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Abstract and research accomplishments of University Coal Research Projects

Description: The Principal Investigators of the grants supported by the University Coal Research Program were requested to submit abstracts and highlight accomplishments of their respective projects in time for distribution at a conference on June 13--14, 1995 at Tennessee State University in Nashville, Tennessee. This book is a compilation of the material received in response to that request. For convenience, the 70 grants reported in this book are stored into eight technical areas, Coal Science, Coal Surface Science, Reaction Chemistry, Advanced Process Concepts, Engineering Fundamentals and Thermodynamics, Environmental Science, high Temperature Phenomena, and Special topics. Indexes are provided for locating projects by subject, principal investigators, and contracting organizations. Each extended abstract describes project objectives, work accomplished, significance to the Fossil Energy Program, and plans for the next year.
Date: June 1, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Nucla Circulating Fluidized-Bed Demonstration Project: A U.S. DOE post-project assessment

Description: This report is a post-project assessment of the Nucla Circulating Fluidized-Bed (CFB) Demonstration Project, the second project to be completed in the DOE Clean Coal Technology Program. Nucla was the first successful utility repowering project in the US, increasing the capacity of the original power station from 36 MW(e) to 110 MW(e) and extending its life by 30 years. In the CFB boiler, combustion and desulfurization both take place in the fluidized bed. Calcium in the sorbent captures sulfur dioxide and the relatively low combustion temperatures limit NOx formation. Hot cyclones separate the larger particles from the gas and recirculates them to the lower zones of the combustion chambers. This continuous circulation of coal char and sorbent particles is the novel feature of CFB technology. This demonstration project significantly advanced the environmental, operational, and economic potential of atmospheric CFB technology, precipitating a large number of orders for atmospheric CFB equipment. By 1994, more than 200 atmospheric CFB boilers have been constructed worldwide. Although at least six CFB units have been operated, the Nucla project`s CFB database continues to be an important and unique resource for the design of yet larger atmospheric CFB systems. The post-project assessment report is an independent DOE appraisal of the success a completed project had in achieving its objectives and aiding in the commercialization of the demonstrated technology. The report also provides an assessment of the expected technical, environmental, and economic performance of the commercial version of the technology as well as an analysis of the commercial market.
Date: June 1, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A study of hazardous air pollutants at the Tidd PFBC Demonstration Plant

Description: The US Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology (CCD Program is a joint effort between government and industry to develop a new generation of coal utilization processes. In 1986, the Ohio Power Company, a subsidiary of American Electric Power (AEP), was awarded cofunding through the CCT program for the Tidd Pressure Fluidized Bed Combustor (PFBC) Demonstration Plant located in Brilliant, Ohio. The Tidd PFBC unit began operation in 1990 and was later selected as a test site for an advanced particle filtration (APF) system designed for hot gas particulate removal. The APF system was sponsored by the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) through their Hot Gas Cleanup Research and Development Program. A complementary goal of the DOE CCT and METC R&D programs has always been to demonstrate the environmental acceptability of these emerging technologies. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) have focused that commitment toward evaluating the fate of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) associated with advanced coal-based and hot gas cleanup technologies. Radian Corporation was contacted by AEP to perform this assessment of HAPs at the Tidd PFBC demonstration plant. The objective of this study is to assess the major input, process, and emission streams at Plant Tidd for the HAPs identified in Title III of the CAAA. Four flue gas stream locations were tested: ESP inlet, ESP outlet, APF inlet, and APF outlet. Other process streams sampled were raw coal, coal paste, sorbent, bed ash, cyclone ash, individual ESP hopper ash, APF ash, and service water. Samples were analyzed for trace elements, minor and major elements, anions, volatile organic compounds, dioxin/furan compounds, ammonia, cyanide, formaldehyde, and semivolatile organic compounds. The particle size distribution in the ESP inlet and outlet gas streams and collected ash from individual ESP hoppers was also determined.
Date: October 1, 1994
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Commercial second-generation PFBC plant transient model: Task 15

Description: The advanced pressurized fluidized bed combustor (APFBC) power plant combines an efficient gas-fired combined cycle, a low-emission PFB combustor, and a coal pyrolysis unit (carbonizer) that converts coal, America`s most plentiful fuel, into the gas turbine fuel. From an operation standpoint, the APFBC plant is similar to an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant, except that the PFBC and fluid bed heat exchanger (FBHE) allow a considerable fraction of coal energy to be shunted around the gas turbine and sent directly to the steam turbine. By contrast, the fuel energy in IGCC plants and most other combined cycles is primarily delivered to the gas turbine and then to the steam turbine. Another characteristic of the APFBC plant is the interaction among three large thermal inertias--carbonizer, PFBC, and FBHE--that presents unique operational challenges for modeling and operation of this type of plant. This report describes the operating characteristics and dynamic responses of the APFBC plant and discusses the advantages and shortcomings of several alternative control strategies for the plant. In particular, interactions between PFBC, FBHE, and steam bottoming cycle are analyzed and the effect of their interactions on plant operation is discussed. The technical approach used in the study is described in Section 2. The dynamic model is introduced in Section 3 and described is detail in the appendices. Steady-state calibration and transient simulations are presented in Sections 4 and 5. The development of the operating philosophy is discussed in Section 6. Potential design changes to the dynamic model and trial control schemes are listed in Sections 7 and 8. Conclusions derived from the study are presented in Section 9.
Date: April 1, 1995
Creator: White, J.S.; Getty, R.T. & Torpey, M.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Particulate Control Device (PCD) Testing at the Power Systems Development Facility, Wilsonville, Alabama

Description: One of the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) objectives overseen by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) is to test systems and components for advanced coal-based power generation systems, including integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC), and integrated gasification/fuel cell (IGFC) systems. Stringent particulate requirements for fuel gas for both combustion turbines and fuel cells that are integral to these systems. Particulates erode and chemically attack the blade surfaces in turbines, and cause blinding of the electrodes in fuel cells. Filtration of the hot, high-pressure, gasified coal is required to protect these units. Filtration can be accomplished by first cooling the gas, but the system efficiency is reduced. High-temperature, high-pressure, particulate control devices (PCDs) need to be developed to achieve high efficiency and to extend the lifetime of downstream components to acceptable levels. Demonstration of practical high-temperature PCDs is crucial to the evolution of advanced, high-efficiency, coal-based power generation systems. The intent at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) is to establish a flexible test facility that can be used to (1) develop advanced power system components, such as high-temperature, high-pressure PCDs; (2) evaluate advanced power system configurations and (3) assess the integration and control issues of these advanced power systems.
Date: December 1, 1995
Creator: Longanbach, J.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation of heat transfer and combustion in the Advanced Fluidized Bed Combustor (FBC). Technical progress report, April 1995--June 1995

Description: This technical report summarizes the research performed and progress achieved during the period of April 1, 1995 to June 30, 1995, The particle flow measurements on mass flux of radial directional were conducted and discussed. The particle dispersion is dense near the wall and relatively dilute in the core region. It was found that the particle mass flux generally increases along the radial direction adjacent to the wall of the test chamber. An interface at a certain radius adjacent to the chamber wall is expected where interacting forces are dynamically balanced. The dense suspension layers and the dilute suspension regions were observed in the freeboard of the exploratory cold model (6 inches I.D.). Based upon observations and measurements, the general behavior of suspension layers was summarized in this report. The bench-scale advanced FBC test chamber (10 inches I.D.) was designed and fabricated to better understand how gas recirculating flow, particle suspension flow, and particle elutriation rate are affected by swirling flow in the freeboard of the test chamber. The measurements of the gas and particle flows will be conducted in this bench-scale model.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Lee, S.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Performance analysis of co-firing waste materials in an advanced pressurized fluidized-bed combustor

Description: The co-firing of waste materials with coal in utility scale power plants has emerged as an effective approach to produce energy and manage municipal wastes. Leading this approach is the atmospheric fluidized-bed combustor (AFBC). It has demonstrated its commercial acceptance in the utility market as a reliable source of power by burning a variety of waste and alternative fuels. The application of pressurized fluidized-bed combustor (PFBC) technology, although relatively new, can provide significant enhancements to the efficient production of electricity while maintaining the waste management benefits of AFBC. A study was undertaken to investigate the technical and economical feasibility of co-firing a PFBC with coal and municipal and industrial wastes. Focus was placed on the production of electricity and the efficient disposal of wastes for application in central power station and distributed locations. Issues concerning waste material preparation and feed, PFBC operation, plant emissions, and regulations are addressed. The results and conclusions developed are generally applicable to current and advanced PFBC design concepts. Wastes considered for co-firing include municipal solid waste (MSW), sewage sludge, and industrial de-inking sludge. Conceptual designs of two power plants rated at 250 MWe and 150 MWe were developed. Heat and material balances were completed for each plant along with environmental issues. With the PFBC`s operation at high temperature and pressure, efforts were centered on defining feeding systems capable of operating at these conditions. Air emissions and solid wastes were characterized to assess the environmental performance comparing them to state and Federal regulations. This paper describes the results of this investigation, presents conclusions on the key issues, and provides recommendations for further evaluation.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Bonk, D.L.; McDaniel, H.M.; DeLallo, M.R. Jr. & Zaharchuk, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Second generation PFB for advanced power generation

Description: Research is being conducted under a United States Department of Energy (USDOE) contract to develop a new type of coal-fueled plant for electric power generation. This new type of plant-called an advanced or second-generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion (APFBC) plant-offers the promise of 45-percent efficiency (HHV), with emissions and a cost of electricity that are significantly lower than conventional pulverized-coal-fired plants with scrubbers. This paper summarizes the pilot plant R&D work being conducted to develop this new type of plant. Although pilot plant testing is still underway, preliminary estimates indicate the commercial plant Will perform better than originally envisioned. Efficiencies greater than 46 percent are now being predicted.
Date: November 1, 1995
Creator: Robertson, A. & Van Hook, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of second-generation PFB combustion plants

Description: Research is being conducted under United States Department of Energy (USDOE) Contract DE-AC21-86MC21023 to develop a new type of coal-fueled plant for electric power generation. This new type of plant--called an Advanced or Second-generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (APFBC) plant--offers the promise of efficiencies greater than 45 percent (HHV), with both emissions and a cost of electricity that are significantly lower than conventional pulverized-coal-fired plants with scrubbers. This paper summarizes the pilot-plant R&D work being conducted to develop this new type of plant and discusses a proposed design that should reduce demonstration-plant risks and costs.
Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: Robertson, A.; Domeracki, W. & Horazak, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Co-firing high sulfur coal with refuse derived fuels. Technical report {number_sign}4

Description: In order to study combustion performance under conditions similar to that in the AFBC system, the authors conducted a series of experiments at a heating rate of 100 C/min using the TGA/FTIR/MS system. Results indicate that more hydrocarbons are evolved at the faster heating rate, owing to incomplete combustion of the fuel. Chlorinated organic compounds can be formed at high heating rates. Certain oxidation products such as organic acids and alcohols are obtained at the slow heating rate. To simulate the conditions used in the atmospheric fluidized bed combustor (AFBC) at Western Kentucky University, studies were also conducted using a quartz tube in a tube furnace. The temperature conditions were kept identical to those of the combustor. The products evolved from the combustion of coal, PVC, and mixtures of the two were trapped in suitable solvents at different temperatures, and analyzed using the Shimadzu GC/MS system. The detection limits and the GC/MS analytical parameters were also established. The experiments were conducted keeping in mind the broader perspective; that of studying conditions conducive to the formation of chlorinated organic compounds from the combustion of coal/MSW blends. 32 figs., 16 tabs.
Date: August 3, 1995
Creator: Pan, W.P.; Riley, J.T. & Lloyd, W.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis/control of in-bed tube erosion phenomena in the fluidized bed combustion (FBC) system. Technical progress report No. 8, July 1994--September 1994

Description: This technical report summarizes the research work performed and progress achieved during the period of July 1, 1994 to September 30, 1994. The metal wastage of AISI 1018 low carbon steel at different particle velocity was discussed to understand the erosion phenomena of in-bed tube in FBC system. At both low velocity (2.5 m/s) and high (30 m/s), the maximum metal wastage was occurred at 45{degrees} of impact angle. The erosion rates at low particle velocity were two (2) to three (3) orders of magnitude lower than those at high particle velocity. The characteristics of anti-erosion and design considerations were discussed and suggested for some basic design guidelines, which might be important to the designer of bubbling fluidized combustors. The working principle and mechanism of anti-erosion devices will be discussed. Based upon the understanding of the working principle and mechanism of anti-erosion devices, different types of ant-erosion tube will be designed for the cold model bench-scale FBC system.
Date: October 1, 1994
Creator: Lee, S.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Use of FBC ash to stablize dairy barn feedlots, minimize nutrient pollution, and develop new utilization outlets

Description: Using technology developed by the USDA/ARS and US DOE, the Ahlstrom Ash Development Corporation has been successfully using fluidized bed combustion (FBC) ash from the Black River Co-Gen plant in Watertown, NY as an agricultural soil amendment. This permitted land application was based primarily on the jointly derived handbook on FBC utilization. During times of the year when ash cannot be spread on crop land, Ahlstrom has been using the ash as a low strength concrete to stabilize dairy barn feedlots. The stabilized feedlots provide a place for cattle to escape from muddy conditions in the spring and fall. Farmer acceptance of these stabilized feedlots is very positive. However, there is a need to provide data on the leachates from and through these barnyard pads.
Date: November 1, 1995
Creator: Korcak, R.F. & Stout, W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Field study of disposed wastes from advanced coal process. Quarterly technical progress report, August--October, 1986 (final report)

Description: The Department of Energy/Morgantown Energy Technology Center (DOE/METC) has initiated research on the disposal of solid wastes from advanced coal processes. The objective of this research is to develop information to be used by private industry and government agencies for planning waste disposal practices associated with advanced coal processes. To accomplish this objective. DOE has contracted Radian Corporation and the North Dakota Mining and Minerals Resources Research Institute (MMRRI) to design, construct and monitor a limited number of field disposal tests with select advanced coal process wastes. These field tests will be monitored aver a three year period with the emphasis on collecting data on the field disposal behavior of these wastes. Objectives for the third quarter (and into October) were as follows: formalize the basis for the test designs; select design options; prepare a draft of the Test Design Manual; and initiate work on the Test Procedures Manual. The accomplishments under each task are described.
Date: November 20, 1986
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pressure fluctuations as a diagnostic tool for fluidized beds. Technical progress report, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1995

Description: Comprehensive experimentation has been conducted to determine whether circulating fluidized bed (CFB) pressure fluctuations can be used to verify that similitude conditions in circulating fluidized beds have been achieved. Using two geometrically similar CFB models, pressure fluctuations were recorded while the full set of similitude parameters were matched under a broad range of operating conditions. The method of data acquisition and analysis is shown to be very important in order to observe the significant frequency phenomena. Under relatively dilute conditions similar power spectral density and Bode plot profiles are observed in the two geometrically similar beds. The dominant frequency under these dilute conditions is inversely proportional to the characteristic CFB dimension. Under conditions of higher solids loading, an additional lower bed frequency phenomena is observed in the spectrum which may be a function of the depth of the lower dense bed in the CFB. It is evident from the results that under some operating conditions, a single dimensionless frequency is not sufficient to validate the achievement of similitude using pressure fluctuations. The results also suggest that the use of similitude parameters as they are currently defined is limited to dilute operating conditions, prior to the formation of a lower dense CFB.
Date: January 1, 1996
Creator: Brown, R.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hot gas cleanup test facility for gasification and pressurized combustion. Quarterly report, April--June 1995

Description: This quarterly technical progress report summarizes the work completed during the first quarter, April 1 through June 30, 1995. The objective of this project is to evaluate hot gas particle control technologies using coal-derived gas streams. This will entail the design, construction, installation, and use of a flexible test facility which can operate under realistic gasificafion and combustion conditions. The major particulate control device issues to be addressed include the integration of the particulate control devices into coal utilization systems, on-line cleaning techniques, chemical and thermal degradation of components, fatigue or structural failures, blinding, collection efficiency as a function of particle size, and scale-up of particulate control systems to commercial size. The conceptual design of the facility was extended to include a within scope, phased expansion of the existing Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility Cooperative Agreement to also address systems integration issues of hot particulate removal in advanced coal-based power generation systems. This expansion included the consideration of the following modules at the test facility in addition to the original Transport Reactor gas source and Hot Gas Cleanup Units: Carbonizer/pressurized circulating fluidized bed gas source; hot gas cleanup units to mate to all gas streams; combustion gas turbine; and fuel cell and associated gas treatment. The major emphasis during this reporting period was continuing the detailed design of the facility towards completion and integrating the particulate control devices (PCDS) into the structural and process designs. Substantial progress in construction activities was achieved during the quarter. Delivery and construction of the process structural steel continued at a good pace during the quarter.
Date: August 1, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pilot plant becomes demonstration plant design

Description: Advanced or second-generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion plants (APFBC) that generate electricity offer utilities the potential for significantly increased efficiencies with reduced costs of electricity and lower emissions while burning the nation`s abundant supply of high-sulfur coal. The three major objectives of Phase 3 are: test a 1.2-MWe equivalent carbonizer and Circulating Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustor (CPFBC) with their associated ceramic candle filters as an integrated subsystem; evaluate the effect of coal-water paste feed on carbonizer performance; and revise the commercial plant performance and economic predictions where necessary. This report describes the project.
Date: November 1, 1995
Creator: Robertson, A.; Hook, J. van & Burkhard, F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Integrated low emissions cleanup system for direct coal fueled turbines: (moving bed, fluid bed contactor/ceramic filter). Thirtieth quarterly report for the period January--March 1995

Description: The United States Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Research Center (DOE/METC), is sponsoring the development of advanced, coal-fueled turbine power plants such as pressurized fluid bed combustion and coal gasification combined cycles. A major technical challenge remaining for the development of the coal-fueled turbine is high-temperature gas cleaning to meet environmental standards for sulfur oxides and particulate emissions, as well as to provide acceptable turbine life. The Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Science & Technology Center, is evaluating Integrated Low Emissions Cleanup (ILEC) concepts that have been configured to meet this technical challenge. These UEC concepts simultaneously control sulfur, particulate, and alkali contaminants in the high-pressure process gases. This document reports the status of a program in the thirtieth quarter to develop this ILEC technology. During this Quarter of the program, the Phase In bench-scale, high-temperature, high-pressure (HTHP) testing of PFBC fly ashes was continued. Tests have been completed to characterize the filter cake pulse cleaning, as a function of temperature. The behavior trends are consistent with field unit observations. Sulfur removal tests, looking at the influence of SO{sub 2} on filter cake permeability, as well as the ability to remove sulfur by injecting dolomite into the filter, have been completed. Alkali removal tests were initiated this quarter injecting emathlite into the filter. A complete summary of the test procedures; tests completed and test results is presented in Appendices A, B and C. Preparation has been made to prepare the Phase III final report.
Date: October 1, 1995
Creator: Newby, R.A.; Alvin, M.A.; Bachovchin, D.M.; Yang, W.C.; Smeltzer, E.E. & Lippert, T.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Spectral methods applied to fluidized-bed combustors

Description: The goal of this research is to characterize coals and sorbents during the normal operation of an industrial-scale circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler. The method determines coal or sorbent properties based on the analysis of transient CO{sub 2} or SO{sub 2} emissions from the boiler. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is used to qualitatively and quantitatively analyze the gaseous products of combustion. Spectral analysis applied to the transient response of CO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} resulting from introduction of a batch of coal or limestone into the boiler yields characteristic time constants from which combustion or sorbent models are developed. The method is non-intrusive and is performed under realistic combustion conditions. Results are presented from laboratory studies and power plant monitoring.
Date: November 1, 1995
Creator: Brown, R.C.; Raines, T.S. & Thiede, T.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development and testing of PRD-6 hot gas filters

Description: The overall objective of this program is to develop and commercialize PRD-66 hot gas filters for application in pressurized fluidized bed combustors (PFBC) and Integrated Gas Combined Cycle (IGCC) power generation systems. The work is being carried out in phases with the following specific objectives: Demonstrate acceptable mechanical, chemical, and filtration properties in exposure tests; produce and qualify selected prototype design filter elements in high temperature high pressure (HTHP) simulated PFBC exposure tests; and (Option) generate a manufacturing plan to support commercial scale-up. The project is being carried out in five tasks, two of which have been completed and the third is underway. Task 1 provided the management plan and the necessary NEPA information for the project. In Task 2, the test plan was written. Laboratory work began in Task 3, which consists of three subtasks. In Subtask 3.1, attempts at design improvements of the baseline candle filter were made. Also in Subtask 3.1, mechanical property tests suitable for monitoring progress toward stronger filters, and ultimately for process control, were surveyed. After choosing the best test, mechanical properties of the baseline filter would be obtained.
Date: December 1, 1995
Creator: Chambers, J.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of methods to predict agglomeration and disposition in FBCs

Description: This 3-year, multiclient program is providing the information needed to determine the behavior of inorganic components in FBC units using advanced methods of analysis coupled with bench-scale combustion experiments. The major objectives of the program are as follows: (1) To develop further our advanced ash and deposit characterization techniques to quantify the effects of the liquid-phase components in terms of agglomerate formation and ash deposits, (2) To determine the mechanisms of inorganic transformations that lead to bed agglomeration and ash deposition in FBC systems, and (3) To develop a better means to predict the behavior of inorganic components as a function of coal composition, bed material characteristics, and combustion conditions.
Date: November 1, 1995
Creator: Mann, M.D.; Henderson, A.K.; Swanson, M.K. & Erickson, T.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characterizing and modeling combustion of mild-gasification chars in pressurized fluidized beds

Description: Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is supported by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of the Department of Energy (DOE) under FWP-FEAA310 to characterize the fuel properties of liquid and char coproducts from the mild gasification of coal, Because most of the energy content of coals subjected to mild gasification is retained in the byproduct char, efficient and cost-effective utilization of the char is essential in insuring that candidate gasification processes are commercially viable. One potential use for char of particular interest to DOE is pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC). PFBC is of particular interest because it has the potential for 10 to 30 percent greater overall energy efficiency than atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC), While bench-scale tools and analytical procedures for characterizing fuels for AFBC have been recently demonstrated, no such tools have been reliably demonstrated for PFBC. This report summarizes the results of joint research collaboration between ORNL and B&W that has been directed at modifying the previously developed AFBC fuel characterization procedures to be applicable for mild-gasification chars and PFBC conditions. The specific objectives were to: (1) characterize the combustion reactivity of a selected set of candidate mild- gasification chars at PFB conditions; (2) compare the measured char characteristics with those of more conventional PFBC fuels; (3) modify an AFBC computer code previously developed by B&W and ORNL for the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) to predict PFBC performance; and (4) apply the modified code and measured char combustion characteristics to make performance predictions for the candidate chars relative to more conventional fuels.
Date: October 1, 1995
Creator: Daw, C.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Co-firing high sulfur coal with refuse derived fuels. Progress report No. 3, [April--June 1995]

Description: The Thermogravimetric Analyzer-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer-Mass Spectrometer (TG-FTIR-MS) system was used to identify molecular chlorine, along with HCl, CO, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, and various hydrocarbons in the gaseous products of the combustion of PVC resin in air. This is a significant finding that will lead us to examine this combustion step further to look for the formation of chlorinated organic compounds. The combination of TG-FTIR and TG-MS offers complementary techniques for the detection and identification of combustion products from coals PVC, cellulose, shredded newspaper, and various blends of these materials. The pilot atmospheric fluidized bed combustor (AFBC) at Western Kentucky University has been tested. The main purpose of these preliminary AFBC runs were to determine the compatibility of coal and pelletized wood in blends and to explore the effects of flue/air ratio. Our objective is to conduct AFBC burns with 90 percent sulfur capture and more then 96% combustion efficiency.
Date: May 31, 1995
Creator: Pan, Wei-Ping; Riley, J.T. & Lloyd, W.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparison of hazardous air pollutants from advanced and conventional power systems

Description: The Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 are expected to impact both conventional and advanced power systems. Pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) and other coal combined-cycle processes combined with high-temperature cleanup devices are environmentally friendly and economically attractive. Though PFBCs are beneficial because they can decrease the emission of sulfur and NO{sub x} species, and advanced combined-cycle systems that incorporate high-temperature cleanup devices are beneficial because they can enhance efficiency, the impact of these technologies on the emission of trace metals and certain organic compounds needs to be assessed. This paper compares (1) the Tidd PFBC demonstration plant with conventional pulverized coal- and cyclone-fired systems and (2) the Tidd plant advanced particulate filter with the performance of conventional electrostatic precipitators and baghouses. We also attempt to extrapolate the comparison to other advanced systems. Except for mercury, the PFBC at Tidd released less trace metals into the flue gas stream than the adjacent conventional pulverized-coal combustor, using the same coal. Similar to conventional power systems, hazardous air pollution emissions from advanced systems appear to be lower than the trigger level of 1990 CAAA, which requires maximum achievable control technologies.
Date: December 1, 1995
Creator: Brekke, D.W.; Botros, P.E. & Erickson, T.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Westinghouse advanced particle filter system

Description: Integrated Gasification Combined Cycles (IGCC), Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) and Advanced PFBC (APFB) are being developed and demonstrated for commercial power generation application. Hot gas particulate filters are key components for the successful implementation of IGCC, PFBC and APFB in power generation gas turbine cycles. The objective of this work is to develop and qualify through analysis and testing a practical hot gas ceramic barrier filter system that meets the performance and operational requirements of these advanced, solid fuel power generation cycles.
Date: November 1, 1995
Creator: Lippert, T.E.; Bruck, G.J.; Sanjana, Z.N. & Newby, R.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department