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Energy changes in transforming solids. Continuation proposal for the period January 1--December 31, 1990

Description: This report describes work completed, work in progress, and work planned during the continuation of funding. Research is being carried out on the following: bonded inclusions are being treated as problems of a homogeneous body; the problem of two cavities or inclusions is being studied; the examination of non-classical transformations is leading to conservation laws in statics and dynamics with applications in fracture and defect mechanics; mathematical and physical modeling of damage in brittle solids is being performed; a theoretical and numerical study of subsonic interfacial waves in bonded piezoelectric dissimilar half-spaces has been completed; the study of which crystal classes are capable of admitting the so-called Type 3 transonic state in anisotropic elasticity is also complete; and wave studies will be extended into the supersonic regime. The authors also intend to complete a study of the general self-force on a 3-dimensional dislocation loop element in an elastic medium of arbitrary anisotropy, as this is currently a needed ingredient in modern fracture and damage mechanics and in the study of defects in integrated circuit materials.
Date: September 15, 1989
Creator: Herrmann, G. & Barnett, D.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

MCL (Gravimelt) System Integration Project. Quarterly report, October--December 1988

Description: The objective of this project is to construct and operate an integrated test circuit for the Molten-Caustic-Leaching (Gravimelt) process for desulfurization and demineralization of coal to prove process economics assumptions, deliver product coal and to test process conditions aimed at significantly lowering costs. The test circuit consists of six unit operations which together provide a continuous system for leaching coal and regenerating the reactant. These units are: (a) a kiln for reacting molten caustic with coal; (b) a seven stage water washing section for recovering caustic from the coal; (c) a three-stage acid washing section for removing the last traces of metals and alkali and providing an ultra pure coal product; (d) a water treatment section to provide either dischargeable or recyclable water; (e) a regeneration section to provide purified aqueous caustic; and (f) an evaporator section to provide molten-caustic for recycle to the kiln reactor. The integrated test circuit facility contains more than 160 pieces of equipment including filters, centrifuges, tanks, reactors, feeders and the kiln and rising film evaporator. It occupies 3700 square feet and is fitted with more than 6000 feet of piping, 425 valves, 80 instruments and controls as well as a control room with computer control and data acquisition and reduction system. The highlight of the quarter is completion of a week of around-the-clock shakedown of the integrated test circuit.
Date: January 15, 1989
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Molten-caustic-leaching (Gravimelt) system integration project. Quarterly report, April--June 1989

Description: Operation of the Gravimelt Integrated Test Circuit for desulfurization and demineralization of coal has been completed. A 48-test process matrix was performed over 750 hours of operational time resulting in production of 3,000 pounds of treated coal suitable for further test and evaluation. Optimization testing was performed resulting in product coal containing 0.4 percent sulfur (0.6 lbs SO{sub 2}/MMBtu) and 0.15 percent ash with more than 85 percent organic sulfur removal, 95 percent SO{sub 2} reduction from ROM coal and 91 percent SO{sub 2} reduction from precleaned process feed. This report contains all of the product sulfur, ash, volatiles and heat content data obtained to date.
Date: July 15, 1989
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An investigation of bridge width measurement and processing capabilities (1985)

Description: An investigation of Mound`s ability to measure and process bridges was conducted in 1985. Prior to improvements in the measuring system and technique, bridge width was found to have a sigma of 0.00019 in. After improvements were made, a sigma of 0.000047 was realized. Bridge length was found to be more erratic than width, although most of the inaccuracy was caused by measurement uncertainty. Length and width were found to have little or no correlation.
Date: May 15, 1989
Creator: Armstrong, K.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Primate polonium metabolic models and their use in estimation of systemic radiation doses from bioassay data. Final report

Description: A Polonium metabolic model was derived and incorporated into a Fortran algorithm which estimates the systemic radiation dose from {sup 210}Po when applied to occupational urine bioassay data. The significance of the doses estimated are examined by defining the degree of uncertainty attached to them through comprehensive statistical testing procedures. Many parameters necessary for dosimetry calculations (such as organ partition coefficients and excretion fractions), were evaluated from metabolic studies of {sup 210}Po in non-human primates. Two tamarins and six baboons were injected intravenously with {sup 210}Po citrate. Excreta and blood samples were collected. Five of the baboons were sacrificed at times ranging from 1 day to 3 months post exposure. Complete necropsies were performed and all excreta and the majority of all skeletal and tissue samples were analyzed radiochemically for their {sup 210}Po content. The {sup 210}Po excretion rate in the baboon was more rapid than in the tamarin. The biological half-time of {sup 210}Po excretion in the baboon was approximately 15 days while in the tamarin, the {sup 210}Po excretion rate was in close agreement with the 50 day biological half-time predicted by ICRP 30. Excretion fractions of {sup 210}Po in the non-human primates were found to be markedly different from data reported elsewhere in other species, including man. A thorough review of the Po urinalysis procedure showed that significant recovery losses resulted when metabolized {sup 210}Po was deposited out of raw urine. Polonium-210 was found throughout the soft tissues of the baboon but not with the partition coefficients for liver, kidneys, and spleen that are predicted by the ICRP 30 metabolic model. A fractional distribution of 0.29 for liver, 0.07 for kidneys, and 0.006 for spleen was determined. Retention times for {sup 210}Po in tissues are described by single exponential functions with biological half-times ranging from 15 to ...
Date: March 15, 1989
Creator: Cohen, N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A note on thermal analysis for an inclined plate crotch absorber

Description: Crotch absorbers are used to absorb unwanted synchrotron radiation to prevent most of the photons from striking the wall of a vacuum chamber. Since synchrotron radiation generated by bending the positron beam is very powerful, concentrated and penetrating, the absorber produces high internal heat generation. Depending on the materials used, this energy generation may be restricted near the surface of the absorber or distributed throughout the absorber with exponential decay in the direction of the penetration. The cooling of an absorber is important to prevent melting the material and to retain ultra high vacuum, since photon energy deposition on the metal surface causes the desorption of gases. This note describes an analytical solution of the heat transfer with application to designing a crotch absorber. The effects of angles and thicknesses of the plate and different materials on temperature distributions of the absorber are examined.
Date: June 15, 1989
Creator: Choi, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Toxicology Studies on Lewisite and Sulfur Mustard Agents: Two-Generation Reproduction Study of Lewisite in Rats Final Report

Description: Occupational health standards have not been established for Lewisite [bis(2-chlorethyl)arsine], a potent toxic vesicant which reacts with the sulfhydryl groups of proteins through its arsenic group. The purposes of this study were to determine the reproductive consequences and dose~response of continuing Lewisite exposure of parental males and females and their offspring in a 42-week two-generation study. Solutions of Lewisite were prepared for administration by diluting the neat agent with sesame oil. Rats were administered Lewisite (0, 0.10, 0.25 or 0.60 mg/kg/day for 5 days a week) via intragastric intubation prior to mating, during mating and after mating until the birth of their offspring. The dams continued to receive Lewisite during lactation. At weaning, male and female offspring of each group were selected to continue on the study; rece1v1ng Lewisite during adolescence, mating and throughout gestation. Again, the dams continued to receive Lewisite until weaning of the offspring. Lewisite had no adverse effect on reproduction performance, fertility or reproductive organ weights of male or female rats through two consecutive generations. No adverse effect to offspring were attributed to Lewisite exposure. Minor changes in growth was the only maternal effect observed. Lewisite exposure of parental rats caused no gross or microscopic lesions in testes, epididymis, prostrate, seminal vesicles, ovaries, uterus or vagina. Severe inflammation of the lung was observed at necropsy in cases in which Lewisite gained access to the respiratory system from accidental dosing or reflux and aspiration; this usually caused early death of the animal. The NOEL for reproductive effects in this study was greater than 0.60 mg/kg/day.
Date: July 15, 1989
Creator: Sasser, L. B.; Cushing, J. A.; Kalkwarf, D. R.; Mellick, P. W. & Buschbom, R. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Variations in volatiles in magma bodies based on studies of melt inclusions

Description: Knowledge of volatile concentrations in magmas are important in the prediction of explosive volcanism, and contribute to the understanding of the carbon dioxide budget of the atmosphere. Some important variables that are controlled by volatiles are: crystallization temperature of phases, composition of liquids minimum, and viscosity. Volatiles are also catalysts for reactions.
Date: June 15, 1989
Creator: Vogel, T. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Action Plan for updated Chapter 15 Accident Analysis in the SRS Production Reactor SAR

Description: This report describes the Action Plan for the upgrade of the Chapter 15 Accident Analysis in the SRS Production Reactor SAR required for K-Restart. This Action Plan will be updated periodically to reflect task accomplishments and issue resolutions.
Date: November 15, 1989
Creator: Hightower, N.T. III & Burnett, T.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

LIMB Demonstration Project Extension

Description: The basic goal of the Limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) demonstration is to extend LIMB technology development to a full- scale application on a representative wall-fired utility boiler. The successful retrofit of LIMB to an existing boiler is expected to demonstrate that (a) reductions of 50 percent or greater in SO{sub x} and NO{sub x} emissions can be achieved at a fraction of the cost of add-on FGD systems, (b) boiler reliability, operability, and steam production can be maintained at levels existing prior to LIMB retrofit, and (c) technical difficulties attributable to LIMB operation, such as additional slagging and fouling, changes in ash disposal requirements, and an increased particulate load, can be resolved in a cost-effective manner. The primary fuel to be used will be an Ohio bituminous coal having a nominal sulfur content of 3 percent or greater.
Date: June 15, 1989
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

LIMB Demonstration Project Extension

Description: The basic goal of the Limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) demonstration is to extend LIMB technology development to a full- scale application on a representative wall-fired utility boiler. The successful retrofit of LIMB to an existing boiler is expected to demonstrate that (a) reductions of 50 percent or greater in SO{sub x} and NO{sub x} emissions can be achieved at a fraction of the cost of add-on FGD systems, (b) boiler reliability, operability, and steam production can be maintained at levels existing prior to LIMB retrofit, and (c) technical difficulties attributable to LIMB operation, such as additional slagging and fouling, changes in ash disposal requirements, and an increased particulate load, can be resolved in a cost-effective manner. The primary fuel to be used will be an Ohio bituminous coal having a nominal sulfur content of 3 percent or greater.
Date: March 15, 1989
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

LIMB Demonstration Project Extension

Description: The basic goal of the Limestone Injection Mitigation Burner (LIMB) demonstration is to extend LIMB technology development to a full- scale application on a representative wall-fired utility boiler. The successful retrofit of LIMB to an existing boiler is expected to demonstrate that (a) reductions of 50 percent or greater in SO{sub x} and NO{sub x} emissions can be achieved at a fraction of the cost of add-on FGD systems, (b) boiler reliability, operability, and steam production can be maintained at levels existing prior to LIMB retrofit, and (c) technical difficulties attributable to LIMB operation, such as additional slagging and fouling, changes in ash disposal requirements, and an increased particulate load, can be resolved in a cost-effective manner. The primary fuel to be used will be an Ohio bituminous coal having a nominal sulfur content of 3 percent or greater.
Date: November 15, 1989
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Excitation and ionization of highly charged ions by electron impact

Description: Two approaches for very rapid calculation of atomic data for high temperature plasma modeling have been developed. The first uses hydrogenic basis states and has been developed and applied in many papers discussed in previous progress reports. Hence, it is only briefly discussed here. The second is a very rapid, yet accurate, fully relativistic approach that has been developed over the past two or three years. It is described in more detail. Recently it has been applied to large scale production of atomic data. Specifically, it has been used to calculate relativistic distorted wave collision strengths and oscillator strengths for the following: all transitions from the ground level to the n=3 and 4 excited levels in the 71 Neon-like ions with nuclear charge number Z in the range 22 {le} Z {le} 92; all transitions among the 2s{sub {1/2}}, 2p{sub {1/2}} and 2p{sub 3/2} levels and from them to all nlj levels with n=3,4 and 5 in the 85 Li-like ions with 8 {le} Z {le} 92; all transitions among the 3s{sub {1/2}}, 3p{sub 3/2}, 3d{sub 3/2} and 3d{sub 5/2} levels and from them to all nlj levels with n=4 and 5 in the 71 Na-like ions with 22 {le} Z {le} 92; and all transitions among 4s{sub {1/2}}, 4p{sub {1/2}}, 4p{sub 3/2}, 4d{sub 3/2}, 4d{sub 5/2}, 4f{sub 5/2} and 4f{sub 7/2} levels and from them to all nlj levels with n=5 in the 33 Cu-like ions with 60 {le} Z {le} 92. Also the program has been extended to give cross-sections for excitation to specific magnetic sublevels of the target ion by an electron beam and very recently it has been extended to give relativistic distorted wave cross sections for ionization of highly charged ions by electron impact.
Date: November 15, 1989
Creator: Sampson, D.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Molecular biological enhancement of coal biodesulfurization. [Rhodococcus]

Description: The objective of this project is to produce one or more microorganisms capable of removing the organic and inorganic sulfur in coal. The original specific technical objectives of the project were to: Clone and characterize the genes encoding the enzymes of the 4S'' pathway (sulfoxide/sulfone/sulfonate/sulfate) for release of organic sulfur from coal; return multiple copies of genes to the original host to enhance the biodesulfurization activity of that organism; transfer this pathway into a fast-growing chemolithotropic bacterium; conduct a batch-mode optimization/analysis of scale-up variables.
Date: September 15, 1989
Creator: Litchfield, J.H.; Palmer, D.T.; Zupancic, T.J. & Conkle, H.N. (Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effects of irradiation on intergranular stress corrosion cracking of Type 304 stainless steel

Description: Constant extension rate tests (CERT) were run on ten irradiated specimens in continuation of a study of environmental effects on intergranular stress corrosion cracking of type 304 stainless steel. Specimens of both furnace sensitized and annealed material were irradiated to fluences of 1 to 2 {times} 10{sup 21} neutrons (E {ge} 0.1 Mev) per square centimeter at a temperature of {approximately}150{degree}C in a reflector position of the High Flux Isoptope Reactor at ORNL. CERT test conditions duplicated conditions for testing of non-irradiated specimens. The time-to-failure for the sensitized and irradiated specimens showed the same pattern of dependence on test variables as the non-irradiated specimens in an associated study. The annealed and irradiated specimens showed no evidence of irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking.
Date: September 15, 1989
Creator: Caskey, G.R.; Ondrejcin, R.S. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)); Aldred, P.; Davis, R.B. & Wilson, S.A. (General Electric Co., San Jose, CA (United States))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Configuring the SLC linac for injection into PEP

Description: From time to time the normal SLC physics program is to be interrupted so that beam can be delivered to PEP. In order that the switch to PEP injection (and the switch back again) can be accomplished quickly and easily, the gun, the damping rings, the linac phase ramp, the energy profile of the linac klystrons for the scavenger bunch, and the entire positron production system are to be kept the same as in the SLC configuration. What mainly remains to be changed is the linac klystron profile for the leading two bunches - those going to PEP. The new klystron profile must be such that it leaves these two beams (1) with final energies that match that of the storage ring and (2) with final energy spectra that fit within the energy aperture of the PEP transfer line. The conditions that need to be met in order to achieve these two goals are discussed in this note. 1 ref., 2 figs.
Date: December 15, 1989
Creator: Bane, K.L.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Augmented Fish Health Monitoring, 1988 Annual Report.

Description: Augmented Fish Health Monitoring Contract AI79-87BP35585 was implemented on July 20, 1987. Second year activities focused on full implementation of disease surveillance activities and histopathological support services to participating state agencies. Persistent and sometimes severe disease losses were caused by infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN) in summer steelhead trout in Idaho and in spring chinook salmon at hatcheries on the lower Columbia River. Diagnostic capability was enhanced by the installation, for field use, of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technology at the Dworshak Fish Health Center for the detection and assay of bacterial kidney disease and by a dot-blot'' training session for virus identification at the Lower Columbia Fish Health Center. Complete diagnostic and inspection services were provided to 13 Columbia River basin National Fish hatcheries. Case history data was fully documented in a computerized data base for storage and analysis. This report briefly describes work being done to meet contract requirements for fish disease surveillance at Service facilities in the Columbia River basin. It also summarizes the health status of fish reared at those hatcheries and provides a summary of case history data for calendar year 1988. 2 refs., 4 tabs.
Date: August 15, 1989
Creator: Warren, James W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Transport properties of multi-component fluids and of suspensions

Description: This report describes work performed under grant No. DE-FG03-88ER13911 for the period June 15, 1988 through June 14, 1989. During this time, significant progress was made in the derivation of the fundamental equations describing suspensions and multicomponent fluid flow. We first considered a system consisting of spherical heavy (Brownian) particles immersed in a bath of spherical particles. The deviations of the bath from equilibrium are due to the nonequilibrium motions of the Brownian particles. The densities of the bath and of a Brownian particle are similar. An expansion in powers of the mass ratio, yields a Fokker-Planck equation for the distribution function of the Brownian particles, including the effects of direct and hydrodynamic interactions amongst these particles. The effect of the Brownian particle motion on the bath properties has been described. The conditions under which a closed equation for the coordinate space distribution function, can be obtained have been investigated and a Smoluchowski equation for this quantity has been derived.
Date: September 15, 1989
Creator: Oppenheim, I. & McBride, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Conceptual design report for a superconducting coil suitable for use in the large solenoid detector at the SSC (Superconducting Super Collider)

Description: The conceptual design of a large superconducting solenoid suitable for a magnetic detector at the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) was done at Fermilab. The magnet will provide a magnetic field of 1.7 T over a volume 8 m in diameter by 16 m long. The particle-physics calorimetry will be inside the field volume and so the coil will be bath cooled and cryostable; the vessels will be stainless steel. Predictability of performance and the ability to safely negotiate all probable failure modes, including a quench, are important items of the design philosophy. Our conceptual design of the magnet and calorimeter has convinced us that this magnet is a reasonable extrapolation of present technology and is therefore feasible. The principal difficulties anticipated are those associated with the very large physical dimensions and stored energy of the magnet. 5 figs.
Date: September 15, 1989
Creator: Fast, R.W.; Grimson, J.H.; Krebs, H.J.; Kephart, R.D.; Theriot, D. & Wands, R.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Detailed photonuclear cross-section calculations and astrophysical applications

Description: We have investigated the role of an isomeric state and its coupling to the ground state (g.s.) via photons and neutron inelastic scattering in a stellar environment by making detailed photonuclear and neutron cross-section calculations for /sup 176/Lu and /sup 210/Bi. In the case of /sup 176/Lu, the g.s. would function as an excellent galactic slow- (s-) process chronometer were it not for the 3.7-h isomer at 123 keV. Our calculations predicted much larger photon cross sections for production of the isomer, as well as a lower threshold, than had been assumed based on earlier measurements. These two factors combine to indicate that an enormous correction, a factor of 10/sup 7/, must be applied to shorten the current estimate of the half-life against photoexcitation of /sup 176/Lu as a function of temperature. This severely limits the use of /sup 176/Lu as a stellar chronometer and indicates a significantly lower temperature at which the two states reach thermal equilibrium. For /sup 210/Bi, our preliminary calculations of the production and destruction of the 3 /times/ 10/sup 6/ y isomeric state by neutrons and photons suggest that the /sup 210/Bi isomer may not be destroyed by photons as rapidly as assumed in certain stellar environments. This leads to an alternate production path of /sup 207/Pb and significantly affects presently interpreted lead isotopic abundances. We have been able to make such detailed nuclear cross-section calculations using: modern statistical-model codes of the Hauser-Feshbach type, with complete conservation of angular momentum and parity; reliable systematics of the input parameters required by these codes, including knowledge of the absolute gamma-ray strength-functions for E1, M1, and E2 transitions; and codes developed to compute large, discrete, nuclear level sets, their associated gamma-ray branchings, and the presence and location of isomeric states. 7 refs., 2 figs.
Date: June 15, 1989
Creator: Gardner, D.G.; Gardner, M.A. & Hoff, R.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Underestimation of oxygen deficiency hazard through use of linearized temperature profiles

Description: The failure mode analysis for any cryogenic system includes the effects of a large liquid spill due to vessel rupture or overfilling. The Oxygen Deficiency Hazard (ODH) analysis for this event is a strong function of the estimated heat flux entering the spilled liquid. A common method for estimating the heat flux is to treat the surface on which the liquid spills as a semi-infinite solid. This note addresses the effect of linearizing the temperature profile in this form of analysis, and shows it to cause the calculated flux to be underestimated by more than a factor of two. 3 refs., 2 figs.
Date: June 15, 1989
Creator: Kerby, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effects of crack geometry and material behavior on scattering by cracks for QNDE applications

Description: In work carried out on this project, the usual mathematical modeling of ultrasonic wave scattering by flaws is being extended to account for several typical characteristics of fatigue and stress-corrosion cracks, and the environment of such cracks. Work has been completed on scattering by macrocrack-microcrack configurations. We have also investigated reflection and transmission by a flaw plane consisting of an infinite array of randomly oriented cracks. In another investigation the propagation of mechanical disturbances in solids with periodically distributed cracks has been studied.
Date: September 15, 1989
Creator: Achenbach, J.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Phase behavior of coal fluids: Data for correlation development

Description: During the present report period, our framework for correlating saturation properties using the scaled-variable-reduced coordinate approach was used to develop a correlation for saturated liquid densities of pure fluids at temperatures from the triple point to the critical point. The new correlation results in precise representation of liquid densities of diverse chemical species with average errors of 0.12% when two adjustable parameters are used to characterize each substance. In addition, the proposed model compares favorably with the modified Rackett and the Hankinson-Thomson correlations with the added advantages of covering the full saturation range and obeying scaling-law behavior in the near-critical region. Although the approach is essentially empirical, the results obtained suggest an underlying physical significance for the model parameters and show an excellent potential for generalized predictions. This is demonstrated by the results given here for saturated liquid densities where fully generalized predictions yield average errors of less than 1.0%.
Date: October 15, 1989
Creator: Robinson, R.L. Jr.; Gasem, K.A.M. & Shaver, R.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department