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Observation of relativistic antihydrogen atoms

Description: An observation of relativistic antihydrogen atoms is reported in this dissertation. Experiment 862 at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory observed antihydrogen atoms produced by the interaction of a circulating beam of high momentum (3 < p < 9 GeV/c) antiprotons and a jet of molecular hydrogen gas. Since the neutral antihydrogen does not bend in the antiproton source magnets, the detectors could be located far from the interaction point on a beamline tangent to the storage ring. The detection of the antihydrogen is accomplished by ionizing the atoms far from the interaction point. The positron is deflected by a magnetic spectrometer and detected, as are the back to back photons resulting from its annihilation. The antiproton travels a distance long enough for its momentum and time of flight to be measured accurately. A statistically significant sample of 101 antihydrogen atoms has been observed. A measurement of the cross section for {bar H}{sup 0} production is outlined within. The cross section corresponds to the process where a high momentum antiproton causes e{sup +} e{sup -} pair creation near a nucleus with the e{sup +} being captured by the antiproton. Antihydrogen is the first atom made exclusively of antimatter to be detected. The observation experiment's results are the first step towards an antihydrogen spectroscopy experiment which would measure the n = 2 Lamb shift and fine structure.
Date: January 1, 1998
Creator: Blanford, Glenn DelFosse
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A possible method to produce a polarized antiproton beam at intermediate energies

Description: A feasible and conservative design for a medium energy polarized antiproton beam has been presented. The design requires an intense beam of unpolarized antiprotons ({ge} 10{sup 7}/sec) from a typical secondary beam line in order to achieve reasonable {anti p}p elastic scattering count rates. All three beam spin directions can be achieved. Methods were discussed to reverse the spin directions in modest times, and to change to a polarized proton beam if desired. It is expected that experiments with such a beam would have a profound effect on the understanding of the {anti N}N interaction at intermediate energies.
Date: December 31, 1994
Creator: Spinka, H.; Vaandering, E.W. & Hofmann, J.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Summary of the TeV33 working group

Description: This summary of the TeV33 working group at Snowmass reports on work in the areas of Tevatron store parameters, the beam-beam interaction, Main Injector intensity (slip stacking), antiproton production, and electron cooling.
Date: October 1, 1996
Creator: Bagley, P. P.; Bieniosek, F. M. & Colestock, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experience with copper oxide production in antiproton source components at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory

Description: The Antiproton (Pbar) Source at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory is a facility comprised of a target station, two rings called the Debuncher and Accumulator and the transport lines between those rings and the remainder of the particle accelerator complex. Water is by far the most common medium for carrying excess heat away from components, primarily electromagnets, in this facility. The largest of the water systems found in Pbar is the 95 degree Fahrenheit Low Conductivity Water (LCW) system. LCW is water which has had free ions removed, increasing its resistance to electrical current. This water circuit is used to cool magnets, power supplies, and stochastic cooling components and typically has a resistivity of 11--18 megaohms-cm. For more than ten years the Antiproton rings were plagued with overheating magnets due to plugged water-cooling channels. Various repairs have been tried over the years with no permanent success. Throughout all of this time, water samples have indicated copper oxide, CuO, as the source of the contamination. Matters came to a head in early 1997 following a major underground LCW leak between the Central Utilities Building and the Antiproton Rings enclosures. Over a span of several weeks following system turn-on, some twenty magnets overheated leading to unreliable Pbar source operation. Although it was known that oxygen in the system reacts with the copper tubing to form CuO, work to remedy this problem was not undertaken until this time period. Leaks, large quantities of make-up water, infrequent filter replacement, and thermal cycling also result in an increase in the corrosion product release rate. A three-pronged approach has been implemented to minimize the amount of copper oxide available to plug the magnets: (1) installation of an oxygen removal system capable of achieving dissolved oxygen concentrations in the parts per billion (ppb) range; (2) regular closed-loop filter/flushing ...
Date: May 10, 2000
Creator: Ader, Christine R.; Jr., Elvin R. Harms & Morgan, and James P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An assessment of the antiproton-proton option for the SSC

Description: The Conceptual Design Report (CDR) for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) describes a proton-proton collider with an energy of 20 TeV per beam and a maximum luminosity of 10{sup 33}cm{sup {minus}2}s{sup {minus}1} per collision point. This directly responds to the recommendation made by the High Energy Physics Advisory Panel to the US Department of Energy and the National Science Foundation in July 1983. That recommendation called for the ``immediate initiation of a multi-TeV high-luminosity proton-proton collider project with the goal of physics experiments at this facility at the earliest Possible date.`` The primary Parameters of the SSC in the Conceptual Design Report have been chosen taking account of both the physics discovery reach of the machine and accelerator physics considerations. The endeavor of the study reported here was to compare the feasibility of an antiproton-proton collider with the proton-proton collider presented in the SSC Conceptual Design Report. The rapid advances in the technology of p{bar p} colliders at CERN and Fermilab suggest that p{bar p} might be a viable alternative to a PP collider (or might be a first stage of an eventual p{bar p} collider). There is Potentially a large cost saving from eliminating one 20 TeV ring of magnets since the protons and antiprotons share the same ring. Following this suggestion, workshops at the University of Chicago and at Snowmass have provided a forum for these ideas. These reports formed the starting point for our study.
Date: May 1, 1986
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Beam sweeping system

Description: This article describes a system for rapidly sweeping a high-energy particle beam in a circular path on a target. The sweeping system deflects the beam in a single-turn rotating-field magnet that combines deflection in both planes into a single unit. The magnet current is up to 10 kA in amplitude and the sweep time is 1.6 {micro}s. The magnet consists of 4 conductors twisted to provide a uniform line-integral deflecting magnetic field, arranged inside a pressed-powder magnetic core. The pulsed power supply provides the current to the high radiation area of the target vault through several meters of stripline and coaxial cable by means of a magnetic pulse compression circuit based on saturing Ni-Fe and Metglas tape cores. At the Fermilab Antiproton Source increase proton beam intensities incident on the antiproton production target threaten to deliver energy densities sufficient to locally melt the target in a single pulse. The purpose of the sweep magnet is to spread the hot spot on the target with a sweep radius of up to 0.5 mm, greatly reducing the peak energy deposition.
Date: August 8, 2000
Creator: al., F.M. Bieniosek et
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Fermilab recycler ring

Description: The Fermilab Recycler is a permanent magnet storage ring for the accumulation of antiprotons from the Antiproton Source, and the recovery and cooling of the antiprotons remaining at the end of a Tevatron store. It is an integral part of the Fermilab III luminosity upgrade. The following paper describes the design features, operational and commissioning status of the Recycler Ring.
Date: July 24, 2001
Creator: Hu, Martin
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Report of the Snowmass T4 working group on particle sources: Positron sources, anti-proton sources and secondary beams

Description: This report documents the activities of the Snowmass 2001 T4 Particle Sources Working Group. T4 was charged with examining the most challenging aspects of positron sources for linear colliders and antiproton sources for proton-antiproton colliders, and the secondary beams of interest to the physics community that will be available from the next generation of high-energy particle accelerators. The leading issues, limiting technologies, and most important R and D efforts of positron production, antiproton production, and secondary beams are discussed in this paper. A listing of T4 Presentations is included.
Date: December 5, 2002
Creator: al., N. Mokhov et
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tevatron Run II performance and plans

Description: The Fermilab accelerator complex has been operating Run II for approximately one year. In this mode 36 proton bunches collide with 36 antiproton bunches at 2 interaction regions in the Tevatron at 980 GeV beam energy. The long range goal in Run II is to obtain a total integrated luminosity of 15 pb{sup -1}. The current status and performance of the accelerator complex is described, including the Tevatron, Main Injector, Antiproton Source, and Recycler Ring. Future upgrade plans and prospects for reaching the admittedly ambitious long range goal are presented.
Date: July 12, 2002
Creator: Church, Michael D
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The status of Run II at Fermilab

Description: The Run II at Fermilab is progressing steadily. In the Run IIa scheme, 36 antiproton bunches collide with 36 proton bunches at CDF and D0 interaction regions in the Tevatron at 980 GeV beam energy. The current status and performance of the Fermilab Accelerator Complex is reviewed. The plans for Run IIb along with the Antiproton Source upgrade and incorporation of the Recycler Ring in the accelerator chain are outlined. The prospects of achieving Run II integrated luminosity goal of 15 fb{sup -1} are discussed.
Date: October 7, 2002
Creator: Gounder, Krish
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tevatron collider operations and plans

Description: Fermilab's Tevatron is a proton-antiproton collider with center of mass energy of 1.96 TeV. The antiprotons are produced by 125 GeV protons from the Main Injector striking a stainless steel target. The 8 GeV antiprotons are collected and cooled in the Debuncher and Accumulator rings of the Antiproton Source and, just recently, in the Recycler ring before acceleration by the Main Injector and the Tevatron. In addition to energy, a vital parameter for generating physics data is the Luminosity delivered to the experiments given by a formula that is listed in detail in the paper.
Date: June 17, 2004
Creator: Garbincius, Peter H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Synchronization of the Fermilab Booster and Main Injector for multiple batch injection

Description: To date, the 120 GeV Fermilab Main Injector accelerator has accelerated a single batch of protons from the 8 GeV rapid-cycling Booster synchrotron for production of antiprotons for Run II. In the future, the Main Injector must accelerate 6 or more Booster batches simultaneously; the first will be extracted to the antiproton source, while the remaining are extracted for the NuMI/MINOS (Neutrinos at the Main Injector/Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search) neutrino experiment. Performing this multi-batch operation while avoiding unacceptable radioactivation of the beamlines requires a previously unnecessary synchronization between the accelerators. We describe a mechanism and present results of advancing or retarding the longitudinal progress of the Booster beam by active feedback radial manipulation of the beam during the acceleration period.
Date: July 9, 2004
Creator: al., Robert Zwaska et
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Transport from the Recycler Ring to the Antiproton Source Beamlines

Description: In the post-NOvA era, the protons are directly transported from the Booster ring to the Recycler ring rather than the Main Injector. For Mu2e and g-2 project, the Debuncher ring will be modified into a Delivery ring to deliver the protons to both Mu2e and g-2 experiments. Therefore, it requires the transport of protons from the Recycler Ring to the Delivery ring. A new transfer line from the Recycler ring to the P1 beamline will be constructed to transport proton beam from the Recycler Ring to existing Antiproton Source beamlines. This new beamline provides a way to deliver 8 GeV kinetic energy protons from the Booster to the Delivery ring, via the Recycler, using existing beam transport lines, and without the need for new civil construction. This paper presents the Conceptual Design of this new beamline.
Date: May 14, 2012
Creator: Xiao, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

LARP LHC 4.8 GHZ Schottky System Initial Commissioning with Beam

Description: The LHC Schottky system consists for four independent 4.8 GHz triple down conversion receivers with associated data acquisition systems. Each system is capable of measuring tune, chromaticity, momentum spread in either horizontal or vertical planes; two systems per beam. The hardware commissioning has taken place from spring through fall of 2010. With nominal bunch beam currents of 10{sup 11} protons, the first incoherent Schottky signals were detected and analyzed. This paper will report on these initial commissioning results. A companion paper will report on the data analysis curve fitting and remote control user interface of the system. The Schottky system for the LHC was proposed in 2004 under the auspices of the LARP collaboration. Similar systems were commissioned in 2003 in the Fermilab Tevatron and Recycler accelerators as a means of measuring tunes noninvasively. The Schottky detector is based on the stochastic cooling pickups that were developed for the Fermilab Antiproton Source Debuncher cooling upgrade completed in 2002. These slotted line waveguide pickups have the advantage of large aperture coupled with high beam coupling characteristics. For stochastic cooling, wide bandwidths are integral to cooling performance. The bandwidth of slotted waveguide pickups can be tailored by choosing the length of the pickup and slot spacing. The Debuncher project covered the 4-8 GHz band with eight bands of pickups, each with approximately 500 MHz of bandwidth. For use as a Schottky detector, bandwidths of 100-200 MHz are required for gating, resulting in higher transfer impedance than those used for stochastic cooling. Details of hardware functionality are reported previously.
Date: March 18, 2011
Creator: Pasquinelli, Ralph J.; Jansson, Andreas; Jones, O. Rhodri & Caspers, Fritz
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cryogenic Design of the D0 Liquid Argon Collider Calorimeter

Description: The superconducting Tevatron was added to Fermilab's 400 Gev Proton Accelerator, the main ring, in 1983. An antiproton source was added in 1985, and the system became a p-pbar, 1 Tev/I Tev, collider in 1987. A CoIIider Detector surrounding one of the points of the accelerator p-pbar beam crossings can measure virtually all the energy of the colliding interaction (Fig. I.) The measurement of all the energy is called hermetic calorimetry. Although there are other liquid argon calorimeters and other hermetic coIIider detectors, the D-Zero (named for the accelerator beam crossing location) liquid argon collider calorimeters will be the first of their kind (Fig. 2). The cryogenic aspects of the liquid argon calorimeter portion of the D-Zero detector are described here. The liquid argon serves as the particle detector ionizing media in a repetitive cell structure (Fig. 3) of argon, signal board, argon, and Uranium or copper absorber plate, with a superimposed electric field. Local signal board pads indicate location and the electric charge collected is proportional to the ionization and the ratio of the argon to plate absorption lengths. This arrangement provides a dense, intrinsically calibrated, drift-free calorimeter.
Date: November 4, 1987
Creator: Mulholland, G.T.; Krempetz, K.J.; Luther, R.D.; Wands, R.H.; Weber, K.J. & /Fermilab
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Intensity-Frontier Antiproton Physics with The Antiproton Annihilation Spectrometer (TAPAS) at Fermilab

Description: The Fermilab Antiproton Source is the world's most intense source of antimatter. With the Tevatron program now behind us, this unique facility can help make the case for Fermilab's continued accelerator operations. The Antiproton Source can be used for unique, dedicated antimatter studies, including medium-energy {bar p}-annihilation experiments. We propose to assemble a powerful, yet cost-effective, solenoidal magnetic spectrometer for antiproton-annihilation events, and to use it at the Fermilab Antiproton Accumulator to measure the charm production cross section, study rare hyperon decays, search for hyperon CP asymmetry, precisely measure the properties of several charmonium and nearby states, and make the first measurements of the Drell-Yan continuum in medium-energy antiproton annihilation. Should the charm production cross section be as large as some have proposed, we will also be able to measure D{sup 0}-{bar D}{sup 0} mixing with high precision and discover (or sensitively limit) charm CP violation. The observation of charm or hyperon CP violation would be evidence for physics beyond the Standard Model, with possible implications for the origin of the baryon asymmetry of the universe - the question of what happened to all the antimatter that must have been produced in the Big Bang. The experiment will be carried out by an international collaboration and will require some four years of running time. As possibly the sole hadron experiment in progress at Fermilab during that time, it will play an important role in maintaining a broad particle physics program at Fermilab and in the U.S. It will thus help us to continue attracting creative and capable young people into science and technology, and introducing them to the important technologies of accelerators, detectors, and data acquisition and analysis - key roles in society that accelerator-based particle physics has historically played.
Date: November 1, 2011
Creator: Apollinari, Giorgio; /Fermilab; Asner, David M.; /PNL, Richland; Baldini, Wander; /INFN, Ferrara et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Assessment of neutron skyshine near unmodified Accumulator Debuncher storage rings under Mu2e operational conditions

Description: Preliminary plans for providing the proton beam needed by the proposed Mu2e experiment at Fermilab will require the transport of 8 GeV protons to the Accumulator/Debuncher where they be processed into an intensity and time structure useful for the experiment. The intensities involved are far greater that those encountered with antiprotons of the same kinetic energy in the same beam enclosures under Tevatron Collider operational conditions, the operating parameters for which the physical facilities of the Antiproton Source were designed. This note explores some important ramifications of the proposed operation for radiation safety and demonstrates the need for extensive modifications of significant portions of the shielding of the Accumulator Debuncher storage rings; notably that underneath the AP Service Buildings AP10, AP30, and AP50. While existing shielding is adequate for the current operating mode of the Accumulator/Debuncher as part of the Antiproton Source used in the Tevatron Collider program, without significant modifications of the shielding configuration in the Accumulator/Debuncher region and/or beam loss control systems far more effective than seen in most applications at Fermilab, the proposed operational mode for Mu2e is not viable for the following reasons: 1. Due to skyshine alone, under normal operational conditions large areas of the Fermilab site would be exposed to unacceptable levels of radiation where most of the Laboratory workforce and some members of the general public who regularly visit Fermilab would receive measurable doses annually, contrary to workforce, public, and DOE expectations concerning the As Low as Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) principle. 2. Under normal operational conditions, a sizeable region of the Fermilab site would also require fencing due to skyshine. The size of the areas involved would likely invite public inquiry about the significant and visible enlargement of Fermilab's posted radiological areas. 3. There would be aesthetics questions about the employment of so ...
Date: December 1, 2010
Creator: Cossairt, J.Donald
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

MI high power operation and future plans

Description: Fermilab's Main Injector on acceleration cycles to 120 GeV has been running a mixed mode operation delivering beam to both the antiproton source for pbar production and to the NuMI[1] target for neutrino production since 2005. On January 2008 the slip stacking process used to increase the beam to the pbar target was expanded to include the beam to the NuMI target increasing both the beam intensity and power. The current high power MI operation will be described along with the near future plans.
Date: September 1, 2008
Creator: Kourbanis, Ioanis
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Run II luminosity progress

Description: The Fermilab Tevatron Collider Run II program continues at the energy and luminosity frontier of high energy particle physics. To the collider experiments CDF and D0, over 3 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity has been delivered to each. Upgrades and improvements in the Antiproton Source of the production and collection of antiprotons have led to increased number of particles stored in the Recycler. Electron cooling and associated improvements have help make a brighter antiproton beam at collisions. Tevatron improvements to handle the increased number of particles and the beam lifetimes have resulted in an increase in luminosity.
Date: June 1, 2007
Creator: Gollwitzer, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Beam Based Measurements for Stochastic Cooling Systems at Fermilab

Description: Improvement of antiproton stacking rates has been pursued for the last twenty years at Fermilab. The last twelve months have been dedicated to improving the computer model of the Stacktail system. The production of antiprotons encompasses the use of the entire accelerator chain with the exception of the Tevatron. In the Antiproton Source two storage rings, the Debuncher and Accumulator are responsible for the accumulation of antiprotons in quantities that can exceed 2 x 10{sup 12}, but more routinely, stacks of 5 x 10{sup 11} antiprotons are accumulated before being transferred to the Recycler ring. Since the beginning of this recent enterprise, peak accumulation rates have increased from 2 x 10{sup 11} to greater than 2.3 x 10{sup 11} antiprotons per hour. A goal of 3 x 10{sup 11} per hour has been established. Improvements to the stochastic cooling systems are but a part of this current effort. This paper will discuss Stacktail system measurements and experienced system limitations.
Date: September 13, 2007
Creator: Lebedev, V.A.; Pasquinelli, R.J.; Werkema, S.J. & /Fermilab
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Error-Induced Beam Degradation in Fermilab's Accelerators

Description: In Part I, three independent models of Fermilab's Booster synchrotron are presented. All three models are constructed to investigate and explore the effects of unavoidable machine errors on a proton beam under the influence of space-charge effects. The first is a stochastic noise model. Electric current fluctuations arising from power supplies are ubiquitous and unavoidable and are a source of instabilities in accelerators of all types. A new noise module for generating the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck (O-U) stochastic noise is first created and incorporated into the existing Object-oriented Ring Beam Injection and Tracking (ORBIT-FNAL) package. After being convinced with a preliminary model that the noise, particularly non-white noise, does matter to beam quality, we proceeded to measure directly current ripples and common-mode voltages from all four Gradient Magnet Power Supplies (GMPS). Then, the current signals are Fourier-analyzed. Based upon the power spectra of current signals, we tune up the Ornstein-Uhlnbeck noise model. As a result, we are able to closely match the frequency spectra between current measurements and the modeled O-U stochastic noise. The stochastic noise modeled upon measurements is applied to the Booster beam in the presence of the full space-charge effects. This noise model, accompanied by a suite of beam diagnostic calculations, manifests that the stochastic noise, impinging upon the beam and coupled to the space-charge effects, can substantially enhance the beam degradation process throughout the injection period. The second model is a magnet misalignment model. It is the first time to utilize the latest beamline survey data for building a magnet-by-magnet misalignment model. Given as-found survey fiducial coordinates, we calculate all types of magnet alignment errors (station error, pitch, yaw, roll, twists, etc.) are implemented in the model. We then follow up with statistical analysis to understand how each type of alignment errors are currently distributed around the Booster ...
Date: August 1, 2007
Creator: Yoon, Phil S. & U., /Rochester
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Simple Transition-Free Lattice of an 8 GeV Proton Synchroton

Description: A transition-free lattice is a basic requirement of a high-intensity medium-energy (several GeV) proton synchrotron in order to eliminate beam losses during transition crossing. An 8 GeV synchrotron is proposed as a principal component in an alternative hybrid design of Project-X [1]. This machine would be housed in the Fermilab antiproton source enclosure replacing the present Debuncher. A simple doublet lattice with high transition gamma has been designed. It uses just one type of dipoles and one type of quadrupoles (QF and QD are of the same length). It has no transition crossing. It has a triangular shape with three zero dispersion straight sections, which can be used for injection, extraction, RF and collimators. The beta-functions and dispersion are low. This lattice has plenty of free space for correctors and diagnostic devices, as well as good optical properties including large dynamic aperture, weak dependence of lattice functions on amplitude and momentum deviation.
Date: May 1, 2009
Creator: Chou, W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminaries toward studying resonant extraction from the Debuncher

Description: A recent proposal to detect {mu} {yields} e direct conversion at Fermilab asks for slow extraction of protons from the antiproton source, specifically from the Debuncher. [1] A third-integer resonance originally was considered for this, partly because of the Debuncher's three-fold symmetry and partly because its operational horizontal tune, {nu}{sub x} {approx} 9.765, is already within 0.1 of {nu}{sub x} = 29/3. Using a half integer resonance, {nu}{sub x} = 19/2, though not part of the original proposal, has been suggested more recently because (a) Fermilab has had a good deal of experience with half-integer extraction from the Tevatron, the Main Injector and the erstwhile Main Ring, and (b) for reasons we shall examine later, it depopulates the entire bunch without an abort at the end. This memo presents considerations preliminary to studying both possibilities. It is meant only as a starting point for investigations to be carried out in the future. The working constraints and assumptions have oscillated between two extremes: (1) making minimal changes in the antiproton source to minimize cost and (2) building another machine in the same tunnel. In this memo we adopt an attitude aligned more toward the first. The assumed parameters are listed in Table 1. A few are not (easily) subject to change, such as those related to the beam's momentum and revolution frequency and the acceptance of the debuncher. Two resonance exemplars are presented in the next section, with an explanation of the analytic and semi-analytic calculations that can be done for each. Section 3 contains preliminary numerical work that was done to validate the exemplars within the context of extraction from the Debuncher. A final section contains a summary. Following the bibliography, appendices contain (a) a qualitative, conceptual discussion of extraction for the novice, (b) a telegraphic review of the perturbative ...
Date: June 1, 2009
Creator: Michelotti, Leo & Johnstone, John
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Pulsed Septum Magnet for the Fermilab Antiproton Source S. Holmes &

Description: A 2 meter curved pulsed septum magnet for use in the Fermilab Antiproton Source is described. The magnet produces a peak field of 6 kGauss at a current of 20,000 Amperes within a 0.4 msec long pulse. The field uniformity obtained is {Delta}B/B&lt;0.2% out to 3.8 cm from the copper septum. Power enters the magnet from the center resulting in very simple ends and the magnet incorporates a 0.5 cm steel guard which reduces the field to &lt;1.4 Gauss in the zero-field region. The total septum thickness is 1.3 cm. The vacuum enclosure doubles as the stacking fixture for the magnet laminations allowing easy assembly of a magnet with a 50 m radius of curvature.
Date: May 1, 1985
Creator: Satti, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department