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China: Commission of Science, Technology, and Industry for National Defense (COSTIND) and Defense Industries

Description: Congressional interest in the Chinese military, or People’s Liberation Army (PLA), has increased as a result of the March 1996 tensions in the Taiwan Strait, continuing allegations of Chinese proliferation of technology useful in weapons of mass destruction, and reports that some Chinese defense-related corporations have circumvented U.S. export controls to acquire dual-use technology. The Commission of Science, Technology, and Industry for National Defense (COSTIND), an important, high-level PLA organization, plays a role in China’s weapon programs, sales of civilian goods, acquisition of military technology, and arms sales and export controls. The purpose of this CRS Report is to examine the origins and command, roles, and influence of COSTIND.
Date: December 3, 1997
Creator: Kan, Shirley A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Work Opportunity Tax Credit: A Fact Sheet

Description: The 104th Congress replaced the Targeted Jobs Tax Credit (TJTC, 1978-1994) with the Work Opportunity Tax Credit (WOTC) in section 1201 of the Small Business Job Protection Act of 1996 (P.L. 104-188). This document provides basic facts about the WOTC.
Date: April 2, 1998
Creator: Levine, Linda
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Advanced Technology Program

Description: The Advanced Technology Program (ATP) was created by P.L. 100-418, the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988, to encourage public-private cooperation in the development of pre-competitive technologies with broad application across industries. This activity has been targeted for elimination as a means to cut federal spending. This report discusses the ATP and related issues of federal appropriations (or the lack thereof).
Date: August 10, 1999
Creator: Schacht, Wendy H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

General Overview of United States Antitrust Law

Description: This report presents brief summaries of (1) the primary United States antitrust statutes, and (2) some of the activities which are generally considered to be violations of those laws. There is also some reference to the prohibition against unfair competition and the "unfairness" jurisdiction of the Federal Trade Commission (FTC). There is not, however, any discussion of the extraterritorial reach of the United States antitrust laws. Further, the laws whose descriptions follow do not constitute all of the statutes which are applicable to antitrust issues, but rather, constitute those which are most often utilized.
Date: January 11, 1995
Creator: Rubin, Janice E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Japanese Companies and Technology: Lessons to Learn?

Description: American companies are facing increased competitive pressures from foreign firms. Many observers feel that U.S. firms lag behind their foreign competitors in the development, application, and marketing of new technologies and techniques. The Japanese industrial enterprise is characterized by a large proportion of private sector financing and many other factors, which this report analyzes at length. The question being debated by Congress is whether or not U.S. government programs and policies are an acceptable and effective means of supporting the efforts of American industries to operate in a manner consistent with success in world markets.
Date: April 15, 1991
Creator: Schacht, Wendy H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Japan: Resale Price Maintenance

Description: Resale price maintenance occurs when manufacturers control the prices charged by wholesalers or retailers of their products. In Japan, such activities are prohibited, although certain exemptions are allowed. The U.S. concern over the practice is that it could allow Japanese firms to generate a secure profit base in their home market in order to finance aggressive price competition abroad.
Date: March 28, 1991
Creator: Nanto, Dick K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

FY2004 Budget Documents: Internet Access and GPO Availability

Description: Every year the President submits to Congress a series of budget volumes which provides the text of the President’s proposed budget for the coming fiscal year. Neither CRS nor the Library of Congress can provide giveaway copies of these documents. This report provides brief descriptions of these budget volumes and related documents, together with Internet addresses, Government Printing Office (GPO) stock numbers, and prices to obtain these publications.
Date: March 10, 2003
Creator: Murray, Justin
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

FY2003 Budget and Related Documents: Internet Access and GPO Availability

Description: In February, the President submits to Congress a series of budget volumes which contain the President’s budget proposalsforthe upcoming fiscal year, historical data, and analytical supplements. Early in the year, the Economic Report of the President is released by the Council of Economic Advisors, and the Congressional Budget Office issues its publications, Budget and Economic Outlook and Analysis of the President’s Budget. Neither CRS nor the Library of Congress can provide giveaway copies of these documents. This report provides brief descriptions, together with Internet addresses and Government Printing Office (GPO) stock numbers and prices for these documents. Information is also provided on how to find locations of government depository libraries, which can provide both printed copies for reference use and Internet access.
Date: April 12, 2002
Creator: Murray, Justin
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Debt Limit: Why It Rose After Four Years of Surpluses and the Debt Changes Since

Description: In December 2002, the Administration began warning Congress that the debt limit ($6.4 trillion) would be reached in the first half of 2002. As the limit was approached in February 2003, the Administration resorted to suspension of certain internal fund investments to avoid a default. The adoption of the budget resolution (H.Con.Res. 95; April 11, 2003) for FY2004 generated legislation (H.J.Res. 51) — deemed passed by the House — that would increase the debt limit to $7.4 trillion.
Date: May 16, 2003
Creator: Winters, Philip D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Debt Limit: The Need to Raise It After Four Years of Surpluses

Description: Increases in total federal debt are driven by government deficits (which increase debt held by the public) and by the surpluses credited to (and federal accounting for) debt-holding federal accounts, mostly federal trust funds such as the Social Security, Medicare, Transportation, and Civil Service trust funds.
Date: January 23, 2003
Creator: Winters, Philip D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Debt Limit: The Need to Raise It After Four Years of Surpluses

Description: Increases in total federal debt are driven by government deficits (which increase debt held by the public) and by the surpluses credited to (and federal accounting for) debt-holding federal accounts, mostly federal trust funds such as the Social Security, Medicare, Transportation, and Civil Service trust funds.
Date: July 5, 2002
Creator: Winters, Philip D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Emergency Spending: Statutory and Congressional Rules

Description: Under the Budget Enforcement Act (BEA), there are statutory limits (caps) on the level of federal discretionary spending, enforced by across-the-board spending cuts, known as a sequester. If, however, spending is designated as emergency by both the President and Congress, it will not trigger a sequester, because the caps are adjusted automatically by an amount equal to the emergency spending. Since the BEA was first enacted in 1990, both the House and Senate have supplemented its provisions with additional limitations in their respective rules concerning the use of emergency designations.
Date: October 3, 2001
Creator: Saturno, James V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Congressional Use of Funding Cutoffs Since 1970 Involving U.S. Military Forces and Overseas Deployments

Description: This report provides background information on major instances, since 1970, when Congress has utilized funding cutoffs to compel the withdrawal of United States military forces from overseas military deployments. It also highlights key efforts by Congress to utilize the War Powers Resolution, since its enactment in 1973, to compel the withdrawal of U.S. military forces from foreign deployments. In this review, legislation expressing the “sense of the Congress” regarding U.S. military deployments is not addressed.
Date: January 10, 2001
Creator: Grimmett, Richard F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

How Budget Surpluses Change Federal Debt

Description: This report discusses how budget surpluses change federal debt. The answer involves understanding what drives changes in the two components of total federal debt, debt held by the public (which includes debt held by individuals, pension funds, banks, and insurance companies, among other entities) and debt held by government accounts (almost all in federal trust funds, such as Social Security).
Date: January 4, 2001
Creator: Winters, Philip D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Federal Grants to State and Local Governments: Overview and Characteristics

Description: Each fiscal year, Congress appropriates funds for grants to state and local governments to further national goals and assist state and local government operations. Examples of goals include attaining minimum national standards and improving program effectiveness. The federal government provides grants for numerous substantive purposes, such as crime prevention, community development, and transportation. In FY2001, grants to state and local governments totaled $317 billion. Grants can be classified by the substantive purposes they address. This report, however, reviews the fundamental characteristics by which they can also be classified. Examples of grant characteristics include range of eligible activities, objectives, award process, and administrative requirements.
Date: November 27, 2002
Creator: Canada, Ben
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Federal Grants to State and Local Governments: Overview and Characteristics

Description: Each fiscal year, Congress appropriates funds for grants to state and local governments to further national goals and assist sub-national governments. Examples of goals include attaining minimum national standards and improving program effectiveness. The federal government provides grants for numerous substantive purposes, such as crime prevention, community development, and transportation. In 1999, grants-in-aid to state and local governments totaled $270 billion. Grants can be classified by the substantive purposes they address. This report, however, reviews the fundamental characteristics according to which they can also be classified. Examples of grant characteristics include range of eligible activities, objectives, award process, and administrative requirements.
Date: September 7, 2000
Creator: Canada, Ben
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department