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Protective measures for personnel

Description: This document addresses radiation protection concerns for workers in the experimental laboratories and production plants where nuclear fission piles are being used. A broad in-depth discussion is provided based with the experiences gained in the Manhattan Project and being applied to contemporary activities. Discussion is thorough and encompasses control of external irradiations including alpha, beta, gamma, and neutron radiations; and control of radioactivity within the body by control of inhalation, ingestion, and entrance through skin or wounds. General measures for the control of radiation hazards is addressed by provision of clothing and waste disposal. An Appendix 1 is entitled General Rules and Procedures Concerning Activity Hazards.
Date: December 13, 1946
Creator: Nickson, J.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The future of atomic energy

Description: There is definitely a technical possibility that atomic power may gradually develop into one of the principal sources of useful power. If this expectation will prove correct, great advantages can be expected to come from the fact that the weight of the fuel is almost negligible. This feature may be particularly valuable for making power available to regions of difficult access and far from deposits of coal. It also may prove a great asset in mobile power units for example in a power plant for ship propulsion. On the negative side there are some technical limitations to be applicability of atomic power of which perhaps the most serious is the impossibility of constructing light power units; also there will be some peculiar difficulties in operating atomic plants, as for example the necessity of handling highly radioactive substances which will necessitate, at least for some considerable period, the use of specially skilled personnel for the operation. But the chief obstacle in the way of developing atomic power will be the difficulty of organizing a large scale industrial development in an internationally safe way. This presents actually problems much more difficult to solve than any of the technical developments that are necessary, It will require an unusual amount of statesmanship to balance properly the necessity of allaying the international suspicion that arises from withholding technical secrets against the obvious danger of dumping the details of the procedures for an extremely dangerous new method of warfare on a world that may not yet be prepared to renounce war. Furthermore, the proper balance should be found in the relatively short time that will elapse before the 'secrets' will naturally become open knowledge by rediscovery on part of the scientists and engineers of other countries.
Date: May 27, 1946
Creator: Fermi, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tolerance to Sr{sup 89} and radium

Description: Problems in extrapolation of the rate of tumor formation by strontium 89 from animal to man are addressed. Focus of this paper is on variability of latency period between different animals.
Date: July 22, 1946
Creator: Brues, A.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Agitation tests

Description: This report, from the Hanford Plant, May 22, 1956, describes the need, design, and testing plans for an agitator to aid in dissolution.
Date: August 18, 1946
Creator: Work, J.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Study of the Distribution of Impurities in the Extraction of Uranyl Nitrate with Ether from Aqueous Solutions

Description: Early in 1942 it had been found on a laboratory scale that certain impurities such as the Rare Earths were removed by small water washes from an ether solution of Uranyl Nitrate. It was hoped that in the large production units to be constructed that the water soluble impurities would all be washed out by the time the radioactive Thorium had been removed, so that the decrease in radioactivity could be used as an index of the amount of all kinds of impurity remaining in the ether layer. Experience has taught both the production and the laboratory chemist to view with suspicion a process which claims to separate one element from all others in the periodic system with a simple set of manipulations such as an extraction. Furthermore, there is the familiar example of iodide ion which anyone would expect to be oxidized to iodine and then be transferred almost quantitatively to the ether layer from which it would not wash out. It seemed reasonable that other elements or ions would be found which would fail to wash out of the ether layer. Since the objective was the removal of the neutron absorbers whether their danger coefficients were especially high or not, it became important that every possible check on the effectiveness of the extraction method was investigated. Furthemore there was a probability that the concentration of any individual impurity in different batches of raw material would vary over a wide range. The question was raised whether a large increase in the concentration of some ions would either make the washing of the ether layer unsuccessful or uneconomical.
Date: April 1, 1946
Creator: Conard, C. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparison of Normal Process and Single Process (XC) Uranium

Description: Certain difficulties have been encountered in attempts to substitute a 'one-step' casting process, developed at Iowa State College, for the 'normal' process generally used for the production of extrusion billets. In the 'one-step' process molten metal is delivered from the reduction bomb to the billet mold instead of allowing the metal to solidify in the bomb with subsequent vacuum remelting of the biscuit metal before casting in the billet mold. Routine analyses had failed to establish significant differences in the composition of normal and one-step metal. The one-step billets had been extruded satisfactorily, and finished slugs were prepared and subjected to the usual canning operation. In subsequent tests however, it was found that a large percentage of the canned slugs were badly defective. An investigation was requested to determine the differences in composition or structure of the X-C and normal metal which would account for the failure of the X-C slugs. Samples of the failed slugs and of metal from various stages of both the one-step and normal processes were supplied by Madison Square Area, for comparison on the basis of analyses, microstructure, or such other tests as seemed desirable.
Date: October 7, 1946
Creator: Cleaves, H. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Treatment of Torbernite

Description: Production of black oxide from torbernite was studied on a laboratory scale from the standpoint of uranium extraction, reagent requirements, and removal of impurities. A small portion of the material was examined for its mineral constituents, using optical properties, X-ray diffraction patterns, and chemical analysis for identification. About 50% of the material was quartz; 30% green crystals of a copper-uranium phosphate; 10% of a black mineral, which was not identified, but which appeared to be an oxide mixture of nickel, cobalt, copper, and molybdenum; and small amounts of gibbsite, laterite and feldspar. There were no lower oxides of uranium in the sample.
Date: January 21, 1946
Creator: Brimm, E. O., Dr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: A theorem is derived which is useful in the analysis of neutron problems in which all neutrons have the same velocity. It is applied to determine extrapolated end-points, the asymptotic amplitude from a point source, and the neutron density at the surface of a medium. Formulas for the effect of finite tampers are derived by its aid, and their accuracy is discussed.
Date: August 15, 1946
Creator: Feynman, R.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Samples of pile graphite, irradiated in a test-hole at Hanford for 15 months, have been assayed for radioactive C{sup14}, yielding 0.38 ± 0.04 microcuries per gram. At this level of activity, the pile graphite contains very valuable amounts of C{sup14}. The relation between the above assay and the probable average assay of pile graphite is discussed, and it is concluded that the latter is almost certainly above 0.3 uc/ gram. Controlled oxidation of this graphite, either with oxygen at ~ 750°C, or with chromic acid "cleaning solution" at room temperature, yields early fractions which are highly enriched in C{sup14}. Concentrations of 5-fold with oxygen, and 50-fold with CRO{sub3}, have been observed. The relation between the observed enrichment and the Wigner effect is discussed, and a mechanism accounting for the observations put forward. According to this, about 25% of the stable carbon atoms in the lattice have been displaced by Wigner effect, a large fraction of which have healed the migrating to crystal edges. All the C{sup14} atoms have been displaced, and the same fraction of these migrate to the edges. The enrichment then results from surface oxidation, in the oxygen case. Predictions are made on the basis of this hypothesis. A technique of counting radioactive CO{sub2} in the gas phase is described.
Date: October 10, 1946
Creator: Arnold, J.R. & Libby, W.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department