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Environmental Assessment for the High Explosives Wastewater Treatment Facility, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico

Description: The Department of Energy (DOE) has identified a need to improve the management of wastewater resulting from high explosives (HE) research and development work at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). LANL`s current methods off managing HE-contaminated wastewater cannot ensure that discharged HE wastewater would consistently meet the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) standards for wastewater discharge. The DOE needs to enhance He wastewater management to e able to meet both present and future regulatory standards for wastewater discharge. The DOE also proposes to incorporate major pollution prevention and waste reduction features into LANL`s existing HE production facilities. Currently, wastewater from HE processing buildings at four Technical Areas (TAs) accumulates in sumps where particulate HE settles out and barium is precipitated. Wastewater is then released from the sumps to the environment at 15 permitted outfalls without treatment. The released water may contain suspended and dissolved contaminants, such as HE and solvents. This Environmental Assessment (EA) analyzes two alternatives, the Proposed Action and the Alternative Action, that would meet the purpose and need for agency action. Both alternatives would treat all HE process wastewater using sand filters to remove HE particulates and activated carbon to adsorb organic solvents and dissolved HE. Under either alternative, LANL would burn solvents and flash dried HE particulates and spent carbon following well-established procedures. Burning would produce secondary waste that would be stored, treated, and disposed of at TA-54, Area J. This report contains the Environmental Assessment, as well as the Finding of No Significant Impact and Floodplain Statement of Findings for the High Explosives Wastewater Treatment Facility.
Date: August 3, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Bioremediation Techniques of Oil Contaminated Soils in Ohio

Description: The objective of this project is to develop environmentally sound and cost-effective remediation techniques for crude oil contaminated soils. By providing a guidance manual to oil and gas operators, the Ohio Division of Oil and Gas regulatory authority hopes to reduce remediation costs while improving voluntary compliance with soil clean-up requirements. This shall be accomplished by conducting a series of field tests to define the optimum range for nutrient and organic enhancement to biologically remediate soils contaminated with brines and crude oil having a wide rage of viscosity.
Date: October 3, 1996
Creator: Hodges, David
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Catastrophic failure of contaminated fused silica optics at 355 nm

Description: For years, contamination has been known to degrade the performance of optics and to sometimes initiate laser-induced damage to initiate. This study has W to quantify these effects for fused silica windows used at 355 mm Contamination particles (Al, Cu, TiO{sub 2} and ZrO{sub 2}) were artificially deposited onto the surface and damage tests were conducted with a 3 ns NdYAG laser. The damage morphology was characterized by Nomarski optical microscopy. The results showed that the damage morphology for input and output surface contamination is different. For input surface contamination, both input and output surfaces can damage. In particular, the particle can induce pitting or drilling of the surface where the beam exits. Such damage usually grows catastrophically. Output surface contamination is usually ablated away on the shot but can also induce catastrophic damage. Plasmas are observed during illumination and seem to play an important role in the damage mechanism. The relationship between fluence and contamination size for which catastrophic damage occurred was plotted for different contamination materials. The results show that particles even as small as 10 {micro}m can substantially decrease the damage threshold of the window and that metallic particles on the input surface have a more negative effect than oxide particles.
Date: December 3, 1996
Creator: Genin, F. Y., LLNL
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Stabilization of insertion electrodes for lithium batteries.

Description: This paper discusses the techniques that are being employed to stabilize LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel and composite Li{sub x}MnO{sub 2} positive electrodes. The critical role that spinel domains play in stabilizing these electrodes for operation at both 4 V and 3 V is highlighted. The concept of using an intermetallic electrode MM{prime} where M is an active alloying element and M{prime} is an inactive element (or elements) is proposed as an alternative negative electrode (to carbon) for lithium-ion cells. An analogy to metal oxide insertion electrodes, such as MnO{sub 2}, in which Mn is the electrochemically active ion and O is the inactive ion, is made. Performance data are given for the copper-tin electrode system, which includes the intermetallic phases eta-Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} and Li{sub 2}CuSn.
Date: September 3, 1998
Creator: Thackeray, M. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Weak matrix elements on the lattice - Circa 1995

Description: Status of weak matrix elements is reviewed. In particular, e{prime}/e, B {yields} K*{gamma}, B{sub B} and B{sub B}, are discussed and the overall situation with respect to the lattice effort and some of its phenomenological implications are summarised. For e{prime}/e the need for the relevant matrix elements is stressed in view of the forthcoming improved experiments. For some of the operators, (e.g. O{sub 6}), even bound on their matrix elements would be very helpful. On B {yields} K{degrees}{gamma}, a constant behavior of T{sub 2} appears disfavored although dependence of T{sub 2} could, of course, be milder than a simple pole. Improved data is badly needed to settle this important issue firmly, especially in view of its ramification for extractions of V{sub td} from B {yields} {rho}{gamma}. On B{sub {kappa}}, the preliminary result from JLQCD appears to contradict Sharpe et al. JLQCD data seems to fit very well to linear {alpha} dependence and leads to an appreciably lower value of B{sub {kappa}}. Four studies of B{sub {kappa}} in the {open_quotes}full{close_quotes} (n{sub f} = 2) theory indicate very little quenching effects on B{sub {kappa}}; the full theory value seems to be just a little less than the quenched result. Based on expectations from HQET, analysis of B-parameter (B{sub h}{ell}) for the heavy-light mesons via B{sub h}{ell}) = constant + constants{prime}/m{sub h}{ell} is suggested. A summary of an illustrative sample of hadron matrix elements is given and constraints on CKM parameters (e.g. V{sub td}/V{sub ts}, on the unitarity triangle and on x{sub s}/x{sub d}, emerging from the lattice calculations along with experimental results are briefly discussed. In quite a few cases, for the first time, some indication of quenching errors on weak matrix elements are now becoming available.
Date: October 3, 1995
Creator: Soni, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of compression behavior of a [011] Ta single crystal with orientation imaging microscopy and crystal plasticity

Description: High-purity tantalum single crystal cylinders oriented with [011] parallel to the cylinder axis were deformed 10, 20, and 30 percent in compression. The engineering stress-strain curve exhibited an up-turn at strains greater than {approximately}20% while the samples took on an ellipsoidal shape during testing, elongated along the [100] direction with almost no dimensional change along [0{bar 1}1]. Two orthogonal planes were selected for characterization using Orientation Imaging Microscopy (OIM): one plane containing [100] and [011] (longitudinal) and the other in the plane containing [0{bar 1}1] and [011] (transverse). OIM revealed patterns of alternating crystal rotations that develop as a function of strain and exhibit evolving length scales. The spacing and magnitude of these alternating misorientations increases in number density and decreases in spacing with increasing strain. Classical crystal plasticity calculations were performed to simulate the effects of compression deformation with and without the presence of friction. The calculated stress-strain response, local lattice reorientations, and specimen shape are compared with experiment.
Date: February 3, 1999
Creator: Adams, B. L.; Campbell, G. H.; King, W. E.; Lassila, D. H.; Stolken, J. S.; Sun, S. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experimental investigations of material models for Ti-6A1-4V and 2024-T3

Description: This report describes studies of the deformation and failure behavior of Ti-6Al-4V and 2024-T3 aluminum. Data was obtained at high strain rates and large strains using the split Hopkinson pressure bar technique. This information, plus additional data from the literature, was used to critically evaluate the ability of the Johnson Cook material model to represent the deformation and failure response of Ti-6AMV and 2024-T3 under conditions relevant to simulations of engine containment and the influence of uncontained engine debris on aircraft structures. This model is being used in the DYNA3D finite element code, which is being developed/validated for evaluating aircraft/engine designs relative to the federal airworthiness standards and for improving mitigation/containment technology. The results of the experimental work reported here were used to define a new set of material constants for the strength component of the Johnson Cook model for Ti-6Al-4V and 2024-T3. The capabilities and limitations of the model are reviewed. The model can accurately represent the stress-strain response of the materials. The major concern with the Johnson Cook material model is its ability to accurately represent the stress - strain rate response at strain rates greater than 10{sup 3}-10{sup 4} s{sup {minus}1}. Additional work is also needed to adequately account for failure via shear localization, which was the dominant failure mode at high strain rates in both materials. Failure modeling in both Ti-6Al-N and 2024-T3 will be considered further in future reports.
Date: May 3, 1999
Creator: Leseur, D
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Voltage controlled spintronics device for logic applications.

Description: We consider logic device concepts based on our previously proposed spintronics device element whose magnetization orientation is controlled by application of a bias voltage instead of a magnetic field. The basic building block is the voltage-controlled rotation (VCR) element that consists of a four-layer structure--two ferromagnetic layers separated by both nanometer-thick insulator and metallic spacer layers. The interlayer exchange coupling between the two ferromagnetic layers oscillates as a function of applied voltage. We illustrate transistor-like concepts and re-programmable logic gates based on VCR elements.
Date: September 3, 1999
Creator: Bader, S. D. & You, C.-Y.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Science and Paranormal Phenomena

Description: In order to ground my approach to the study of paranormal phenomena, I first explain my operational approach to physics, and to the ''historical'' sciences of cosmic, biological, human, social and political evolution. I then indicate why I believe that ''paranormal phenomena'' might-but need not- fit into this framework. I endorse the need for a new theoretical framework for the investigation of this field presented by Etter and Shoup at this meeting. I close with a short discussion of Ted Bastin's contention that paranormal phenomena should be defined as contradicting physics.
Date: June 3, 1999
Creator: Noyes, H. Pierre
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Light and heavy element isotopic compositions of mainstream SiC grains.

Description: Although a variety of types of pre-solar SiC grains have been classified by their C, N, and Si isotopic composition, the majority of such grains are so-called mainstream grains and are believed to have come from asymptotic giant branch stars [1]. We have previously reported the Mo isotopic compositions of presolar SiC grains whose C, N, and Si isotopic compositions were not known [2]. Since most presolar SiC grains fall in the mainstream group, we assumed that these grains were mainstream. The excellent match of the Mo isotopic data with expectations for nucleosynthesis in AGB stars was consistent with this identification. In order to better understand the distribution of isotopic compositions in presolar grains, we have begun to measure heavy element isotopic compositions of presolar SiC grains of known C, N and Si isotopic composition.
Date: February 3, 1999
Creator: Amari, S.; Clayton, R. N.; Davis, A. M.; Lewis, R. S. & Pellin, M. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Integrating a life-cycle assessment with NEPA: Does it make sense?

Description: The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 provides the basic national charter for protection of the environment in the US. Today NEPA has provided an environmental policy model which has been emulated by nations around the world. Recently, questions have been raised regarding the appropriateness and under what conditions it makes sense to combine the preparation of a NEPA analysis with the International Organization for Stnadardization (ISO) - 14000 Standards for Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA). This paper advantages a decision making tool consisting of six discrete criteria which can be employed by a user in reaching a decision regarding the integration of NEPA analysis and LCA. Properly applied, this tool should reduce the risk that a LCA may be inappropriately prepared and integrated with a NEPA analysis.
Date: September 3, 1998
Creator: ECCLESTON, C.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Removal of NOx from diesel generator exhaust by pulsed electron beams

Description: The objective of this paper is to determine the effects of electron beam pulse parameters on the utilization of the reactive free radicals for removal of NO{sub x} from diesel generator exhaust. A dose per pulse less than 1 kGy has been determined to be optimum for effective radical utilization. During each post-pulse period, the radicals are utilized in the removal of NO{sub x} in a timescale of around 100 microseconds; thus, with pulse frequencies of around 10 kHz or less, the radical concentrations remain sufficiently low to prevent any significant competition between radical-pollutant and radical-radical reactions. It is shown that a pulsed electron beam reactor, operating with a dose per pulse of less than 1 kGy/pulse and pulse repetition rate of less than 10 kHz, will have the same plasma chemistry efficiency (parts per million of removed NO{sub x} per kGy of electron beam dose) as an electron beam reactor operating with a low dose rate of 50 kGy/s in continuous mode. Ozone accumulation is a limiting factor under high pulse frequency conditions. The total dose requirement determines the optimum combination of dose per pulse and pulse frequency for both radical utilization and prevention of ozone buildup.
Date: July 3, 1997
Creator: Penetrante, B. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Magnetic circular x-ray dichroisms of Fe-Ni alloys at K edge.

Description: Magnetic Circular X-ray Dichroism (MCXD) studies at K edges of Fe-Ni alloys reveal changes of the MCXD signal with composition and crystal structure. We observe that the signal at the invar composition is of comparable strength as other compositions. Moreover, the edge position is strongly dependent on lattice constant. First principles calculations demonstrate that the shape and strength of the signal strongly depends on the crystal orientation, composition, and lattice constant. We find direct relation between the MCXD signal and the p DOS. We find that the MCXD at K edge probes the magnetism due to itinerant electrons.
Date: April 3, 1997
Creator: Freeman, A. J.; Gofron, K. J.; Kimball, C. W.; Lee, P. L.; Montano, P. A.; Rao, F. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Foam Micromechanics

Description: Foam evokes many different images: waves breaking at the seashore, the head on a pint of Guinness, an elegant dessert, shaving, the comfortable cushion on which you may be seated... From the mundane to the high tech, foams, emulsions, and cellular solids encompass a broad range of materials and applications. Soap suds, mayonnaise, and foamed polymers provide practical motivation and only hint at the variety of materials at issue. Typical of mukiphase materiaIs, the rheoIogy or mechanical behavior of foams is more complicated than that of the constituent phases alone, which may be gas, liquid, or solid. For example, a soap froth exhibits a static shear modulus-a hallmark of an elastic solid-even though it is composed primarily of two Newtonian fluids (water and air), which have no shear modulus. This apparent paradox is easily resolved. Soap froth contains a small amount of surfactant that stabilizes the delicate network of thin liq- uid films against rupture. The soap-film network deforms in response to a macroscopic strain; this increases interracial area and the corresponding sur- face energy, and provides the strain energy of classical elasticity theory [1]. This physical mechanism is easily imagined but very challenging to quantify for a realistic three-dimensional soap froth in view of its complex geome- try. Foam micromechanics addresses the connection between constituent properties, cell-level structure, and macroscopic mechanical behavior. This article is a survey of micromechanics applied to gas-liquid foams, liquid-liquid emulsions, and cellular solids. We will focus on static response where the foam deformation is very slow and rate-dependent phenomena such as viscous flow can be neglected. This includes nonlinear elasticity when deformations are large but reversible. We will also discuss elastic- plastic behavior, which involves yield phenomena. Foam structures based on polyhedra packed to fill space provide a unify- ing geometrical theme. Because a ...
Date: November 3, 1998
Creator: Kraynik, A.M.; Neilsen, M.K.; Reinelt, D.A. & Warren, W.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Process Knowledge Characterization of Radioactive Waste at the Classified Waste Landfill Remediation Project Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

Description: This paper discusses the development and application of process knowledge (PK) to the characterization of radioactive wastes generated during the excavation of buried materials at the Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) Classified Waste Landfill (CWLF). The CWLF, located in SNL/NM Technical Area II, is a 1.5-acre site that received nuclear weapon components and related materials from about 1950 through 1987. These materials were used in the development and testing of nuclear weapon designs. The CWLF is being remediated by the SNL/NM Environmental Restoration (ER) Project pursuant to regulations of the New Mexico Environment Department. A goal of the CWLF project is to maximize the amount of excavated materials that can be demilitarized and recycled. However, some of these materials are radioactively contaminated and, if they cannot be decontaminated, are destined to require disposal as radioactive waste. Five major radioactive waste streams have been designated on the CWLF project, including: unclassified soft radioactive waste--consists of soft, compatible trash such as paper, plastic, and plywood; unclassified solid radioactive waste--includes scrap metal, other unclassified hardware items, and soil; unclassified mixed waste--contains the same materials as unclassified soft or solid radioactive waste, but also contains one or more Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) constituents; classified radioactive waste--consists of classified artifacts, usually weapons components, that contain only radioactive contaminants; and classified mixed waste--comprises radioactive classified material that also contains RCRA constituents. These waste streams contain a variety of radionuclides that exist both as surface contamination and as sealed sources. To characterize these wastes, the CWLF project's waste management team is relying on data obtained from direct measurement of radionuclide activity content to the maximum extent possible and, in cases where direct measurement is not technically feasible, from accumulated PK of the excavated materials.
Date: November 3, 1999
Creator: DOTSON,PATRICK WELLS; GALLOWAY,ROBERT B. & JOHNSON JR,CARL EDWARD
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cerium, uranium, and plutonium behavior in glass-bonded sodalite, a ceramic nuclear waste form.

Description: Glass-bonded sodalite is being developed as a ceramic waste form (CWF) to immobilize radioactive fission products, actinides, and salt residues from electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear reactor fuel. The CWF consists of about 75 mass % sodalite, 25 mass % glass, and small amounts of other phases. This paper presents some results and interpretation of physical measurements to characterize the CWF structure, and dissolution tests to measure the release of matrix components and radionuclides from the waste form. Tests have been carried out with specimens of the CWF that contain rare earths at concentrations similar to those expected in the waste form. Parallel tests have been carried out on specimens that have uranium or plutonium as well as the rare earths at concentrations similar to those expected in the waste forms; in these specimens UCl{sub 3} forms UO{sub 2} and PuCl{sub 3} forms PuO{sub 2}. The normalized releases of rare earths in dissolution tests were found to be much lower than those of matrix elements (B, Si, Al, Na). When there is no uranium in the CWF, the release of cerium is two to ten times lower than the release of the other rare earths. The low release of cerium may be due to its tetravalent state in uranium-free CWF. However, when there is uranium in the CWF, the release of cerium is similar to that of the other rare earths. This trivalent behavior of cerium is attributed to charge transfer or covalent interactions among cerium, uranium, and oxygen in (U,Ce)O{sub 2}.
Date: September 3, 1999
Creator: Lewis, M. A.; Lexa, D.; Morss, L. R. & Richmann, M. K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Second crystal cooling on cryogenically cooled undulator and wiggler double crystal monochromators.

Description: Simple methods for the cooling of the second crystals of cryogenically cooled undulator and wiggler double crystal monochromators are described. Copper braids between the first and second crystals are used to cool the second crystals of the double crystal monochromators. The method has proved successful for an undulator monochromator and we describe a design for a wiggler monochromator.
Date: August 3, 1998
Creator: Knapp, G. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Multi-Canister overpack inservice inspection and maintenance

Description: The factors to be considered in establishing inservice inspection and maintenance requirements for the Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) include evaluating the likelihood of degradation to the MCO pressure boundary due to erosion and corrosion, reviewing commercial practice for NRC licensed spent nuclear fuel storage systems, and examining the individual MCO components for maintenance needs. Reviews of the potential for MCO erosion and corrosion conclude that neither will pose a threat to the MCO pressure boundary. Consistent with commercial practice for spent fuel storage systems, the MCO closure weld will be helium leak tested prior to placement in interim storage. Beyond the CSB facility related monitoring plans (radiological monitoring, emissions monitoring, vault cooling data, etc.), no inservice inspection or maintenance of the MCO is required during interim storage.
Date: November 3, 1998
Creator: SMITH, K.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fission-Based Electric Propulsion for Interstellar Precursor Missions

Description: This paper reviews the technology options for a fission-based electric propulsion system for interstellar precursor missions. To achieve a total {Delta}V of more than 100 km/s in less than a decade of thrusting with an electric propulsion system of 10,000s Isp requires a specific mass for the power system of less than 35 kg/kWe. Three possible configurations are described: (1) a UZrH-fueled,NaK-cooled reactor with a steam Rankine conversion system,(2) a UN-fueled gas-cooled reactor with a recuperated Brayton conversion system, and (3) a UN-fueled heat pipe-cooled reactor with a recuperated Brayton conversion system. All three of these systems have the potential to meet the specific mass requirements for interstellar precursor missions in the near term. Advanced versions of a fission-based electric propulsion system might travel as much as several light years in 200 years.
Date: November 3, 1999
Creator: HOUTS,MICHAEL G.; LENARD,ROGER X.; LIPINSKI,RONALD J.; PATTON,BRUCE; POSTON,DAVID & WRIGHT,STEVEN A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Molybdenum isotopic composition of single silicon carbides from supernovae.

Description: Presolar silicon carbide grains form in a variety of types of stars, including asymptotic giant branch red giant stars and supernovae. The dominant mechanisms of heavy element nucleosynthesis, the s-process and r-process, are thought to occur in AGB stars and supernovae, respectively. We have previously reported that mainstream SiC grains have strong enrichments in the s-process isotopes of Sr, Zr and Mo. We report here the first measurements of Mo isotopes in X-type SiC grains, which have previously been identified as having formed from supernova ejecta.
Date: February 3, 1999
Creator: Amari, S.; Clayton, R. N.; Davis, A. M.; Lewis, R. S. & Pellin, M. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Inductively Coupled Plasma-Induced Etch Damage of GaN p-n Junctions

Description: Plasma-induced etch damage can degrade the electrical and optical performance of III-V nitride electronic and photonic devices. We have investigated the etch-induced damage of an Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) etch system on the electrical performance of mesa-isolated GaN pn-junction diodes. GaN p-i-n mesa diodes were formed by Cl{sub 2}/BCl{sub 3}/Ar ICP etching under different plasma conditions. The reverse leakage current in the mesa diodes showed a strong relationship to chamber pressure, ion energy, and plasma flux. Plasma induced damage was minimized at moderate flux conditions ({le} 500 W), pressures {ge}2 mTorr, and at ion energies below approximately -275 V.
Date: November 3, 1999
Creator: SHUL,RANDY J.; ZHANG,LEI; BACA,ALBERT G.; WILLISON,CHRISTI LEE; HAN,JUNG; PEARTON,S.J. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies

Description: The project involves improving thermal recovery techniques in a slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoir in the Wilmington field, Los Angeles Co., Calif. using advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The existing steamflood in the Tar zone of Fault Block (FB) II-A has been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs. Inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil, and nonuniform distribution of remaining oil have all contributed to poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated formation sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. The advanced technologies to be applied include: (1) Develop three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic geologic models. (2) Develop 3-D deterministic and stochastic thermal reservoir simulation models to aid in reservoir management and subsequent development work. (3) Develop computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid in analysis. (4) Perform detailed study on the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (5) Pilot steam injection and production via four new horizontal wells (2 producers and 2 injectors). (6) Hot water alternating steam (WAS) drive pilot in the existing steam drive area to improve thermal efficiency. (7) Installing a 2100 foot insulated, subsurface harbor channel crossing to supply steam to an island location. (8) Test a novel alkaline steam completion technique to control well sanding problems and fluid entry profiles. (9) Advanced reservoir management through computer-aided access to production and geologic data to integrate reservoir characterization, engineering, monitoring, and evaluation.
Date: March 3, 1998
Creator: Hara, Scott
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Gamma-ray imaging as a tool for uranium processing plants

Description: Gamma-radiation is frequently used as an analysis and characterization signal to monitor material in the nuclear fuel processing cycle. The selection as a diagnostic is self-evident since the radiation is ubiquitous, characteristic of the isotopes present, and sufficiently penetrating so that measurements may be made remotely. However, save through detector proximity or minimal collimation, the directional nature of the radiation is generally not used in traditional nondestructive assay (NDA) measurements. To demonstrate the additional information available, we used GRIS, the Gamma-Ray Imaging Spectrometer, at the K-25 and Portsmouth gaseous diffusion plants. In this facility, UF{sub 6} gas is enriched in heated equipment and piping which run inside an insulated housing. Occasionally, the process develops uranium deposits due to leakage of wet air or environmental changes within the housing that cause solidification of the process gas. When such deposits occur, traditional NDA techniques frequently require costly and time-consuming entry within the heat shielding to obtain precise information on the deposit unavailable from outside the shielding. In this paper we discuss GRIS, the gamma-ray imaging technique it uses, and present the results of measurements obtained on fuel processing equipment.
Date: August 3, 1995
Creator: Ziock, K.P.; Madison, L. & McGinnis, B.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Some Tooling for Manufacturing Research Reactor Fuel Plates

Description: This paper will discuss some of the tooling necessary to manufacture aluminum-based research reactor fuel plates. Most of this tooling is intended for use in a high-production facility. Some of the tools shown have manufactured more than 150,000 pieces. The only maintenance has been sharpening. With careful design, tools can be made to accommodate the manufacture of several different fuel elements, thus, reducing tooling costs and maintaining tools that the operators are trained to use. An important feature is to design the tools using materials with good lasting quality. Good tools can increase return on investment.
Date: October 3, 1999
Creator: Knight, R.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department