progress. Preliminary results for emittance and bunch length will be discussed in this paper. Future plans for the machine will also be described.
Date: October 25, 1999
Creator: al., Jean-Paul Carneiro et
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Alignment and magnet error tolerances for the LCLS x-ray FEL

Description: We have examined the influence of misalignments and magnet errors on the predicted performance of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). Due to the extremely large number of wiggler periods (> 10{sup 3}) and the small optical mode size (20 {mu}m), alignment and magnet tolerances will be quite demanding. These demands may increase if the wiggler is split into separate sections by the possible inclusion of diagnostic stations, dispersive sections, etc. We have attempted to quantify such tolerances using the numerical simulation code FRED-3D.
Date: May 1, 1995
Creator: Nuhn, H.D.; Scharlemann, E.T. & Schlueter, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The APS SASE FEL : status and commissioning results.

Description: A self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) free-electron laser (FEL) is under construction at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Three gun systems, an rf-test area, laser room, numerous diagnostics, a transfer line at the end of the linac, and a new building, which will serve as the experimental hall, have been added. The only remaining items to be installed are the undulators into the beamline. Here, the additions to the APS in support of this project as well as commissioning results and future plans will be discussed.
Date: April 20, 1999
Creator: Milton, S. V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department