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The excretion of hexavalent uranium following intravenous administration. II, Studies on human subjects

Description: Tracer studies employing uranium enriched in the isotopes U{sup 234}, U{sup 235} have been carried out in six human subjects; four males and two females. The uranium, 6 micrograms to 70 micrograms per kilogram of body weight was given intravenously in the hexavalent state as uranyl nitrate. Each individual of the series received a single injection of the metal except for one who was given two widely spaced doses. The first of these was when his condition was normal and the second after an acidosis had been produced by ingestion of ammonium chloride. Renal function tests including urinary catalase, protein, amino N to Creatinine N ratio and clearances of mannitol and p-aminohippurate were done before and after administration of uranium. Only at the 70 microgram per kilogram level in Subject 6 was there a slight rise in urinary catalase and protein suggesting that tolerance had been reached. The excretion of uranium was mainly in the urine, where from 70 to 85% of the administered dose appeared in the first twenty-four hours. Urine of the second twenty-four hours contained about 4% and the third twenty-four hour urine, 1.5% of the administered dose. Detectable amounts were excreted for at least two weeks.
Date: June 25, 1948
Creator: Bassett, S.H.; Frankel, A.; Cedars, N.; VanAlstine, H.; Waterhouse, C. & Cusson, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Physics progress report

Description: This document is the December 1948 Physics Division Progress Report from the Mound Laboratory. Items covered include: (1) measurement of the vapor pressure of polonium, (2) x-ray diffraction analysis of tantalum, (3) use of the vacuum balance, and (4) updates on efforts to prepare an x-ray target, measurement of the resistivity of polonium, and construction of polonium gamma standards.
Date: December 1, 1948
Creator: Haring, M.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Determination of plutonium in human urine

Description: Report is made of chemical procedures for determination of plutonium in human urine. The procedures are provided in outline form and statistical methods are provided for interpretation of the results.
Date: August 14, 1947
Creator: Langham, W. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Physics group progress report, May 1--31, 1948

Description: Various studies conducted at Mound Laboratory concerning physical properties of postum (Polonium 210) are described. Some studies are entitled Purity of Postum (Vacuum Balance Method); Vapor Pressure of Postum; X-ray Studies; Vapor Pressure by Effusion; Molecular Weigh of Postum; and Weighing Procedures for Macroassay.
Date: December 31, 1948
Creator: Knauss, H.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Instrumental analysis progress report, June 1--30, 1949

Description: Several bismuth compounds have been submitted by E. Orban for examination by x-ray diffraction. The sample of polonium in contact with platinum mentioned in the May progress report was received and identified tentatively from its x-ray diffraction pattern as PtPo{sub 2}. Calibration of the Perkin-Elmer infrared spectrophotometer has been completed and a preliminary study of the infrared absorption of NiCO{sub 4} made. Data showing the spectral purity obtainable on three ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometers have been completed. The emission spectrum of a sample of volatile impurity from the operations process has been obtained.
Date: December 31, 1949
Creator: Timma, D.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The solution chemistry of polonium (Ad Interim Report)

Description: This document is a March 1949 Ad Interim Report from the Mound Laboratory on the solution chemistry of polonium. A consideration of the valences of the elements of the Group VI-A would indicate that the oxidation states of -2, 2, 4, and 6 might be expected for polonium. From the decrease in stability of the hydrides of these elements with increase in atomic number, one would expect that the compound H{sub 2} Po would be very unstable and that the oxidation state of -2 would not occur in solution. Furthermore, the stability of the oxidation state +6 as well as the stability of the highest oxidation state of a given element decreases as the atomic number increases in Group VI-A and Period VI respectively. For these reasons, the oxidation state +6 for polonium would be expected to occur only in a strongly oxidizing medium. The +4 state would be expected to be stable. The work discussed herein indicates that polonium exists as PoO{sup ++} in a nonoxidizing or reducing medium.
Date: March 22, 1949
Creator: Haring, M.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Calorimetry progress report

Description: The constant temperature bath is in operation. A ballistic type instability was detected in the calorimeter circuits and corrected by grounding the bath. Calorimeters 37, 39, 40, and 43 have been installed are now being run. Calorimeter 40 was found to be unstable, and is to be disassembled and examined for the trouble. Calorimeter 46 was finished and placed in operation. Construction details are discussed. Six Logac samples were run in Calorimeter 38. Tests of this calorimeter are in Table 1. Comparison of Calorimeter 38 in a water bath and in an ice bath is shown in Table 2. Good results were obtained for such a drastic change in environment. Calorimeter 38 was turned over to Calorimetric Assay marking the end of the tests of this particular microcalorimeter. Calorimeter 44 was completed and installed in the ice bath. Table 4 shows the results of tests. The zero bridge potential is small and is very stable compared to Calorimeter 38. The comparison of the values with those from Calorimetric Assay is summarized in Table 3. The characteristics of Calorimeter 44 are shown in Table 5. Construction details are given for the platinum-manganin bridge-type thermometer. An instrument was needed that could be used to detect bath temperature changes of the order of 0.0005 C. The thermometer was installed in the bath on March 29, 1949. With the bridge current at 10 milliamperes, the measured sensitivity is 2.5 microvolts per 0.001 C change in temperature. The temperature difference between the inner and outer walls of a quartz capillary containing polonium was calculated. The volume of polonium in the capillaries was recalculated and the density re-evaluated.
Date: April 1, 1949
Creator: Parks, J. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Gamma scale chemistry progress report

Description: This report considers the work done during the year ending June 30, 1948, present work being done and future plans on the determination of formulas, methods of preparation, and properties of as many compounds of postum as possible. An experimental approach to such a research problem on the element postum requires that procedures which may be used deal with ultramicro quantities of material. Such procedures on an ultramicro or gamma scale require special techniques by personnel trained in manipulating these small quantities of radioactive material. Equipment which may be used varies with the experiment considered. Often new apparatus must be developed or equipment previously developed and used in some other experiment must be modified. This generalized research problem is subdivided in the {open_quotes}Research Problems Outline{close_quotes}. The presentation of a survey of these research problems with reference to the outline for the year ending June 30, 1948 is a critical review of the work done by the Gamma Scale Chemistry Group as well as a consideration of future plans. The course which these future plans may follow will depend upon information which may be obtained when carrying out planned experiments.
Date: June 1, 1948
Creator: Economides, M.; Estabrook, E. & Joy, E.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electrodeposition research progress report, July 1--31, 1948

Description: The cell used in production plating has a platinum anode and a platinum cathode. The potential at which the platinum cathode rests is not independent of the current, bat varies with it. In order to separate postum from other cations by electroplating out of solution, it is necessary to establish the plating potential at a value which will allow complete plating of postum, but will preclude the deposition of as many other cations as possible. This potential has been found to be about 0.00 v. to the normal calomel electrode. The procedure for determining the amount of loss postum as related to the time between the removal from the plating bath and the immersion into the water rinse has been worked out. Two runs have been made, neither of which were very successful because of mechanical difficulties which occurred during the runs. The second run showed, however, that as the time increased the amount remaining in the water rinse also increased very rapidly. It has been found that a very excellent method of removing suspended material from a solution of aqueous hydrogen fluoride is to filter it through a funnel machined out of teflon with a disc of a porous teflon sheet. It was found that the spongy teflon used in this experiment had a porosity of about 16.5 microns. It was possible to reduce the size by compression to about 2.0 microns. In this way any porosity of material can be obtained depending on the original size of the pores and on the pressure used to compress it.
Date: December 31, 1948
Creator: Orban, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electrodeposition research progress report, March 1--31, 1948

Description: Plating of Postum out of Nitric Acid and Hydrofluoric Acid Solutions -- W. Abel and W. Raiff. Postum was plated out of 1.5 normal nitric acid and 1.0 normal hydrofluoric acid under similar conditions. The hydrofluoric acid plate was better appearing, and had a much higher curie density. However, neutron counts in these runs were quite similar. Neutron Counts -- W. Abel and W. Raiff. A study of the change of neutron counts over a period of time was started. Conversion of Active Hydrofluoric Acid Solutions to Hydrochloric Acid Solutions -- W. Raiff. A 99.99+ per cent conversion was effected. Conversion of Production Solutions to 1.0 Normal Hydrofluoric Add Solutions -- R. Bell. Good conversion has been achieved; however, further work needs to be done on complete change of postum from the production solution to 1.0 normal hydrofluoric acid solutions.
Date: December 31, 1948
Creator: Orban, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Laboratory instrument design progress report, July 1--31, 1948

Description: One current model Ryerson quartz-fiber microbalance fitted with a quartz-fiber beam but lacking the entire optical system was received from Argonne National Laboratory on June 30, 1948. The first trails of the fiber drawing machine indicated excessive vibration originating in the motorized variable-speed transmissions and accentuated by the machine frame. Isolation of the motorized transmission vibrations from the drawing machine permitted successful drawing on first trials of the eight diameters of fibers between 750 and 5 microns needed for balance beam construction. Each trial yielded a full reel (approximately 150 feet) of usable fiber, through storage facilities were inadequate to preserve the entire quantity.
Date: December 31, 1948
Creator: Olt, R.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Gamma scale chemistry progress report, May 1--31, 1948

Description: An attempt has been made to prepare a compound of postum (Polonium 210) analogous to K{sub 2}{sup TeBr}{sub 6}. A preliminary experiment indicates possible preparation of bromides of postum and that these bromides are analogous to the chloride of postum. Photomicrographs of two crystalline forms of a product resulting from the reaction of bromine and postum are included in this report together with procedure used to form these crystals. Intermediate compounds formed in the attempted preparation of potassium postum bromide include a white residue from nitric acid containing postum and a yellow material formed on the ignition of this white residue. This yellow residue was identical in appearance to the yellow dioxide of postum. A red crystalline precipitate resulted when the yellow residue, which may well be QO{sub 2}, was treated with solution of hydrobromic acid and potassium bromide. Investigation of the use of titanium trichloride as a reducing agent to titrate, quantitatively tellurium dioxide has not yielded concordant results. An effort is being made to determine the best conditions for such a titration potentiometrically. Variations in concentrations, temperature of titration, electrode surface, acid concentration, and degree of agitation are in suspect.
Date: December 31, 1948
Creator: Martin, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Protective measures for personnel

Description: This document addresses radiation protection concerns for workers in the experimental laboratories and production plants where nuclear fission piles are being used. A broad in-depth discussion is provided based with the experiences gained in the Manhattan Project and being applied to contemporary activities. Discussion is thorough and encompasses control of external irradiations including alpha, beta, gamma, and neutron radiations; and control of radioactivity within the body by control of inhalation, ingestion, and entrance through skin or wounds. General measures for the control of radiation hazards is addressed by provision of clothing and waste disposal. An Appendix 1 is entitled General Rules and Procedures Concerning Activity Hazards.
Date: December 13, 1946
Creator: Nickson, J.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Physics progress report

Description: Difficulty encountered in the preparation of a pure postum sample for vapor pressure measurements with the quartz sickle gauge is tentatively ascribed to the existence of lead postumide. The modifications which have been made since June 1, 1948 in the apparatus for the measurement of vapor pressure by effusion are discussed. The apparatus in its new form is essentially complete and awaits the delivery of a Dewar flask before measurements are begun. In the preparation of a sample for the determination of the purity of postum with the vacuum balance, difficulties similar to those in Section 1 above were encountered. Resistivity of Postum - No progress. Ninety-one neutron counts were made for other groups. A specially shaped postum sample has been prepared for use in the attempts to flatten the response of the lead-geometry gamma counter. Patterns obtained from the recently acquired sample of elemental postum show the slight increase in unit cell size previously reported; however, the formation of the PbQ compound was detected much earlier than with the older sample.
Date: October 1, 1948
Creator: Haring, M.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Production division progress report, May 1--31, 1948

Description: A long term study on the possible effect of time on the micro-assay purity of postum product solutions is reported. It was determined that within the time periods studied (up to 102 days) time has no discernible effect on the mass purity of the postum electrodeposited from product solutions.
Date: December 31, 1948
Creator: Burbage, J.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Resistivity of polonium (Ad Interim)

Description: Apparatus for measuring the resistivity of polonium is described. This equipment has been built and tested. No resistivity measurements were made, however, because the method of determining the purity of the sample has not been perfected.
Date: March 9, 1949
Creator: Haring, M.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department