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Progress Report No. 65 Aug. 15-Sept. 15, 1948

Description: This is a progress report on the following: (1) 184-inch Cyclotron Program; (2) 60-inch Cyclotron Operation; (3) Synchrotron Program; (4) Linear Accelerator Operation; (5) Experimental Physics; (6) Theoretical Physics; (7) Isotope Separation Program; (8) Chemistry; (9) Medical Physics; and (10) Health Chemistry and Physics.
Date: September 15, 1948
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Founding of the Brookhaven National Laboratory - Associated Universities, Inc.

Description: At the end of the war it became apparent that the teamwork of government and scientific institutions, which had been so effective in wartime work, must somehow be perpetuated in order to insure the continued progress of nuclear science in peace time. The enormous expense of the tools needed to pursue the next steps in this research -- nuclear reactors and high energy accelerators -- and the shortage of scientifically trained personnel pointed towards the establishment of a cooperative laboratory. Such a laboratory, using government funds, could carry out a comprehensive research program that would benefit the many interested research groups throughout the country. As a result of the wartime programs under the Manhattan District, centers of research in nuclear science were already active at the Radiation Laboratory in Berkeley, California, at Los Alamos in New Mexico, at the Clinton Laboratories in Oak Ridge, Tennessee and at the Argonne Laboratory in Chicago. No analogous nuclear research laboratories, however, had developed in the Northeast, and since so much of the nation's scientific talent and industrial activities are concentrated in the northeastern states, it was proposed that a new laboratory be established near New York City. As a result of this plan, the Brookhaven National Laboratory is now in operation at Upton, Long Island. The work of this Laboratory is performed under a contract between the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and a corporation, Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI) , formed by representatives of nine of the larger private universities in the northeast: Columbia, Cornell, Harvard, Johns Hopkins, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the University of Pennsylvania, Princeton, the University of Rochester, and Yale. The purpose of this laboratory is the advancement of knowledge in the fundamentals of nuclear science, the extension of its application to other fields, and the training of young scientists ...
Date: January 15, 1948
Creator: LABORATORY, BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Metabolism of Curium in the RAT

Description: The heaviest of the known elements is curium, which was recently discovered by Seaborg and his associates. This new element can be produced by the alpha particle transmutation of plutonium by the following reaction: {sub 94}Pu{sup 239} + {sub 2}He{sup 4} {yields} {sub 96}Cm{sup 242} + {sub 0}N{sup 1} This isotope of curium is radioactive and decays by the emission of an alpha particle to form plutonium 238 which, in turn, is also radioactive. Curium 242 has a half-life of 150 days, and its radioactive daughter, plutonium 238, has a half-life of 50 years. This isotope of plutonium decays by the emission of an alpha particle to form uranium 234 which has a half-life of 233,000 years. Shortly after the organization of the Atomic Energy Project, it became apparent that formidable problems would be presented as the result of the release of nuclear energy. One of the most urgent of these was the hazard presented by the production of large quantities of the radio-elements created by the fission of uranium and the coincidental formation of neptunium and plutonium. In an attempt to evaluate the potential danger presented by these radio-elements from the chain reacting pile, a large series of metabolic studies with experimental animals were undertaken in a number of laboratories working upon the Atomic Energy program. These studies, which have been briefly summarized elsewhere, included a series of investigations on the metabolism in the rat of the more important members of the fission products in the carrier-free state, as well as most of the heaviest elements at the end of the periodic table. These studies made it possible to predict on a semi-quantitative basis the potential hazards that this large number of radioactive elements might present should they gain entry into the body.
Date: January 15, 1948
Creator: Hamilton, J.; Scott, K. & Axelrod, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Fission of thorium with Alpha Particles

Description: Soon after the discovery of fission, Meitner, Bretscher and Cook found differences in the decay of various chemical fractions separated from uranium irradiated with slow neutrons and thorium irradiated with fast neutrons respectively and suggested that a difference existed in the distribution of fission products in the two cases. In 1940, Turner suggested that the distribution in various modes of fission should be investigated. The fact that elements such as tin, cadmium, palladium, and silver were found in fast neutron and deuteron fission of uranium and thorium before they were found in slow neutron fission of uranium suggested that the middle region of the distribution was raised as the energy of the incident particle was increased. Since the compound nucleus formed in the fission of thorium with alpha particles is U{sup 236}, the same compound nucleus formed in the fission of U{sup 235} with neutrons, it is of interest to study the fission of thorium with alphas and compare the resulting distribution of fission products with that found with uranium with slow and thorium with fast neutrons. Any difference between the various results where the same compound nucleus is formed must be due to differences in energy content and possible differences in distribution of the nucleons in the compound nucleus at the time of fission.
Date: October 15, 1948
Creator: Newton, Amos S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Fission of Thorium with Alpha Particles

Description: The fission distribution of fission of thorium with alpha particle of average energy 37.5 Mev has been measured by the chemical method. The distribution found shows that the characteristic dip in the fission yield mass spectrum has been raised to within a factor of two of the peaks compared to a factor of 600 in slow neutron fission of U{sup 235}. The raise in the deip has caused a corresponding lowering in fission yield of these elements at the peaks. The cross section for fission of thorium with 37.5 Mev alphas was found to be about 0.6 barn, and the threshold for fission was found to be 23 to 24 Mev.
Date: April 15, 1948
Creator: Newton, Amos S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radioactive contamination in the environs of the Hanford Works for the period April - May - June, 1948

Description: This report summarizes the radioactive contamination measured at the Hanford Works and immediate plant areas for the quarter April, May, and June, 1948. Topics discussed are: Meteorology; airborne contamination; contamination in the Columbia and Yakima Rivers; and contamination in rain, drinking water, vegetation, and in Hanford Wastes.
Date: October 15, 1948
Creator: Singlevich, W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sand filter pilot proposal

Description: This report is a short communication concerning the performance of pilot plant sand filters at Building 292-B at Hanford Atomic Products Operation. (VC)
Date: July 15, 1948
Creator: Stainken, F. A. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Review of stuck slugs

Description: Records show that difficulty has been encountered with the discharge of two tubes in B Pile, twelve in the D Pile, and fifteen in the F Pile during the period from initial start-up until March 15, 1948. In sixteen cases the tubes have been replaced, six of the tubes which were in the fringe have been made air tubes, four did not warrant replacement, and three are to be replaced in the future. General statistics for these twenty-nine tubes are presented with additional details in this report.
Date: March 15, 1948
Creator: Alexander, W. K. & Woods, W. K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department