30 Matching Results

Search Results

Near Term Hybrid Passenger Vehicle Development Program. Phase I, Final report

Description: Activities performed in the Near Term Hybrid Vehicle (NTHV) program which studied the technical, economic, and fuel conservation aspects of replacing new 1985 full sized passenger cars in the US with automobiles having combination heat engines and electric motor power are summarized. These studies included NTHV design for the body power units, transmission system, and controls; evaluation of alternative strategies; the fuel conservation expected; goals for vehicle performance, safety and reliability; economic analysis, and mathematical models for use in the computer-aided design of the optimum performance NTHV. (LCL)
Date: September 21, 1979
Creator: Montalenti, P. & Piccolo, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Powerplant Productivity Improvement Study: project summary report

Description: Key findings from the Illinois Powerplant Productivity Improvement Study are: (1) the historic performance (equivalent availability) of large generating units in Illinois is below national average performance; (2) cost-effective opportunities to improve performance exist, and utilities pursue many of these; (3) there are no strong regulatory disincentives to the undertaking of productivity improvement projects, but no strong incentives either; (4) current utility practices, procedures, and management philosophy toward improved productivity are being strengthened; (5) areas in which immediate attention is warranted include application of reliability engineering tools to the analysis of powerplant availability and more vigorous pursuit of opportunities for performance improvements; (6) DOE systematic methodology for analysis of productivity improvement projects was demonstrated at three units and found to be useful; (7) the potential for improved productivity was estimated to be of the order of 2% in planned and forced outage rates; (8) if a 5% improvement were to be attained, cumulative (through 1990) constant-dollar benefits would be approximately $500 million; (9) formula regulatory incentive mechanisms are presently in a developmental or experimental phase, but adoption by the State of Illinois does not appear warranted at this time; and (10) the Illinois Commerce Commission can encourage improved productivity by explicitly considering recent unit performance during normal rate-case proceedings.
Date: December 21, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Commercialization of a high energy neutral beam ion source. Final report

Description: This final report summarizes the effort and presents the results of a Phase II fabrication effort to build an industrial prototype of the LBL developed high energy neutral beam source. The effort was primarily concentrated on incorporating hard vacuum dielectric seals and a ceramic high voltage accelerator insulator. Several other design changes were incorporated for cost, reliability or life improvements to include: (1) accelerator grid locating dowel pins to aid final alignment, (2) plasma source to accelerator captive fasteners to aid filament replacement during source maintenance, (3) molybdenum cooling tubes on all accelerator grids, (4) additional fasteners in the plasma generator to facilitate hard seals, (5) modified suppressor grid rails and holders to simplify final grid alignment, (6) adjusting screws on exit grid rail holders to simplify final grid alignment, (7) addition of adjusting screws to the grid end pieces to simplify alignment, and (8) addition of accelerator hat shims to allow two different grid positioning locations.
Date: December 21, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Slicing of silicon into sheet material. Final report, January 9, 1976-September 30, 1979

Description: Complete results, from raw data to interpretation to recommendations, of a program to investigate the use of multiblade slurry sawing to produce silicon wafers from ingots are presented. During the course of this program, the commercially available state of the art process was improved by 20% in terms of area of silicon wafers produced from an ingot. The process was improved 34% on an experimental basis. Production of 20 wafers per centimeter length of 100 mm diameter ingot is now possible on a production basis. Economic analyses presented show that further improvements are necessary to approach the desired wafer costs, mostly reduction in expendable materials costs. Tests which indicate that such reduction is possble are included, although demonstration of such reduction was not completed. A new, large capacity saw was designed and tested. Performance comparable with current equipment (in terms of number of wafers/cm) was demonstrated. Improved performance was partially demonstrated, but problems (both mechanical and of unknown origin) precluded full demonstration of improved performance.
Date: September 21, 1979
Creator: Fleming, J R; Holden, S C & Wolfson, R G
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tandem mirror and field-reversed mirror experiments

Description: This paper is largely devoted to tandem mirror and field-reversed mirror experiments at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL), and briefly summarizes results of experiments in which field-reversal has been achieved. In the tandem experiment, high-energy, high-density plasmas (nearly identical to 2XIIB plasmas) are located at each end of a solenoid where plasma ions are electrostatically confined by the high positive poentials arising in the end plug plasma. End plug ions are magnetically confined, and electrons are electrostatically confined by the overall positive potential of the system. The field-reversed mirror reactor consists of several small field-reversed mirror plasmas linked together for economic reasons. In the LLL Beta II experiment, generation of a field-reversed plasma ring will be investigated using a high-energy plasma gun with a transverse radial magnetic field. This plasma will be further heated and sustained by injection of intense, high-energy neutral beams.
Date: August 21, 1979
Creator: Coensgen, F.H.; Simonen, T.C. & Turner, W.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

LCPT: a program for finding linear canonical transformations. [In MACSYMA]

Description: This article describes a MACSYMA program to compute symbolically a canonical linear transformation between coordinate systems. The difficulties in implementation of this canonical small physics problem are also discussed, along with the implications that may be drawn from such difficulties about widespread MACSYMA usage by the community of computational/theoretical physicists.
Date: May 21, 1979
Creator: Char, B.W. & McNamara, B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Laser-driven shockwave experiments at extreme high pressures

Description: Laser-driven shockwave experiments have been proposed for accurate determination of equation of state data in the multimegabar pressure range. This paper gives a quantitative analysis of the prospects for such experiments. In order to unambiguously interpret shockwave data, one requires a clean shock -- that is, a planar, steady shock wave entering cold material (without significant preheat perturbation). The problems of attaining sufficiently clean shocks at high pressure are examined and scaling relations which relate the pressure achieved to laser intensity, pulse energy, etc, are developed. It is shown that significantly higher pressures can be achieved when structured (layered) targets are used.
Date: September 21, 1979
Creator: More, R.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Stress-rupture lifetimes of organic fiber-epoxy strands and pressure vessels

Description: Long-term behavior of filament-wound pressure vessels were tested, Kevlar 49 epoxy strands were studied in stress-rupture for more than a year. Because the strands are the smallest structural unit in filament winding, their behavior directly controls the performance of vessels. Five different stress levels were studied: 86, 80, 74, 68, and 50% of the mean ultimate tensile strength (UTS). At each stress level, approximately one-hundred strands were hung in a room maintained at 22 to 24/sup 0/C and below 20% relative humidity. Failure times were automatically recorded by a data acquisition system. Lifetimes were analyzed statistically using a two-parameter Weibull distribution. The maximum-likelihood method was used to estimate the parameters. The shape parameter, which is a measure of scatter and failure-rate change, increased with decreasing stress level. Less scatter and increasing failure rates were observed at lower stresses. There was no sign of an endurance limit down to 68% UTS. At 50% UTS no failure had yet occurred after 9000 h. The strand data were compared with data on lifetimes of pressure vessels wound with the same fiber and epoxy. The strands had slightly longer characteristic lifetimes, except at 86% UTS, and slightly less scatter, except at 68% UTS. The results of this study indicate that strands can provide valuable information about the long-term performance of filament-wound pressure vessels.
Date: August 21, 1979
Creator: Hahn, H.T.; Chiu, I.L. & Gates, T.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final report covering work done under LLL P. O. No. 4165009

Description: The High Field Test Facility (HFTF) to be built at Lawrence Livermore Laboratories (LLL) consists of a magnet which will be wound with Nb/sub 3/Sn superconductor. Embossed and electroplated copper strip will be soldered to the two broad sides of a rectangular Nb/sub 3/Sn superconductor 5.4 mm x 11.0 mm x approximately 100 m long. It is the purpose of this project to upgrade existing facilities to emboss the copper stabilizer strip, electroplate the strip with 50 Pb-50 Sn solder, and to solder two such strips to the superconductor. This program has been approached in seven separate tasks which are described in this report.
Date: September 21, 1979
Creator: Spencer, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final report on work done under LLL P. O. No. 3964609

Description: In comparing the results of extrusions of Nb, it was found that the non-uniformity of the Nb extruded at Teledyne Wah Chang Albany (TWCA) is more severe than the other. This correlates with results of the mechanical properties of Nb. Both specimens were given identical extrusion, cold work, and heat treatments. (FS)
Date: September 21, 1979
Creator: Spencer, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Rapid interferometric sorting of fusion targets

Description: A Mach-Zehnder interference microscope was automated which quickly characterizes and sorts transparent microspheres. It takes only 12 seconds to measure a 3 micron thick glass microsphere.
Date: September 21, 1979
Creator: Reel, G.T.; Woerner, R.L.; Willenborg, D.L. & Weinstein, B.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fabrication of glass spheres for laser fusion targets

Description: We have developed processes for mass producing the quality glass microspheres required for current laser fusion experiments. We describe the advances in the methods and materials used in our liquid droplet and dried gel systems.
Date: September 21, 1979
Creator: Woerner, R.L.; Draper, V.F.; Koo, J.C. & Hendricks, C.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of electrochemical photovoltaic cells. Second technical progress report, August 1, 1979-October 31, 1979

Description: The development of stable, efficient, photoelectrochemical cells based on silicon and gallium arsenide in non-aqueous electrolyte systems is being investigated. Redox reactions of ferrocene, anthracene and anthraquinone have been studied on platinum and n-silicon electrodes. The latter have been further characterized by differential capacitance measurements. Cells and equipment have been designed and set up for long-term stability studies.
Date: November 21, 1979
Creator: Austin, A.E.; Byker, H.J. & Brooman, E.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Segregation effects in JBK-75

Description: Chemical segregation of alloying elements, can be a severe problem in complex alloys. Many problems have been experienced with developing fabrication processes for JBK-75 and it is suggested that these difficulties may be related in part to the degree of chemical heterogeneity that exists in the alloy. Early testing and qualification of the alloy was made on relatively homogeneous samples, which came from small diameter ingots. In large size ingots used for production, it is more difficult to achieve a uniform distribution of alloying elements in the product; resulting in greater variability of alloy properties which are difficult to explain. Extensive microprobe measurements were made on samples of JBK-75 bar stock from several different production size ingots. It was found that segregation of titanium is a common occurrence. Titanium banding can be controlled by ingot melting rate and homogenization of ingot or intermediate product. A model for titanium diffusion shows that homogenizing at the ingot stage is ineffectual with respect to the spacing measured. However, homogenizing 20.3-cm diameter intermediate product, where band spacing is reduced, will significantly reduce segregation. The effect of segregation on tensile properties is discussed. Segregation may have a significant influence on forgeability of JBK-75. Forgeability tests show that microstructure plays an important role in the ability of JBK-75 to deform homogeneously, and microstructure is controlled by chemical uniformity of the alloy. Inhomogeneous shear during forging can cause adiabatic shear planes to form, and these have been observed in JBK-75.
Date: December 21, 1979
Creator: Mataya, M. C.; Edstrom, C. M.; Krenzer, R. W. & Doyle, J. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nuclear Chemistry Project. Progress report, Janary 1, 1979-December 31, 1979

Description: The first on-line operation of the Princeton electron spectrometer was achieved and its capability for fast life time measurements demonstrated. The first operation of the heavy ion source was achieved and beams of 75 meV /sup 12/C/sup +4/ ions and 37 MeV /sup 6/Li/sup +2/ ions demonstrated. The capability of the isotope separator to provide pure mass separated samples of radioisotopes is being utilized for three different applications. The very weak electron capture branch of 19-s krypton 81m to bromine 81 was studied. This transition probability is of crucial importance for a possible solar neutrino detection method based on natural bromine. Lead 202 has been prepared and mass separated for optical hyperfine spectroscopic studies. The isotope shift shift which measures the second moment, < r/sup 2/ >, of the nuclear charge indicates the more neutron deficient lead isotopes are becoming increasingly soft toward nuclear deformation.
Date: December 21, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Water-molten uranium hazard analysis. Final report. LATA report No. 92

Description: The hazard potential of cooling water leakage into the crucible of molten uranium in the MARS laser isotope separation experiment was investigated. A vapor-phase explosion is highly unlikely in any of the scenarios defined for MARS. For the operating basis accident, the gas pressure transient experienced by the vessel wall is 544 psia peak with a duration of 200 ..mu..s, and the peak hoop stress is about 20,000 psi in a 0.5-in. wall. Design and procedural recommendations are given for reducing the hazard. (DLC)
Date: August 21, 1979
Creator: Hughes, P.S.; Rigdon, L.D. & Donham, B.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Human health implications of geothermal energy

Description: Environmental problems consist of the release of noncondensable gases and vapors, disposal of saline fluids, possible land subsidence and enhanced seismicity, noise, accidents such as well blowouts, and socioeconomic impacts. The most important issue related to human health is believed to be the emission of noncondensable gases, including hydrogen sulfide, mercury, and radon. Based upon data at The Geysers, California, Power Plant, emissions of mercury and radon are not large enough to result in concerns for human health. Hydrogen sulfide emissions, however, have resulted in complaints of odor annoyance and health impairment. These complaints have been caused by exposure to levels of up to approximately 0.1 ppmv in ambient air. This is above the California standard of 0.03 ppmv. Achievement of this standard may not eliminate annoyance complaints, as the odor detection threshold is lognormally distributed and about 20% of the population can detect hydrogen sulfide at levels of 0.002 ppmv. Abatement systems for hydrogen sulfide have been utilized at The Geysers since 1975. This has resulted in an increase of occupational illness caused by exposure to the abatement chemicals and wastes. More effective, and hopefully safer, abatement systems are now being tested. Occupational hazards are evaluated; the more significant ones are exposure to toxic chemicals and hazardous materials and noise. Available occupational illness data are summarized; there clearly indicate that the most significant cause of illness has been exposure to the chemicals and wastes associated with hydrogen sulfide abatement.
Date: August 21, 1979
Creator: Anspaugh, L.R. & Hahn, J.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reactor for simulation and acceleration of solar ultraviolet damage

Description: An environmental test chamber providing acceleration of uv radiation and precise temperature control (+- 1/sup 0/C) has been designed, constructed and tested. This chamber allows acceleration of solar ultraviolet up to 30 suns while maintaining temperature of the absorbing surface at 30/sup 0/C to 60/sup 0/C). This test chamber utilizes a filtered medium pressure mercury arc as the source of radiation, and a combination of selenium radiometer and silicon radiometer to monitor solar ultraviolet (295 to 340 nm) and total radiant power output, respectively. Details of design and construction and operational procedures are presented along with typical test data. The test chamber was designed for accelerated testing of solar cell modules.
Date: September 21, 1979
Creator: Laue, E. & Gupta, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Magnetic mirror confinement of high-energy, high-density plasma

Description: This paper summarizes results obtained from and work in progress on those experiments which have contributed significantly toward the confinement in single-cell magnetic mirror systems of plasmas close to thermonuclear conditions. Because the mirror confinement of such high-energy, high-density plasmas has been studied most extensively in the 2XIIB experiment, discussion of 2XIIB results forms a major portion of this paper. In these experiments, injection of low-energy plasma has been shown to suppress microinstabilities to sufficiently low levels that high-beta (..beta.. approx. = 1) plasmas could be achieved and sustained by cross-field injection of beams of neutral particles. Plasma confinement was found to improve with ion energy, electron temperature, and plasma size. Based on these results, a larger Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) was designed to pursue confinement scaling to higher energies and larger plasma dimensions. MFTF design parameters and construction status are briefly reviewed.
Date: August 21, 1979
Creator: Coensgen, F.H. & Simonen, T.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Optimum frequencies for regional detection of cavity-decoupled explosions

Description: The natures of compressional (P) waves that originate in the crust, propagate in the crust and upper mantle, and are observed as Pg, Pn, and anti P waves at regional distances are examined. The discussion includes the observed variations of amplitude with epicentral distance for these waves as well as an estimate of values for the specific dissipation function Q/sub ..cap alpha../ in different regions. Studies were made on theoretical source and propagation functions for direct, reflected, and head waves as approximations for the observed Pg, anti P, and Pn, respectively. It was concluded that the classical (critically refracted) head wave is not very significant in regional observations, and that the related interference head wave and diving wave are more likely observed as Pn. Using an assumed seismic noise spectrum and the constant Q/sub ..cap alpha../ model for seismic attenuation, relations were derived for the frequencies corresponding to maximum signal-to-noise ratio for the classical and interference head waves and for the direct, reflected, and diving waves. The relations among seismic frequency, epicentral distance, anelastic attenuation, and explosion yield are illustrated for a simple source and propagation model.
Date: March 21, 1979
Creator: Rodean, H.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Defect states in plasma-deposited a-Si:H. Technical progress report, May-July 1979

Description: Three preprints are presented. The first, entitled ''Glow Discharge Optical Spectroscopy Measurement of Dopant Concentrations in a-Si:H,'' reports significant differences between the ratio of boron to silicon of the films and that of their deposition plasmas. The second, entitled ''Growth Morphology and Defects in Plasma-Deposited a-Si:H Films,'' presents structural studies that show that a major class of defect is an anisotropic density fluctuation. Studies of the hydrogen environment suggest that an inhomogeneous hydrogen distribution is associated with these fluctuations. From considerations of the deposition chemistry and nucleation theory, a model is proposed to describe the film growth process and its relationship to defects. The third, entitled ''Luminescence and ESR Studies of Defects in Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon,'' demonstrates that the two experiments involve identical recombination transitions, and identify two separate processes. One process involves defect states, and from the doping dependence of light induced ESR, it is deduced that the electronically active defects are dangling bonds with positive electronic correlation energy. (LEW)
Date: September 21, 1979
Creator: Knights, J C
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department