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Tester status report: April-June 1979

Description: This report details tester status and activities in support of testing of timers, actuators, detonators, firing sets, transducers, isolators, and pyrospacers for the period of April through June 1979.
Date: August 31, 1979
Creator: Draut, C.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mound Facility. 1978 annual report

Description: For Mound Facility, the year 1978 was one of progress marked by enhanced mission assignments and significant milestones. The thirtieth anniversary of the site was celebrated, and Monsanto Research Corporation began a new 5 year contract to operate the Mound Facility. Long-standing production assignments were strengthened, and were were given a new responsibility: to develop and produce all ceramic parts used in Mound-build products. progress toward US energy objectives was bolstered by Mound programs supporting the development of nuclear fusion poser, unlocking previously us attainable fossil fuels, ensuring the safety and security of nuclear material handling operations, and exploring the real promise of energy form the sun. In 1978, we focused our attention on many efforts aimed at a brighter, more secure future.
Date: December 31, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tester status report: October-December 1978

Description: This report details the status of the testers which provide the testing support of timers, actuators, detonators, firing sets, transducers, isolators, and pyrospacers during the time period of October through December 1978.
Date: February 9, 1979
Creator: Draut, C.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

LWRHU GTA Weld Development

Description: Nineteen LWRHU Development Welds have been made. Welds WD-1 through WD-4 were made early in the program to obtain preliminary joint design data. Welds WD-5 through WD-10 were made with the vertical leg of the shim located toward the closure end cap. A decision was made to locate the shim with the vertical leg on the fuel side of the capsule; therefore, the data obtained on the above capsule welds will not be included in this report. A tantalum pellet machined to the configuration of the fuel pellet was placed inside each development capsule. O.D. shrinkage measurements were taken across the stand-off ring nearest the weld. A small increase in capsule length resulted from the weld bead on the end of the capsule.
Date: December 13, 1979
Creator: Burgan, C.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

MAD-1021 slapper fabrication, LASL P.O. CM8-2909G-1

Description: One hundred MAD-1021 slapper test devices were built to fill the reimbursable order CM8-2909G-1 for W.F. Hemsing of Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. Physical vapor deposition (PVD) techniques were successfully used to prepare the slapper foil assemblies. The 0. 381 mm square bridge foils were of aluminium 3 micrometers thick. Copper solder pads of 1.0 to 1.5 micrometer thickness were also applied using PVD techniques. A total of 120 were fabricated and submitted to the fabrication group for assembly. The 100 completed slapper units were fabricated with 0.025 mm thick Kapton flyers. Barrels for these slapper units were 0.38 mm long with a 0.42 mm diameter.
Date: January 29, 1979
Creator: Nesslage, G.V. & VanKlompenberg, R.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Conceptual design report for tritium liquid waste recovery system

Description: This project will provide a waste water treatment system to efficiently strip tritium from certain Mound generated waste water streams. After stripping the tritium from the water stream, the tritium will be further purified into a fully reusable form. The by-product streams, both liquid and gaseous, will be within applicable standards and can be released directly to the environment. The major components of the system consist of the following: an organic cleanup unit for the incoming waste stream, to be located inside a new glovebox in SW 149B; catalytic exchange columns and electrolysis cells, and a hydrogen recombiner to be located inside new gloveboxes in T-57; hydride storage beds and a cryogenic distillation unit to be located inside new gloveboxes in T-16; control instrumentation, and tie-in lines to utilities as required. All major components of this system have been tested and successfully operated in a small pilot plant.
Date: July 16, 1979
Creator: Clark, W. B.; Lamberger, P. H.; Prugh, T. E. & Rogers, M. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Technical review of entrained design report

Description: Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) is planning to expand its in-house coal gasification R&D capabilities by installing a research facility that can address a number of concepts including entrained, fluid bed, and catalytic gasification and flash pyrolysis. This Advanced Gasification Concepts (AGC) facility design, as it currently stands, includes piping and instrumentation diagrams, vessel drawings and specifications, instrumentation lists and specifications, and equipment layout and isometric drawings. Before the design is finalized, a critique is needed to ensure that the intended flexibility and objectives can be met. The design approach was evaluated to determine whether the present design will meet the research objectives, including the need for flexibility. Heat and material balances, critical velocity requirements, vessel arrangements, potential operational problems, and instrumentation were reviewed. The mechanical design review included a critique of the drawings and specifications, adherence to standards and codes, materials of construction, vessels, piping, valves, heaters, and fittings. In addition, utilities requirements, heat transfer and particulate removal calculations, and pumping and heat exchanger requirements were checked. An evaluation of the equipment cost includes a critique of the reliability of the equipment cost breakdown, the areas of cost uncertainty, and the areas for potential cost savings. A safety analysis is also provided.
Date: December 14, 1979
Creator: Bowser, R.P.; Clark, W.B.; Griffin, J.F.; Kesling, W.E.; Kissner, T.J.; Krach, F.G. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analytical study of TATB preheating methods

Description: TATB (1,3,5 - triamino 2,4,6 - Trinitrobenzene) is a very stable explosive that is remarkably insensitive to severe impact and thermal environment. Experiments on its initiation and detonation characteristics have found it difficult to initiate under the energy transfer of thin flyer plates accelerated by electrically exploded metal foils. Figure 1 shows the propagation of a detonation front in such an experiment. Generally, the detonation waves are confined in the region directly in front of the flyer impact surface, leaving a substantial portion of the HE undetonated. It has been suggested by Lawrence Livermore personnel that a preheated TATB charge may improve its sensitivity and thus reduce or eliminate this deficiency. The above experiments were performed at the sample temperatures ranging from -54{degrees} to +74{degrees}C. As the temperature was lowered while the flyer impact velocity remained the same, a pronounced increase in the curvature of the detonation front was observed. This results in a significant decrease in the divergence of the detonation wave. Although an accurate relationship between the wave front divergence and the sample temperature is not available, it is generally believed that, due to an accelerated rate of chemical reaction, the detonation will significantly improve at higher temperatures. It is assumed that desired results may be obtained if we preheat the TATB to 100{degrees}C at a depth of 1 cm from the flyer impact surface. Many parameters influence the methods to be considered for carrying out this HE preheating. The most important among them are the time allowed and the amount of energy available. The task is made extremely difficult by the fact that TATB is a poor thermal conductor and that deflagration occurs at around 250{degrees}C. In this study, we investigate several heating arrangements and predict the temperature distributions under prescribed boundary conditions.
Date: October 29, 1979
Creator: Chou, T.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary calculations related to the accident at Three Mile Island

Description: This report discusses preliminary studies of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) accident based on available methods and data. The work reported includes: (1) a TRAC base case calculation out to 3 hours into the accident sequence; (2) TRAC parametric calculations, these are the same as the base case except for a single hypothetical change in the system conditions, such as assuming the high pressure injection (HPI) system operated as designed rather than as in the accident; (3) fuel rod cladding failure, cladding oxidation due to zirconium metal-steam reactions, hydrogen release due to cladding oxidation, cladding ballooning, cladding embrittlement, and subsequent cladding breakup estimates based on TRAC calculated cladding temperatures and system pressures. Some conclusions of this work are: the TRAC base case accident calculation agrees very well with known system conditions to nearly 3 hours into the accident; the parametric calculations indicate that, loss-of-core cooling was most influenced by the throttling of High-Pressure Injection (HPI) flows, given the accident initiating events and the pressurizer electromagnetic-operated valve (EMOV) failing to close as designed; failure of nearly all the rods and gaseous fission product gas release from the failed rods is predicted to have occurred at about 2 hours and 30 minutes; cladding oxidation (zirconium-steam reaction) up to 3 hours resulted in the production of approximately 40 kilograms of hydrogen.
Date: August 1, 1979
Creator: Kirchner, W.L. & Stevenson, M.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Applicability of microautoradiography to sorption studies

Description: The technique of microautoradiography was applied to the study of the sorption of uranium and americium on five rock types which exist at the Nevada Test Site. It was found that autoradiograms could be prepared in a few days which would allow the specific minerals responsible for sorption to be identified. Furthermore, the state of aggregation of the sorbed species was clearly indicated. It was concluded that microautoradiography was a useful adjunct to currently used methods for studying sorption of certain radionuclides.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Thompson, J. L. & Wolfsberg, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Status of evaluation of tuff in southern Nevada for geologic disposal of high level nuclear wastes

Description: Siliceous tuff in southern Nevada occurs in a complex and locally active geological environment. Regional thrust faulting, Basin and Range faulting, and present-day seismicity complicate exploration and site characterization activities. The inherent variability of tuff and the complexity of caldera complexes also complicate siting efforts, but may serve to enhance long-term containment. Time--space trends of silicic volcanism are moderately well-established, while those of recent basaltic volcanism are not. At present, the final consequences for repository siting of the geologic complexities described in this paper are not known. Evidence from laboratory cation exchange measurements indicate that tuff and tuffaceous alluvium can serve as effective natural barriers to migration of radionuclides. This fact, coupled with multiple hydrologic barriers and long flow paths, as in the vicinity of the Nevada Test Site, might well result in tuff being a suitable medium for the safe long-term geologic disposal of nuclear wastes. Preliminary thermal modeling indicates the strong influence of varying assumptions regarding in situ fluid pressures and geothermal heat flux on acceptable initial areal power loadings.
Date: December 31, 1979
Creator: Lappin, A. R. & Crowe, B. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Petrology of tuff units from the J-13 drill site, Jackass Flats, Nevada

Description: The J-13 drill hole, located in Jackass Flats, Nevada Test Site, has penetrated 125 m of alluvium and 932 m of tuff. Most of the tuff deposits consist of welded tuffs; glass phases in the tuffs have been replaced by authigenic minerals, mainly K-feldspar, silica, and zeolites. The zonation of authigenic minerals, with depth, indictes that alteration of glass phases and filling of vugs occurred during welding and compaction of tuff units soon after deposition and by interaction with groundwater. Zonation of authigenic minerals in tuff deposits at Jackass Flats is similar to mineral zonation in tuffs elsewhere at the Nevada Test Site and in tuff deposits of west Texas. All appear to have been developed by leaching of glass phases and deposition of authigenic minerals in open hydrologic systems. 10 figures, 38 tables.
Date: December 31, 1979
Creator: Heiken, G.H. & Bevier, M.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sandia Laboratories radiation facilities. Second edition

Description: This brochure is designed as a basic source of information for prospective users of Sandia Laboratories Radiation Facilities. It contains a brief description of the various major radiation sources, a summary of their output characteristics, and additional information useful to experimenters. Radiation source development and source upgrading is an ongoing program, with new source configurations and modes of operation continually being devised to satisfy the ever-changing radiation requirements of the users. For most cases, the information presented here should allow a potential user to assess the applicability of a particular radiation facility to a proposed experiment and to permit some preirradiation calculations and planning.
Date: July 1, 1979
Creator: Choate, L.M. & Schmidt, T.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary evaluation of the radioactive waste isolation potential of the alluvium-filled valleys of the Great Basin

Description: The occurrences, geologic features, hydrology, and thermal, mechanical, and mineralogical properties of the alluvium-filled valleys are compared with those of other media within the Great Basin. Computer modeling of heat conduction indicates that heat generated by the radioactive waste can be dissipated through the alluvium in a manner that will not threaten the integrity of the repository, although waste emplacement densities will be lower than for other media available. This investigation has not revealed any failure mechanism by which one can rule out alluvium as a primary waste isolation medium. However, the alluvium appears to rank behind one or more other possible media in all properties examined except, perhaps, in sorption properties. It is therefore recommended that alluvium be considered as a secondary isolation medium unless primary sites in other rock types in the Great Basin are eliminated from consideration on grounds other than those considered here.
Date: August 1, 1979
Creator: Smyth, J.R.; Crowe, B.M.; Halleck, P.M. & Reed, A.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mineralogy and petrology of tuff units from a UE25a-1 drill site, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

Description: Drill hole UE25a-1 has penetrated tuffs of Tertiary age which contain two major zeolitized horizons at depths below 380 m. These horizons are restricted to low-density, high-porosity nonwelded tuffs below the basal vitrophyre of the Topopah Springs Member of the Paintbrush Tuff (approximately 70 m above the current water table), and interfinger with more-densely-welded devitrified tuffs of granophyric mineralogy. Zeolites occur as glass pyroclast replacement, vug linings, and fracture fillings. Nonwelded units above the welded portion of the Topopah Springs Member are essentially unaltered, indicating that they have never been ground water-saturated for any significant length of time. Zeolite mineral assemblages appear to be characteristic of low temperature (<100{sup 0}C) ground water alteration of glass in an open hydrologic system. The principal zeolite phase is high-Si clinoptilolite with Si/Al ratios of 4.7 to 6.0. Ca tends to be the dominant large-radius cation, but grains with dominant K or Na are not uncommon, particularly with increasing depth. Compositional variations in clinoptilolite may be due to ground water composition or original pyroclast composition. Minor amounts of mordenite, characterized by lower silica content (<55 wt %) and high alkali content (>10 wt % Na{sub 2}O + K{sub 2}O), occur as vug fillings at depths below 500 m. Presence of mordenite may indicate slightly elevated alteration temperatures, but more likely reflects enrichment of ground water in alkalis with depth. Mineralogical, compositional, and textural similarities of the zeolitized tuffs from UE25a-1 and J-13 are compatible with a single episode of crystallization. 16 figures.
Date: November 1, 1979
Creator: Sykes, M.L.; Heiken, G.H. & Smyth, J.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sorption--desorption studies on argillite. I. Initial studies of strontium, technetium, cesium, barium, cerium, and europium

Description: Distribution ratios were determined for sorption--desorption of radioactive tracers between Eleana argillite available from the Nevada Test Site and a water prepared to be representative of the natural groundwater composition. The measurements were preformed at 22{sup 0}C and 70{sup 0}C under atmospheric oxygen conditions. The order of increasing distribution coefficient by element at both temperatures is Tc(VII), Sr, Cs, Ba, Eu, and Ce. The effects of surface area and mineralogy were also investigated. 34 figures, 26 tables.
Date: March 1, 1979
Creator: Erdal, B.R.; Aguilar, R.D.; Bayhurst, B.P.; Oliver, P.Q. & Wolfsberg, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sensitivity study on the parameters of the regional hydrology model for the Nevada nuclear waste storage investigations

Description: Statistical methodology has been applied to the investigation of the regional hydrologic systems of a large area encompassing the Nevada Test Site (NTS) as a part of the overall evaluation of the NTS for deep geologic disposal of nuclear waste. Statistical techniques including Latin hypercube sampling were used to perform a sensitivity analysis on a two-dimensional finite-element code of 16 geohydrologic zones used to model the regional ground-water flow system. The Latin hypercube sample has been modified to include correlations between corresponding variables from zone to zone. From the results of sensitivity analysis it was found that: (1) the ranking of the relative importance of input variables between locations within the same geohydrologic zone were similar, but not identical; and (2) inclusion of a correlation structure for input variables had a significant effect on the ranking of their relative importance. The significance of these results is discussed with respect to the hydrology of the region.
Date: December 31, 1979
Creator: Iman, R. L.; Davenport, J. M.; Waddell, R. K.; Stephens, H. P. & Leap, D. I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Technical concept for rock mechanics tests, Climax Granite, NTS

Description: If we are to believe our predictions of the thermomechanical behavior of the material surrounding a nuclear waste repository in granite, we must test the computational methods used in making the predictions. If thermal loadings appropriate to a real repository are used, thermally induced displacements and strains are quite small, and available geotechnical instrumentation is only marginally able to measure these effects to the accuracy desired to make thorough tests of the predictions. We outline a three-step program to address these issues. (1) Conduct experiments in which the thermal loading is large compared to that induced by a real repository. This will permit us to make accurate measurements with available instrumentation. (2) Simultaneously, develop improved instrumentation that will enable us to make accurate measurements of motions induced by thermal loadings appropriate to a real repository. (3) Finally, conduct a second set of experiments, with the improved instrumentation and thermal loading similar to that of a real repository in granite. If we can predict the effects of this thermal loading to a few percent over distances of tens of meters for time periods of a few years, and demonstrate that these predictions are correct, we can have reasonable confidence that, using the same methods, we can predict the behavior over thousands of meters for hundreds of years to an order of magnitude. That accuracy should be satisfactory for those distances and times.
Date: February 1, 1979
Creator: Hearst, J.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Waste-isolation projects, FY 1978

Description: This report describes Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) activities during FY 1978 in support of the National Waste Terminal Storage Program. Current projects at LLL fall into three categories: (1) field testing, (2) laboratory rock mechanics measurements, and (3) laboratory studies of sorption and leaching. Field test activities conducted in the Climax granite at the Nevada Test Site included electrical heater tests, preparation for a spent-fuel-storage test, and planning for a series of rock mechanics tests. The heater tests determined the in situ thermal properties of Climax granite and its in situ permeability as a function of rock temperature. The two main laboratory rock mechanics projects involved (1) measurement of the permeability, electrical conductivity, and acoustic velocity of 15-cm-diam cores of granitic rocks over a range of confining pressure, pore (water) pressure, and deviatoric stress, and (2) measurement of rock thermal properties as a function of temperature and confining pressure in the presence of pore fluids to 770{sup 0}K and 200 Mpa. The leaching studies made use of an LLL-designed, single-pass leaching apparatus with three solutions, two leach temperatures, and three flow rates. The material evaluated was Np--Pu-doped simulated waste glass from Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories. The sorption studies involved standard static measurements of the equilibrium distribution coefficient (K/sub d/) for various radionuclides on a variety of rocks, and flow-through-core studies of dynamic sorption.
Date: January 12, 1979
Creator: Ramspott, L.D. (ed.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sorption--desorption studies on tuff. I. Initial studies with samples from the J-13 drill site, Jackass Flats, Nevada

Description: Distribution coefficients were determined for sorption--desorption of radionuclides between each of three different types of tuff from drill hole J-13 at the Nevada Test Site and water from that well. The measurements were performed under atmospheric conditions at 22{sup 0}C and 70{sup 0}C. Sorption ratios vary greatly with lithologic variety of tuff. A tuff high in zeolite minerals has high sorption ratios (in decreasing order) for Eu, Ba, Cs, and Am and intermediate ratios for Sr and Pu. A tuff high in glass shows very high ratios for Ba, Sr, and Cs, intermediate values for Am and Pu, and low values for Ce and Eu. A devitrified tuff similar mineralogically to a microgranite exhibits intermediate values for Ba, Cs, Am, and Pu and low values for Eu, Ce, and Sr. Values for Ru are low, and those for Mo, Sb, and I are very low or zero for the three types. 34 figures, 32 tables.
Date: April 1, 1979
Creator: Wolfsberg, K.; Bayhurst, B.P.; Crowe, B.M.; Daniels, W.R.; Erdal, B.R.; Lawrence, F.O. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

NTS Terminal Waste Storage Project. Annual report, FY 1978 (should have been 1979)

Description: The primary thrust of the NTS Terminal Waste Storage Project during FY 1978 was to continue an evaluation of the suitability of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for siting a commercial spent fuel or high-level waste repository. At the beginning of the year, three primary issues were identified. They are: (1) is waste isolation at the NTS compatible with weapons testing; (2) are there suitable geohydrologic settings available on the NTS; and (3) are there suitable disposal media available at NTS. The NTS Terminal Waste Storage Project has been organized primarily to address these three issues. The southwestern area of the NTS has been identified as compatible with both current and future weapons testing. The NTS and adjacent areas of southern Nevada contain media which are probably suitable for waste isolation and which occur in a region characterized by long groundwater flow paths through sorptive media. However, utilization of the southwestern part of NTS requires that several geotechnical issues be addressed intensively. These are: (1) the potential for earthquakes at and near NTS; (2) the potential for future volcanism at possible repository sites; (3) the location and nature of faults; and (4) the characterization of the groundwater flow system from possible repository sites to places of discharge. Four potential disposal media available on the NTS were studied during FY 1978. Studies of one of these media, alluvium, were suspended due to the low near-field thermal conductivity. Studies of other potential media, granite, argillite, and tuff, will continue during FY 1979 since it appears that these media could be used for emplacement of commercial spent fuel or high-level waste. Geologic site investigations have and will continue to evaluate areas with these media.
Date: December 31, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Conversion of associated natural gas to liquid hydrocarbons

Description: Energy International is a leader in catalyst and process development as it relates to Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology. Through this activity, a concept evolved for a new technique for capturing the fuel value in the associated natural gas contained in crude oil. In the new concept, the dissolved natural gas would be processed via F-T technology to produce light hydrocarbons that would then, in one manifestation of this concept, be redissolved in the crude oil to produce a lighter crude than the original, containing all of the natural gas, but with the vapor pressure of the crude lowered to an acceptable level via the conversion process. This technique would be of particular interest in those instances where the alternative methods of collections and utilizing the associated natural gas were expensive. A study of the application of this technology was undertaken by EI with support from the DOE.
Date: December 31, 1979
Creator: Singleton, A.H., Cooper, P.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department