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The specific activity of tritium in the organic components of the skin and fat of man following eight months` chronic exposure to HTO in body fluids

Description: A healthy 39-year-old male weighing 65 kg was exposed for a period of 8 months to varying levels of HTO. The average tritium activity in body fluids over the entire period was 23 {mu}c/liter. A few weeks after exposure, when the HTO activity in body fluids had declined to about 0.2 {mu}c/liter, a biopsy was pe formed on skin and fat taken from the region of the lower abdomen, and the material was analyzed for tritium activity. The skin showed an average activity equivalent to 0.4 {mu}c/kg of dry tissue and the fat about 0.3 {mu}c/kg of dry tissue. The radiation dose per unit time from these activities was only 1 to 2 percent of the radiation dose per unit time during the 8-month exposure period. It was concluded that the radiation hazard due to retention of tritium in the organic components of these tissues of man after chronic exposure was negligible compared to the radiation hazard from HTO activity in the body fluids which was necessary to induce the activity into the organic components. Comparable experiments on mice previously reported indicate that this conclusion may hold for all tissues in the body. The water content of the skin and fat of man was found to be 71 percent and 20 percent, respectively, on the basis of the wet weight. The hydrogen content of skin was 7.6 per cent, and of fat 11.4 percent, of the dry weight of the tissue.
Date: October 1, 1952
Creator: Pinson, E.A.; Anderson, E.C. & Lotz, V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Technical activities report - July 1952 graphite development - pile graphite

Description: Physical data are presented for transverse CSF samples with capsule exposures of 568, 1049, and 1617 MD/CT. The higher exposures indicate a sharper damage gradient toward the front of the pile. Additional casings of various types of graphite were loaded into test holes during this month. Average values of the thermal conductivity and electrical resistivity for several types of virgin graphites are presented. Data of this nature will be a regular portion of this report henceforth. Process tube channel 2677-H was mined and traversed for bore diameter. Although several of the tube block junctions were obscured, the channel was quite uniform. Examination of all previously mined graphite powder samples for aluminum oxide corrosion product has been completed and the results are reported.
Date: August 11, 1952
Creator: Music, J. F. & Zuhr, H. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

University of California, Los Angeles Campus School of Medicine Atomic Energy Project quarterly progress report for period ending March 31, 1952

Description: The fifteenth quarterly report being submitted for Contract No. AT04-1-GEN-12 is issued in accordance with Service Request Number 1 except for the report of the Alamogordo Section, Code 91810, which is submitted in accordance with the provisions of Service Request Number 2. Work is in progress on continuing existing projects. In addition, new projects have been initiated including the Kinetics and Mechanism of Protein Denaturation (10018); The Effect of Irradiation on the Constituents of Embryonic Serum (30033); and The Use of Controlled Atmospheres for Spectrographic Excitation Sources (40053). Many of the Project units are either wholly or partially completed and the following initial reports are available: Identification of Ferritin in Blood of Dogs Subjected to Radiation from an Atomic Detonation (UCLA-180); The Nutritional Value of Intravenous Tapioca Dextrin in Normal and Irradiated Rabbits (UCLA-181); The-Decarboxylation and Reconstitution of Linoleic Acid (UCLA-183); Preparation and Properties of Thymus Nucleic Acid (UCLA-184); The Radiation Chemistry of Cysteine Solutions Part II. (a) The Action of Sulfite on the Irradiated Solutions; (b) The Effect on Cystine (UCLA-185); A Revolving Specimen Stage for the Electron Microscope (UCLA-178); An Automatic Geiger-Mueller Tube Tester (UCLA-186); The Value of Gamma Radiation Dosimetry in Atomic Warfare Including a Discussion of Practical Dosage Ranges (UCLA-187); and A New Plastic Tape Film Badge Holder (UCLA-189). Two additional reports were issued; one by Dr. Wilbur Selle entitled Attempts to Alter the Response to Ionizing Radiations from the School of Medicine, UCLA (UCLA-176), and two, a restricted distribution report from the Alamogordo Section entitled Field Observations and Preliminary Field Data Obtained by the UCLA Survey Group on Operation Jangle, November 1951 (UCLA-182).
Date: April 10, 1952
Creator: Warren, S.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Metal detector study for Hanford

Description: This study was undertaken at the request of the Hanford Works to investigate the possibility of detecting 3/8 inch diameter boron-steel control-balls which become lodged within cracks between the graphite blocks of an atomic pile. The cracks concerned occur radially from 4 3/16 inch diameter holes which pass vertically through the pile. The problem is complicated by the following facts: The graphite blocks are conducting and will therefore give rise to spurious signals primarily due to the cracks between blocks. Numerous aluminum tubes containing water and bars of uranium pass horizontally through the pile at distances closer to the hole than the ball at its extreme position. The vertical holes themselves are warped in an arbitrary manner. Calculations were made to determine theoretically whether or not the ball could be detected. Best operating frequency and coil design were also determined. Tests were made utilizing a specially designed search coil and a test section of graphite pile. Measurements of particle voltage vs. position relative to the coil were made and compared with that resulting from the graphite.
Date: March 25, 1952
Creator: Hansen, W.O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

100-K water plant facilities data for G.E. scoping

Description: This report discusses seven items related to the design of the 100-K water plant facilities. These items include: the number of process water connections to the reactor building, valving at the control building, and number of main pumping units; effect on heating system of the Hanford power outage during the winter period; reactor supply conditions; power requirements and steam flow at the local power plant; the service water system; general arrangement of the heat exchanger building; and pumping station control.
Date: August 8, 1952
Creator: Patterson, R.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Chemical development Separations Technology Unit. Progress report

Description: The Redox Plant operated at a 76.7% time efficiency (IAF basis) and averaged 3.16 tons of uranium per operating day during the month. During the period from July 4 through July 13, 38,000 gallons of 72% ANN from Tygon-lined storage tank SS-112 were used in aqueous salt solution make-ups with some emulsion difficulty and fission-product carry-over resulting. New ANN, from stainless-steel tanks, was used for the balance of the month. An extensive (thermally) hot 60% HNO{sub 3} cleanout was given to the IA, IB, 2D, 3D, 2A, and 3A columns and associated salt solution head tanks to prepare the solvent-extraction battery for operation using 90-day `cooled` uranium. Continuous cross-over oxidation to improve 2A Column waste losses, and employment of KOH (vice NaOH) in 2DS, ICU, and 2EU butt additions to minimize Na in 3EU, were begun concurrently on July 20. Aged (90-day) uranium in head-end treated feed batches, was started to the IA Column on July 21, with early data indicating adequate two-cycle decontamination for both uranium and plutonium.
Date: July 31, 1952
Creator: Woodfield, F.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Argonne National Laboratory monthly progress report, April 1952

Description: This progress report from the Argonne National Laboratory covers the work in Biological and Medical Research, Radiological Physics, and Health services for the quarterly period ending March 31, 1952. Numerous experiments were conducted in an attempt to answer some of the questions arising from exposure to ionizing radiation, especially X radiation. Some of the research involved the radiosensitivity of cells and some involved animals. The effects of radium in humans was also evaluated. Other studies were performed in biology, such as the effect of photoperiodism on plant growth and the biological of beryllium.
Date: April 1, 1952
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Production of ``X`` buttons in the 234-5 Building

Description: Since 1945 the routine production of plutonium (``A`` buttons) at Atomic Energy plants has been accomplished by heating mixtures of plutonium tetrafluoride, calcium and iodine in crucible-bomb assemblies. Yields above 97% and metal of adequate purity are consistently obtained by this process. Plutonium (``X`` button) production has also been carried out routinely by including plutonium turnings with the powder mixture given above. A majority (several thousand) of buttons produced in the 234-5 Building have been ``X`` buttons made by recycling up to 1.1 units of turnings/unit of plutonium in the plutonium tetrafluoride. Operating hazards exist in either process, however, and these are reviewed below.
Date: April 8, 1952
Creator: Collins, P.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Production Test 234-5 plant process evaluation precipitation of plutonium IV oxalate

Description: The object of the work described in this report was to adapt the laboratory procedures for precipitating and hydrofluorinating plutonium (IV) oxalate to plant equipment on 160 and 350 gram scale. This adaptation was done by making minor process changes in concentration, digestion time, rate of chemical addition, etc.
Date: December 3, 1952
Creator: Kerr, W.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Purity data on Redox start-up material through the 231 and 234-5 Buildings

Description: Redox effluent for production was first processed in the 231 Building on February 4, 1952. Samples of process streams were taken after each purification step to evaluate the adequacy of purification processes in,the 231 and 234-5 Buildings and to provide close control of this material. Data regarding pile residence histories, radiation surveys of ``Sample Cans``, reduction yields, C/Q values, and product purity after purification steps were accumulated and are presented in this report to establish preliminary data which may be used to evaluate future process changes.
Date: October 3, 1952
Creator: Collins, P.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

234-5 Building RM line equipment tests, Task III mixer

Description: Several operations that are important to the process as carried out in Task III (Reduction) are performed by the mixer. In order to specify the process certain tests were made to study these operations and are discussed in this report. They include: Mixing Time, Mixer Discharge Rate, Mixer Holdup, and Mixer Capacity. A description of the test, conclusions and recommendations is provided.
Date: April 10, 1952
Creator: Collins, P. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Improvement program -- 234-5 RMA Line

Description: After almost four months elapsed time since product introduction into the RMA Line, it was pertinent to evaluate both process and equipment performance and arrive at a program for future improvement. The suggestions and recommendations provided are those of the Technical Section. In those passages made to acknowledge the views of the appropriate groups.
Date: August 13, 1952
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Critical mass study of 231 process tanks

Description: An estimated minimum critical mass for each of the process vessels in the 231 Building has been calculated on the basis of critical mass data given in the P-11 Project Document HW-24514. The calculations are made assuming the plutonium to be a homogeneous mixture of precipitate and water with some slight neutron poisoning due to other elements. The precipitate is further assumed to have partially settled making an effectively infinite water reflector above the plutonium and hence reducing the critical mass.
Date: August 19, 1952
Creator: Lanning, D.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Critical mass studies of plutonium solutions

Description: The chain reacting conditions for plutonium nitrate in water solution have been examined experimentally for a variety of sizes of spheres and cylinders. The effects on the critical mass of the displacement of hydrogen and the addition of poisons to the fuel were measured in water tamped and bare reactors. In this report the data obtained in the investigation is presented graphically and in tables. Some preliminary analysis has been made yielding the results: (i) the absorption cross-section of Pu{sup 240} is 925 {plus_minus} 200 barns and (ii) the minimum critical mass of Pu{sup 239} in water is 510 grams at concentration of about 33 grams per liter.
Date: May 19, 1952
Creator: Kruesi, F.E.; Erkman, J.O. & Lanning, D.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Separations P.E.S. report No. 11: Task 1, activation study, RMA Line 234-5 Building

Description: It was the purpose of this study to determine whether it will be more desirable when activatiing Task I of the RMA. Line to revise the existing remotely operated equipment or to remove existing equipment and install a manually operated facility. It was also the purpose of this study to provide sketches and cost estimates for each alternative which could be used as a guide for preparation of a Project Proposal. At present, the process to be used in Task I has not been established. This study, therefore, necessarily covers only processes similar to those for which Task I was originally designed. Information received from the Process Unit indicates adoption of such a process is probable.
Date: May 12, 1952
Creator: Stark, B.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Authorization for use of an alternate method of processing turnings: 234-5 Building, briquetting of plutonium turnings

Description: Plutonium turnings formed in the machining operation are processed by recycling them to the reduction operation. The turnings are here combined in the radiation charge to form a button with the plutonium from the reduction of the fluoride. Occasionally an inventory of turning will accumulate, especially when a number of machined pieces are recycled to be recast. Since the amount of turnings to plutonium in plutonium fluoride considered safe for reduction is a maximum ratio of 1.35, a high turnings inventory can only be expended at a limited rate. Briquetting offers a convenient way of depleting the turnings inventory in a rapid manner. A total of twenty-four briquettes were pressed. Eight castings were made by casting three briquettes into a form suitable for further processing. Six of the eight castings were accepted at final inspection. One was too small to machine due to an interrupted heating cycle and the other was recast after two coating failures with subsequent stripping caused the piece to be out of specifications in size. Castings made from briquettes were comparable with those made from buttons in parity, homogeneity of the alloy, and lack of voids. Skulls from the casting of briquettes varied form 10 to 11 per cent of the weight charged as compared to normal skulls of 2 or 3 percent of the weight charged when buttons are cast. Because of the large skulls, briquetting is not as efficient as recycling the turnings to the reduction operation.
Date: December 11, 1952
Creator: Collins, P. E. & Chandler, B. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department