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How to Take Better Photographs: Control Quality by Controlling the Camera

Description: In this Tech Talk presentation, the authors demonstrate simple ways to improve a photograph by making use of camera controls and by considering location, lighting, and composition. The authors will introduce basic information about using manual camera settings to control aperture, shutter speed, and ISO, and the authors will discuss specific "shooting" situations such as portraits, group photos, and events.
Date: July 27, 2011
Creator: Jones, Jerrell & Hall, Nathan
Partner: UNT Libraries

Status report on the long-term stability of the Advanced Photon Source.

Description: Table 1 summarizes the average elevation changes and standard deviations as well as the points with the largest changes for each year. On average, hardly any settlements can be detected; however, local changes of +2.90 mm to {minus}2.31 mm have been measured. Looking at the low and high points, the settlement process is slowing down over time. Overall, the settlements observed match the expectations for this type of construction. To date no major realignment of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring has been necessary. The particle beam tracks with the settlements of the floor as long as these changes occur in a smooth fashion and not as sudden discontinuities [5]. From Figures 6 through 8 it is also apparent that settlements affect larger areas in the storage ring and experiment hall that impact the location of the source point as well as the location of the beamline user equipment. The limiting apertures of the insertion device chambers will make realignment of the APS storage ring a necessity at some point in the future. Currently simulations and machine studies we underway to provide an estimate of tolerable settlement limits before a realignment of certain sections of the storage ring would be required. In conclusion, the APS has been constructed on solid ground with an excellent foundation. Only small settlement changes are being observed; so far they are not impacting the operation of the accelerator. We are continuing to monitor deformations of the APS floor in anticipation of a future realignment of the accelerator components.
Date: September 21, 1998
Creator: Friedsam, H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Concept for Zero-Alignment Micro Optical Systems

Description: We are developing a method of constructing compact, three-dimensional photonics systems consisting of optical elements, e.g., lenses and mirrors, photo-detectors, and light sources, e.g., VCSELS or circular-grating lasers. These optical components, both active and passive, are mounted on a lithographically prepared silicon substrate. We refer to the substrate as a micro-optical table (MOT) in analogy with the macroscopic version routinely used in optics laboratories. The MOT is a zero-alignment, microscopic optical-system concept. The position of each optical element relative to other optical elements on the MOT is determined in the layout of the MOT photomask. Each optical element fits into a slot etched in the silicon MOT. The slots are etched using a high-aspect-ratio silicon etching (HARSE) process. Additional positioning features in each slot's cross-section and complementary features on each optical element permit accurate placement of that element's aperture relative to the MOT substrate. In this paper we present the results of the first fabrication and micro-assembly experiments of a silicon-wafer based MOT. Based on these experiments, estimates of position accuracy are reported. We also report on progress in fabrication of lens elements in a hybrid sol-gel material (HSGM). Diffractive optical elements have been patterned in a 13-micron thick HSGM layer on a 150-micron thick soda-lime glass substrate. The measured ms surface roughness was 20 nm. Finally, we describe modeling of MOT systems using non-sequential ray tracing (NSRT).
Date: September 16, 1999
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A glovebox design checklist

Description: A glovebox design checklist has been developed at Argonne National Laboratory. It provides engineers with a list of items that should be considered when designing a glovebox. Major elements included in the checklist are the glovebox shell, appurtenances, glovebox supports and stands, special shielding, instrumentation, fire protection, windows, atmosphere, human factors, material handling, vessels, furnaces, electrical needs, cooling and heating, piping, testing, installation, safety, decommissioning, and quality assurance.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Frigo, A.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Impact of zero order unconverted light on beam pointing

Description: There is a significant amount of unconverted light incident in the NIF target chamber. The baseline plan for managing this light is to use a sub-aperture CSG design. This CSG selection impacts the target chamber and near-opposing FOAs due to: (1) zero order unconverted light footprint, and (2) high order dispersed unconverted light. In this memo we describe the impact of the zero order light on the range of beam pointing for individual beams. We show that zero order footprint for 1w light enters into the near-opposite FOAs for several ports if the beams are pointed away from the target chamber center. Additionally, for the case where 3w is allowed to propagate past target chamber center, the converted light may enter into the near-opposite FOAs. The second aperture in the PAM is required to protect the FOAs and still accommodate offset beam pointing on NIF. We present details on the aperture requirements to accommodate a range of beam pointing.
Date: August 24, 1999
Creator: Dixit, S; Kalantar, D & Lyons, R
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Modeling gravity-driven fingering in rough-walled fractures using modified percolation theory

Description: Pore scale invasion percolation theory is modified for imbibition of.wetting fluids into fractures. The effects of gravity, local aperture field geometry, and local in-plane air/water interfacial curvatureare included in the calculation of aperture filling potential which controls wetted structure growth within the fracture. The inclusion of gravity yields fingers oriented in the direction of the gravitational gradient. These fingers widen and tend to meander and branch more as the gravitational gradient decreases. In-plane interfacial curvature also greatly affects the wetted structure in both horizontal and nonhorizontal fractures causing the formation of macroscopic wetting fronts. The modified percolation model is used to simulate imbibition into an analogue rough-walled fracture where both fingering and horizontal imbibition experiments were previously conducted. Comparison of numerical and experimental results showed reasonably good agreement. This process oriented physical and numerical modeling is-a necessary step toward including gravity-driven fingering in models of flow and transport through unsaturated, fractured rock.
Date: December 31, 1992
Creator: Glass, R.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

NIF optical specifications - the importance of the RMS gradient specification

Description: The performance of the National Ignition Facility (NIF), especially in terms of laser focusability, will be determined by several key factors. One of these key factors is the optical specification for the thousands of large aperture optics that will comprise the 192 beamlines. We have previously reported on the importance of the specification of the power spectral density (PSD) on NIF performance. Recently, we have been studying the importance of long spatial wavelength (>33 mm) phase errors on focusability. We have concluded that the preferred metric for determining the impact of these long spatial wavelength phase errors is the rms phase gradient. In this paper, we outline the overall approach to NIF optical specifications, detail the impact of the rms phase gradient on NIF focusability, discuss its trade-off with the PSD in determining the spot size and review measurements of optics similar to those to be manufactured for NIF.
Date: July 6, 1998
Creator: Auerbach, J M; Cotton, C T; English, R E; Henesian, M A; T, Hunt J; Kelly, J H et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Laser aperture diagnostics system for gain and wavefront measurements on NIF/LMJ amplifiers

Description: We are in the midst of constructing an amplifier laboratory (Arnplab) that will be the physics and engineering proving ground for fill sized segmented glass amplifiers of designs that will outfit the National Ignition Facility (NIF) and Laser Megajoule (LMJ) projects. Amplab will demonstrate the cornerstone mechanical, electrical and optical concepts that support the NW and LMJ amplifier schemes. Here we address the optical diagnostics that will be used to characterize optical performance of the amplifiers. We describe, the apparatus that will be used in pulsed measurements of gain distribution and wave-front distortions. The large aperture diagnostic system or LADS, is now being built through a collaborative effort between CEL-V and LLNL. The LADS will provide measurements of gain and wave front distortions over the fill extracting aperture of the NIF and LMJ prototype amplifiers. The LADS will be able to address each of eight apertures via motorized stages and following semi-automated alignment, take data on the aperture of interest. The LADS should be operational in mid-1997 at LLNL and will be used to characterize the optical performance of the very first fill scale prototype 4 x 2 NIF and LMJ amplifiers. It will be transported to Bordeaux, France to make similar measurements during activation of the first 8-aperture LMJ-like facility (LIL) that is planned to start in the near future.
Date: December 17, 1996
Creator: Zapata, L. E., LLNL
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: A resent progress report on the lattice design of the 50-50 GeV muon collider is presented. The ring circumference needs to be as small as possible due to the short lifetime of the 50 GeV muons. The background at the detector is affected by the continuous decay of muons into electrons which requires a dipole between the high focusing quadrupoles and the detector. To obtain a luminosity on the order of 1 x 10{sup 33} cm{sup {minus}2} S{sup {minus}1} it is required to have beam intensities on the order of 1 x 10{sup 12} particles per bunch. The rms momentum spread of the beam is equal to 0.12% and the beta functions at the interaction point are equal to 4 cm. The maxima of the betatron functions at these quadrupoles are 1300 m, resulting in large chromaticities which must be corrected by local chromatic correction. Pairs of horizontal and vertical chromatic sextupoles are located at locations where the corresponding betatron functions are 100 m and the values of the horizontal dispersion functions are 3 and 2 m, respectively. They are carefully placed so that most of their nonlinear effects are canceled. The dynamic aperture is larger than 7 times the mean size of the beam for the momentum offsets larger than {minus}6 and +10 sigmas.
Date: June 28, 1998
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

LDRD final report: photonic analog-to-digital converter (ADC) technology

Description: We report on an LDRD seed program of novel technology development (started by an FY98 Engineering Tech-base project) that will enable extremely high-fidelity analog-to-digital converters for a variety of national security missions. High speed (l0+ GS/s ), high precision (l0+ bits) ADC technology requires extremely short aperture times ({approx}1ps ) with very low jitter requirements (sub 10fs ). These fundamental requirements, along with other technological barriers, are difficult to realize with electronics: However, we outline here, a way to achieve these timing apertures using a novel multi-wavelength optoelectronic short-pulse optical source. Our approach uses an optoelectronic feedback scheme with high optical Q to produce an optical pulse train with ultra-low jitter ( sub 5fs) and high amplitude stability (<10{sup 10}). This approach requires low power and can be integrated into an optoelectronic integrated circuit to minimize the size. Under this seed program we have demonstrated that the optical feedback mechanism can be used to generate a high Q resonator. This has reduced the technical risk for further development, making it an attractive candidate for outside funding.
Date: February 18, 1999
Creator: Bowers, M; Deri, B; Haigh, R; Lowry, M; Sargis, P; Stafford, R et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Apparatus for the Direct Measurement of Collimator Transverse Wakefields

Description: The design of the NLC Beam Delivery System requires a firmer understanding of the effects of collimators on short, intense bunches than is presently available. We describe an experiment to directly measure these effects through use of a dedicated apparatus located at the 1.19 GeV point in the SLAC Linac. The apparatus consists of an outer vacuum vessel and an interchangeable insertion containing up to 5 distinct collimator apertures. The insertion is capable of remote-controlled translation, allowing the collimator apertures to be misaligned relative to the electron beam without changing the incoming beam orbit; the wakefield deflection is then measured by observing the change in the outgoing orbit on 32 beam position monitors. The parameters of the apertures have been selected to allow confirmation of the scaling laws for collimator wakefields, and to strongly enhance either the geometric or resistive wall contribution of each aperture. Details of the apparatus design, the aperture parameters, and the experimental program are discussed.
Date: April 23, 1999
Creator: Tenenbaum, Peter G
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of distributed cooled high power millimeter wave windows

Description: The sectional high-frequency (100--170 GHz) distributed cooled window has been investigated both electromagnetically and thermally previously using computational electromagnetics (EM) and thermal codes. Recent data describes the relationship to some experimental data for the window. Results are presented for time domain CW EM analyses and CW thermal and stress calculations.
Date: September 9, 1995
Creator: Nelson, S.D.; Caplan, M. & Reitter, T.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Retuning the APS storage ring for better chromaticity correction.

Description: When the APS storage ring was retuned to provide smaller {beta}{sub y} values in the insertion straight sections, it was necessary to increase the vertical tune by at least two units. Since the design values for the horizontal and vertical tunes are 35.22 and 16.30, respectively, this put the tunes dangerously close to the sextupole 2v{sub y}-v{sub x} coupling resonance. The large injection horizontal oscillations could couple to the vertical plane and exceed the 5-mm vertical apertures that exist in some of the insertion straight sections. To avoid this resonance, the vertical tune was raised beyond the resonance to 19.30. The result was a reduction in the ability of the chromaticity sextuples to correct the chromaticity. Recent investigation has shown that the chromaticity correction capability of the sextuples can be greatly increased by a modest increase in the horizontal tune. Increasing the horizontal tune by one unit and reducing the vertical tune by three units produces a lattice with better chromaticity control while maintaining an acceptable dynamic aperture.
Date: September 11, 1999
Creator: Chae, Y.-C. & Crosbie, E.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Dynamic Aperture Studies for SPEAR 3

Description: The SSRL is investigating an accelerator upgrade project to replace the present 130 nm.rad FODO lattice with an 18 nm.rad double bend achromat lattice: SPEAR 3. In this paper, we review the methods used to maximize the SPEAR 3 dynamic aperture including optimization of linear optics, betatron tune, chromaticity and coupling correction, and effects of machine errors and insertion devices.
Date: August 19, 1999
Creator: Nosochkov, Yuri
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sensitivity and uncertainty analyses applied to one-dimensional radionuclide transport in a layered fractured rock: MULTFRAC --Analytic solutions and local sensitivities; Phase 2, Iterative performance assessment: Volume 1

Description: Exact analytical solutions based on the Laplace transforms are derived for describing the one-dimensional space-time-dependent, advective transport of a decaying species in a layered, saturated rock system intersected by a planar fracture of varying aperture. These solutions, which account for advection in fracture, molecular diffusion into the rock matrix, adsorption in both fracture and matrix, and radioactive decay, predict the concentrations in both fracture and rock matrix and the cumulative mass in the fracture. The solute migration domain in both fracture and rock is assumed to be semi-infinite with non-zero initial conditions. The concentration of each nuclide at the source is allowed to decay either continuously or according to some periodical fluctuations where both are subjected to either a step or band release mode. Two numerical examples related to the transport of Np-237 and Cm-245 in a five-layered system of fractured rock were used to verify these solutions with several well established evaluation methods of Laplace inversion integrals in the real and complex domain. In addition, with respect to the model parameters, a comparison of the analytically derived local sensitivities for the concentration and cumulative mass of Np-237 in the fracture with the ones obtained through a finite-difference method of approximation is also reported.
Date: December 1, 1992
Creator: Gureghian, A. B.; Wu, Y. T.; Sagar, B. & Codell, R. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Microwave Imaging Reflectometry for the Visualization of Turbulence in Tokamaks

Description: Understanding the mechanism of anomalous transport in magnetically confined plasmas requires the use of sophisticated diagnostic tools for the measurement of short-scale turbulent fluctuations. This paper describes the conceptual design of an experimental technique for the global visualization of density fluctuations in tokamaks. The proposed method is based on microwave reflectometry and consists in using a large diameter probing beam, collecting the reflected waves with a large aperture antenna, and forming an image of the reflecting plasma layer onto a 2D array of microwave receivers. Based on results from a series of numerical simulations, the theoretical feasibility conditions of the proposed method are discussed.
Date: December 16, 1999
Creator: Mazzucato, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A novel condenser for EUV lithography ring-field projection optics

Description: A condenser for a ring-field extreme ultra-violet (EUV) projection lithography camera is presented. The condenser consists of a gently undulating mirror, that we refer to as a ripple plate, and which is illuminated by a collimated beam at grazing incidence. The light is incident along the ripples rather than across them, so that the incident beam is reflected onto a cone and subsequently focused on to the arc of the ring field. A quasistationary illumination is achieved, since any one field point receives light from points on the ripples, which are distributed throughout the condenser pupil. The design concept can easily be applied to illuminate projection cameras with various ring-field and numerical aperture specifications. Ray-tracing results are presented of a condenser for a 0.25 NA EUV projection camera.
Date: July 15, 1999
Creator: Chapman, H. & Nugent, K. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Correction schemes for the LHC lattice at collision

Description: Normal form analysis and tracking results show that both normal and skew resonances are driven strongly by the nonlinear fields of the IR quadrupoles. We report here on the possibility of improving the dynamic aperture by compensating these resonances with the use of correctors placed in the IRs. The effectiveness of local correction schemes in the presence of beam-beam interactions is also studied.
Date: October 19, 1999
Creator: Tanaji Sen, N. Gelfand and W. Wan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary demonstration of power beaming with non-coherent laser diode arrays

Description: A preliminary demonstration of free-space electric power transmission has been conducted using non-coherent laser diode arrays as the transmitter and standard silicon photovoltaic cell arrays as the receiver. The transmitter assembly used a high-power-density array of infrared laser diode bars, water cooled via integrated microchannel heat sinks and focused by cylindrical microlenses. The diode array composite beam was refocused by a parabolic mirror over a 10 meter path, and received on a {approximately}15 x 25 cm panel of thinned single crystal high efficiency silicon solar cells. The maximum cell output obtained was several watts, and the cell output was used to drive a small motor. Due to operating constraints and unexpected effects, particularly the high nonuniformity of the output beam, both the distance and total received power in this demonstration were modest. However, the existing transmitter is capable of supplying several hundred watts of light output, with a projected received electric power in excess of 200 watts. The source radiance is approximately 5 x 10{sup 9} W/m{sup 2}-steradian. With the existing 20 cm aperture, useful power transmission over ranges to {approximately}100 meters should be achievable with a DC to DC efficiency of greater than 10%. Non-coherent sources of this type are readily scalable to powers of tens of kilowatts, and with larger apertures can be used directly for power transmission up to several kilometers. Future non-coherent diode laser sources may be suitable for power transmission over hundreds of kilometers. Also, the experience gained with non-coherent arrays will be directly applicable to power beaming systems using coherent diode arrays or other array-type laser sources.
Date: February 26, 1999
Creator: Kare, J T; Militsky, F & Weisberg, A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sub-nanometer interferometry and precision turning for large optical fabrication

Description: At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), we have the unique combination of precision turning and metrology capabilities critical to the fabrication of large optical elements. We have developed a self-referenced interferometer to measure errors in aspheric optics to sub- nanometer accuracy over 200-millimeter apertures, a dynamic range of 5{approximately}10. We have utilized diamond turning to figure optics for X-ray to IR wavelengths and, with fast-tool-servo technology, can move optical segments from off-axis to on-axis. With part capacities to 2.3-meters diameter and the metrology described above, segments of very large, ultra-lightweight mirrors can potentially be figured to final requirements. precision of diamond-turning will carryover although the surface finish may be degraded. Finally, the most critical component of a fabrication process is the metrology that enables an accurate part. Well characterized machines are very repeatable and part accuracy must come from proper metrology. A self- referencing interferometer has been developed that can measure accurately to sub-nanometer values. As with traditional interferometers, measurements are fast and post- processed data provides useful feedback to the user. The simplicity of the device allows it to be used on large optics and systems.
Date: April 1, 1999
Creator: Klingmann, J L & Sommargren, G E
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Single fracture aperture patterns: Characterization by slit-island fractal analysis

Description: Single fracture measurements are difficult to obtain, but they are the only means we have to observe and study natural fracture morphology. The character of the fracture openings (apertures) is often one of the primary factors controlling fluid flow in the fracture. In particular, the shape, distribution, and connectivity of contact areas and flow channels can affect the relative permeability of wetting and non-wetting fluid phases in unsaturated systems. In this paper we use three methods of fractal analysis (the slit-island, the divider, and the variogram) as well as statistical and geostatistical analysis to characterize the geometry of measured fracture apertures obtained from two different fractured rock specimens from the field. One of these is a granitic fracture (crack) of homogeneous lithology and no displacement, the other is a fracture (fault) obtained from a highly altered fault zone, containing striations and slickensides. We discuss the fractal and geostatistical analysis of these two fractures in the context of what information is most helpful for making predictions about fluid flow in single fractures.
Date: January 1, 1993
Creator: Cox, B.L. & Wang, J.S.Y.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reduction of nonlinear resonance excitation from insertion devices in the ALS

Description: Theoretical studies of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Advanced Light Source (ALS) storage ring predict strong field insertion devices will break the rings symmetry, increasing resonance excitation that may reduce the dynamic aperture and thus the beam lifetime. The authors have embarked on an experimental program to study the strength of nonlinear resonance excitation in the ALS when insertion devices are present. They observe an enhancement in the resonance excitation of a third-order resonance when the gap of the insertion device is narrowed. They also find that it is possible to suppress this resonance by detuning two quadruples on either side of the insertion device. The results of this study are presented in this paper.
Date: April 1, 1995
Creator: Robin, D.; Krebs, G.; Portmann, G.; Zholents, A. & Decking, W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A stratified percolation model for saturated and unsaturated flow through natural fractures

Description: The geometry of the asperities of contact between the two surfaces of a fracture and of the adjacent void spaces determines fluid flow through a fracture and the mechanical deformation across a fracture. Heuristically we have developed a stratified continuum percolation model to describe this geometry based on a fractal construction that includes scale invariance and correlation of void apertures. Deformation under stress is analyzed using conservation of rock volume to correct for asperity interpenetration. Single phase flow is analyzed using a critical path along which the principal resistance is a result of laminar flow across the critical neck in this path. Results show that flow decreases with apparent aperture raised to a variable power greater than cubic, as is observed in flow experiments on natural fractures. For two phases, flow of the non-wetting phase is likewise governed by the critical neck along the critical path of largest aperture but flow of the wetting phase is governed by tortuosity. 17 refs., 10 figs.
Date: January 1, 1990
Creator: Pyrak-Nolte, L.J.; Cook, N.G.W. & Myer, L.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Interaction region vacuum system design at the PEP-II B factory

Description: The Interaction Region Vacuum System in the PEP-II B-Factory at SLAC must produce average pressures in the 10{sup -10} Torr range. low beamline pressures will minimize the background radiation encountered by the BaBar Detector A combination of copper and stainless steel vacuum chambers with continuous antechambers are used to make up the beam tubes. Linear Non-Evaporable Getter (NEG) pumps are used to produce distributed pumping along the length of these beam tubes. High conductance microwave type screens provide RF shields between the beam aperture and the NEG pumps. In this paper the design features of the beam tubes, NEG pumps, and RF pump screens are described and the vacuum and impedance analyses conducted in support of the design are discussed.
Date: July 21, 1997
Creator: Bertolini, L., LLNL
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department