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Flywheel Energy Storage technology workshop

Description: Advances in recent years of high strength/lightweight materials, high performance magnetic bearings, and power electronics technology has spurred a renewed interest by the transportation, utility, and manufacturing industries in Flywheel Energy Storage (FES) technologies. FES offers several advantages over conventional electro-chemical energy storage, such as high specific energy and specific power, fast charging time, long service life, high turnaround efficiency (energy out/energy in), and no hazardous/toxic materials or chemicals are involved. Potential applications of FES units include power supplies for hybrid and electric vehicles, electric vehicle charging stations, space systems, and pulsed power devices. Also, FES units can be used for utility load leveling, uninterruptable power supplies to protect electronic equipment and electrical machinery, and for intermittent wind or photovoltaic energy sources. The purpose of this workshop is to provide a forum to highlight technologies that offer a high potential to increase the performance of FES systems and to discuss potential solutions to overcome present FES application barriers. This document consists of viewgraphs from 27 presentations.
Date: December 31, 1993
Creator: O`Kain, D. & Howell, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

US Army Radiological Bioassay and Dosimetry: The RBD software package

Description: The RBD (Radiological Bioassay and Dosimetry) software package was developed for the U. S. Army Material Command, Arlington, Virginia, to demonstrate compliance with the radiation protection guidance 10 CFR Part 20 (ref. 1). Designed to be run interactively on an IBM-compatible personal computer, RBD consists of a data base module to manage bioassay data and a computational module that incorporates algorithms for estimating radionuclide intake from either acute or chronic exposures based on measurement of the worker`s rate of excretion of the radionuclide or the retained activity in the body. In estimating the intake,RBD uses a separate file for each radionuclide containing parametric representations of the retention and excretion functions. These files also contain dose-per-unit-intake coefficients used to compute the committed dose equivalent. For a given nuclide, if measurements exist for more than one type of assay, an auxiliary module, REPORT, estimates the intake by applying weights assigned in the nuclide file for each assay. Bioassay data and computed results (estimates of intake and committed dose equivalent) are stored in separate data bases, and the bioassay measurements used to compute a given result can be identified. The REPORT module creates a file containing committed effective dose equivalent for each individual that can be combined with the individual`s external exposure.
Date: January 1, 1993
Creator: Eckerman, K. F.; Ward, R. C. & Maddox, L. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Charged fusion product and fast ion loss in TFTR

Description: Several different fusion product and fast ion loss processes have been observed in TFTR using an array of pitch angle, energy and time resolved scintillator detectors located near the vessel wall. For D-D fusion products (3 MeV protons and 1 MeV tritons) the observed loss is generally consistent with expected first-orbit loss for Ip < 1.4 MA, except near the outer midplane where stochastic TF ripple loss dominates when Ip > I MA. However, at higher currents, Ip = 1.4--2.5 MA, an NM induced D-D fusion product loss can be up to 3-4 times larger than the first-orbit loss, particularly at high beam powers, P {ge} 25 MW. The MHD induced loss of 100 KeV neutron beam ions and {approximately}0.5 MeV ICRF minority tail tons has also been measured {le} 459 below the outer midplane. be potential implications of these results for D-T alpha particle experiments in TFTR and ITER are described.
Date: March 1, 1993
Creator: Zweben, S. J.; Darrow, D. S.; Fredrickson, E. D.; Mynick, H. E.; White, R. B.; Biglari, H. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Maintenance and operations contractor plan for transition to the project Hanford management contract (PHMC)

Description: This plan has been developed by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), and its subcontractors ICF Kaiser Hanford (ICF KH) and BCS Richland, Inc. (BCSR), at the direction of the US Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL). WHC and its subcontractors are hereafter referred to as the Maintenance and Operations (M and O) Contractor. The plan identifies actions involving the M and O Contractor that are critical to (1) prepare for a smooth transition to the Project Hanford Management Contractor (PHMC), and (2) support and assist the PHMC and RL in achieving transition as planned, with no or minimal impact to ongoing baseline activities. The plan is structured around two primary phases. The first is the pre-award phase, which started in mid-February 1996 and is currently scheduled to be completed on June 1, 1996, at which time the contract is currently planned to be awarded. The second is the follow-on four-month post-award phase from June 1, 1996, until October 1, 1996. Considering the magnitude and complexity of the scope of work being transitioned, completion in four months will require significant effort by all parties. To better ensure success, the M and O Contractor has developed a pre-award phase that is intended to maximize readiness for transition. Priority is given to preparation for facility assessments and processing of personnel, as these areas are determined to be on the critical path for transition. In addition, the M and O Contractor will put emphasis during the pre-award phase to close out open items prior to contract award, to include grievances, employee concerns, audit findings, compliance issues, etc.
Date: April 12, 1996
Creator: Waite, J. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Monthly energy review, March 1994

Description: The Monthly Energy Review provides information on production, distribution, consumption, prices, imports, and exports for the following US energy sources: petroleum; petroleum products; natural gas; coal; electricity; and nuclear energy. The section on international energy contains data for world crude oil production and consumption, petroleum stocks in OECD countries, and nuclear electricity gross generation.
Date: March 29, 1994
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reactor physics input to the safety analysis report for the High Flux Isotope Reactor

Description: HFIR specific, few group neutron and coupled neutron-gamma libraries have been prepared. These are based on data from ENDF/B-V and beginning-of-life (BOL) conditions. The neutron library includes actinide data for curium target rods. Six critical experiments, collectively designated HFIR critical experiment 4, were analyzed. Calculated k-effective was 2% high at BOL-typical conditions but was 1.0 at end-of-life-typical conditions. The local power density distributions were calculated for each of the critical experiments. The axially averaged values at a given radius were frequently within experimental error. However at individual points, the calculated local power densities were significantly different from the experimentally derived values (several times greater than experimental uncertainty). A reassessment of the foil activation data with transport theory techniques seems desirable. Using the results of the critical experiments study, a model of current HFIR configuration was prepared. As with the critical experiments, BOL k-effective was high (3%). However, end-of-life k-effective was high (2%). The end-of-life concentrations of fission products were compared to those generated using the ORIGEN code. Agreement was generally good through differences in the inventories of some important nuclides, Xe and I, need to be understood. End-of-cycle curium target isotopics based on measured, discharged target rods were compared to calculated values and agreement was good. Axial flux plots at various irradiation positions were generated. Time-dependent power distributions based on two-dimensional calculations were provided.
Date: March 1, 1992
Creator: Primm, R. T. III
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Gas-rich sediment and coastal wetland loss in Louisiana

Description: High rates of wetland loss in southern Louisiana provide the impetus for examining the role that trapped, biogenic gases play in regulating subsidence of coastal areas. A significant cause for wetland loss in this region is relative sea-level rise produced by sediment-volume reduction. Dewatering, grain reorientation and packing, and oxidation of organic-rich sediments are thought to be the main processes for volume loss. It is argued that natural and anthropogenic causes for sediment degasification play a critical role in sediment-volume reduction. Compressional wave velocities were measured at 34 sites in both the abandoned (Holocene) and modern parts of the Mssissippi Delta. A low-frequency source (<200 Hz) was used to maximize sound-wave dispersion caused by interstitial gas bubbles. Compressional wave velocities measured at low frequencies relative to the gas-bubble resonant-frequency undergo maximum change from the velocity for a gas-free sediment.
Date: March 1, 1993
Creator: Thompson, M. D.; McGinnis, L. D.; Wilkey, P. L. & Miller, S. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparison of slurry versus fixed-bed reactor costs for indirect liquefaction applications. A supplement to final report: Design of slurry reactor for indirect liquefaction applications

Description: This work is a comparative evaluation of slurry reactors and fixed-bed reactors, with special emphasis on cost. Relative differences between slurry reactors and fixed-bed reactors have been pointed out in previous reviews; the differences pertinent to indirect liquefaction are summarized here. Design of both types is outlined.
Date: December 1, 1991
Creator: Prakash, A. & Bendale, P. G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hanford Tank Safety Project: Minutes of the Tank Waste Science Panel meeting, February 7--8, 1991

Description: The Tank Waste Science Panel met February 7--8, 1991, to review the latest data from the analyses of the October 24, 1990, gas release from Tank 241-SY-101 (101-SY) at Hanford; discuss the results of work being performed in support of the Hanford Tank Safety Project; and be briefed on the ferrocyanide issues included in the expanded scope of the Science Panel. The shapes of the gas release curves from the past three events are similar and correlate well with changes in waste level, but the correlation between the released volume of gas and the waste height is not as good. An analysis of the kinetics of gas generation from waste height measurements in Tank 101-SY suggests that the reaction giving rise to the gases in the tank is independent of the gas pressure and independent of the physical processes that give rise to the episodic release of the gases. Tank waste height data were also used to suggest that a floating crust formed early in the history of the tank and that the current crust is being made thicker in the eastern sector of the tank by repeated upheaval of waste slurry onto the surface. The correlation between the N{sub 2}O and N{sub 2} generated in the October release appears to be 1:1, suggesting a single mechanistic pathway. Analysis of other gas generation ratios, however, suggests that H{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O are evolved together, whereas N{sub 2} is from the air. If similar ratios are observed in planned radiolysis experiments are Argonne National Laboratory, radiolysis would appear to be generating most of the gases in Tank 101-SY. Data from analysis of synthetic waste crust using a dynamic x-ray diffractometer suggest that, in air, organics are being oxidized and liberating CO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. Experiments at Savannah River Laboratory ...
Date: June 1, 1991
Creator: Strachan, D. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Designing SSC quadrupole supports to minimize the effects from vibrational noise

Description: G. Stupakov has shown theoretically that the emittance at the SSC should increase linearly with time and the seismic noise spectrum associated with quadrupole motion at the betatron frequency {approximately} 750--1500 Hz. While the motion is also affected by overtones of the knockout frequencies, the frequencies are so high that the seismic noise becomes vanishingly small. Feedback control would be required to control emittance growth for a power spectrum in excess of 10{sup {minus}12} microns{sup 2}/Hz, assuming unit transmission at the betatron knockout frequency through the quadrupole supports. At the 1991 Corpus Christi Workshop on Beam Dynamics, N. Dikanski predicted unacceptable emittance growths of minutes for the SSC collider in the absence of protective measures. In view of this prediction a workshop was convened in February of 1992 to discuss vibrational issues. At this workshop G. Fischer referred participants to an early study based on the then best compilation from Aki and Richards of seismic measurements. Aki and Richards showed ambient ground noise for a generic site many orders of magnitude lower than the INP measurements for the 750--1500 Hz range. Fischer referred to later extensive measurements in the US and USSR that had confirmed the Aki results and also showed that instrumental noise in the 750--1500 Hz region could dominate measurement precision. Later measurements made by the Russian group at the SSC site measure quiet noise spectra of Hz five orders of magnitude lower than the original values. Under noisy conditions measurements indicate that culturally induced vibrations might still lead to marginal emittance growth, assuming unit transmission in the relevant frequency range, and 100% efficient coupling of resonant modes to the beam. This is certainly an overestimate as relevant wavelengths are small compared with quadrupole dimensions.
Date: September 1, 1993
Creator: Ritson, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

[Induction of polygalacturonases important in pathogenicity of Pseudomonas solanacearum]

Description: Recent studies on the importance of hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins (HPRG`s) in the nature and function of plant cell walls have led to the question as to whether proteolytic enzymes are also involved in tissue maceration and act in concert with other cell wall degrading enzymes in the process. The primary objective of this research was to determine whether proteolytic enzymes, in combination with other enzymes, are involved in the degradation of plant cell walls and thus may be essential for pathogenesis by certain soft rot bacteria. The proteolytic enzymes of Erwinia carotovora subsp.carotovora (Ecc) grown on various media were examined by isoelectrofocusing in polyacrylamide gels over a pH range of 3-10. In addition to the main protease present in culture filtrates, low concentrations of several other proteases were present in extracts from potato tubers infected by Ecc. These enzymes degraded gelatin, soluble collagen, and Hide Powder Azure, and showed weak activity on casein, but did not degrade insoluble collagen or elastin. Ecc proteases appear capable of degrading at least one type of cell wall protein in vitro, but we were unable to obtain evidence that these proteases can attack cell wall proteins in muro. The results indicate that some glycosidic alkali- labile bonds have to be broken befor Ecc proteases can degrade cell wall proteins. Thus, these proteases may play a role in cell wall degradation only when acting in concert with other enzymes that split glycosidic bonds.
Date: December 31, 1992
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radioactive mixed waste disposal

Description: Various types of waste have been generated during the 50-year history of the Hanford Site. Regulatory changes in the last 20 years have provided the emphasis for better management of these wastes. Interpretations of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (AEA), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA), and the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) have led to the definition of radioactive mixed wastes (RMW). The radioactive and hazardous properties of these wastes have resulted in the initiation of special projects for the management of these wastes. Other solid wastes at the Hanford Site include low-level wastes, transuranic (TRU), and nonradioactive hazardous wastes. This paper describes a system for the treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) of solid radioactive waste.
Date: February 1, 1993
Creator: Jasen, W. G. & Erpenbeck, E. G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hydrothermal reactions of fly ash. [Quarterly] report, January 1, 1993--March 31, 1993

Description: The reactions which occur when fly ash is treated under hydrothermal conditions are being investigated. This is being done for two primary reasons. The first of these is to determine the nature of the phases that form, to assess the stabilities of these phases in the ambient environment and, finally, to assess whether these phases are capable of sequestering hazardous species. The second reason for undertaking this proposed study is that, depending on the composition of the ash and the presence of selected additives, it may be possible under hydrothermal conditions to form compounds which have cementitious properties.Formation of four classes of compounds, which bracket likely fly ash compositional ranges, have been selected for study. These are calcium silicate hydrates, calcium silicosulfates, calcium aluminosulfates, andalkali aluminosilicates. The specific compounds fabricated will be determined and their stability regions assessed. As a part of stability assessment, the extent to which selected hazardous species are sequestered will be determined. Finally, the cementing properties of these compounds will be established.
Date: June 1, 1993
Creator: Brown, P. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Integrated Baseline System (IBS) Version 2.0: Utilities Guide

Description: The Integrated Baseline System (IBS) is an emergency management planning and analysis tool being developed under the direction of the US Army Nuclear and Chemical Agency. This Utilities Guide explains how you can use the IBS utility programs to manage and manipulate various kinds of IBS data. These programs include utilities for creating, editing, and displaying maps and other data that are referenced to geographic location. The intended audience for this document are chiefly data managers but also system managers and some emergency management planners and analysts.
Date: March 1, 1994
Creator: Burford, M. J.; Downing, T. R.; Williams, J. R. & Bower, J. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Quark matter and cosmology

Description: The possible implications of the quark-hadron transition for cosmology are explored. Possible surviving signatures are discussed. In particular, the possibility of generating a dark matter candidate such as strange nuggets or planetary mass black holes is noted. Much discussion is devoted to the possible role of the transition for cosmological nucleosynthesis. It is emphasized that even an optimized first order phase transition will not significantly alter the nucleosynthesis constraints on the cosmological baryon density nor on neutrino counting. However, it is noted that Be and B observations in old stars may eventually be able to be a signature of a cosmologically significant quark-hadron transition. It is pointed out that the critical point in this regard is whether the observed B/Be ratio can be produced by spallation processes or requires cosmological input. Spallation cannot produce a B/Be ratio below 7.6. A supporting signature would be Be and B ratios to oxygen that greatly exceed galactic values. At present, all data is still consistent with a spallagenic origin.
Date: January 1, 1992
Creator: Schramm, D. N.; Fields, B. & Thomas, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Catalyst dispersion and activity under conditions of temperature-staged liquefaction. Technical progress report, October--December 1991

Description: The general objectives of this research are (1) to investigate the use of highly dispersed catalysts for the pretreatment of coal by mild hydrogenation, (2) to identify the active forms of the catalysts under reaction conditions and (3) to clarify the mechanisms of catalysis. The ultimate objective is to ascertain if mild catalytic hydrogenation resulting in very limited or no coal solubilization is an advantageous pretreatment for the transformation of coal into transportable fuels. The experimental program will focus upon the development of effective methods of impregnating coal with catalysts, evaluating the conditions under which the catalysts are most active and establishing the relative impact of improved impregnation on conversion and product distributions obtained from coal hydrogenation.
Date: February 1, 1992
Creator: Davis, A.; Schobert, H. H.; Mitchell, G. D. & Artok, L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hanford business structure for HANDI 2000 business management system

Description: The Hanford Business Structure integrates the project`s technical, schedule, and cost baselines; implements the use of a standard code of accounts; and streamlines performance reporting and cost collection. Technical requirements drive the technical functions and come from the RDD 100 database. The functions will be identified in the P3 scheduling system and also in the PeopleSoft system. Projects will break their work down from the technical requirements in the P3 schedules. When the level at which they want to track cost via the code of accounts is reached, a Project ID will be generated in the PeopleSoft system. P3 may carry more detailed schedules below the Project ID level. The standard code of accounts will identify discrete work activities done across the site and various projects. They will include direct and overhead type work scopes. Activities in P3 will roll up to this standard code of accounts. The field that will be used to record this in PeopleSoft is ``Activity``. In Passport it is a user-defined field. It will have to be added to other feeder systems. Project ID and code of accounts are required fields on all cost records.
Date: August 24, 1998
Creator: Wilson, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of aging degradation of structural components

Description: Irradiation embrittlement of the neutron shield tank (NST) A212 Grade B steel from the Shippingport reactor, as well as thermal embrittlement of CF-8 cast stainless steel components from the Shippingport and KRB reactors, has been characterized. Increases in Charpy transition temperature (CTT), yield stress, and hardness of the NST material in the low-temperature low-flux environment are consistent with the test reactor data for irradiations at < 232{degrees}C. The shift in CTT is not as severe as that observed in surveillance samples from the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR): however, it shows very good agreement with the results for HFIR A212-B steel irradiated in the Oak Ridge Research Reactor. The results indicate that fluence rate has not effect on radiation embrittlement at rates as low as 2 {times} 10{sup 8} n/cm{sup 2}{center_dot}s at the low operating temperature of the Shippingport NST, i.e., 55{degrees}C. This suggest that radiation damage in Shippingport NST and HFIR surveillance samples may be different because of the neutron spectra and/or Cu and Ni content of the two materials. Cast stainless steel components show relatively modest decreases in fracture toughness and Charpy-impact properties and a small increase in tensile strength. Correlations for estimating mechanical properties of cast stainless steels predict accurate or slightly conservative values for Charpy-impact energy, tensile flow stress, fracture toughness J-R curve, and J{sub IC} of the materials. The kinetics of thermal embrittlement and degree of embrittlement at saturation, i.e., the minimum impact energy achieved after long-term aging, were established from materials that were aged further in the laboratory. The results were consistent with the estimates. The correlations successfully predict the mechanical properties of the Ringhals 2 reactor hot- and crossover-leg elbows (CF-8M steel) after service of {approx}15 y.
Date: March 1, 1992
Creator: Chopra, O. K. & Shack, W. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Operating physics factors with zirconium tubes at the K Reactors

Description: This document lists the physics factors for the K Reactors following the transition to the KV fuel element geometry and zirconium tubes. Each new parameter with the zirconium tube lattice has been calculated relative to the factors used with aluminum tubes and the KIV fuel elements. The purpose of this document is to provide working values for plant assistance use during the transition to the zirconium lattice. In some cases, where there are large uncertainties in the absolute values, the conservative end of the range has been provided for present operational use in safety and control administration. Refinement and publication of ``best`` values for the zirconium lattice based on the extensive experimental and calculational studies are included in future Reactor Physics Unit programs.
Date: May 24, 1963
Creator: Tiller, R. E. & Vaughn, A. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

System curves for 100-K water plant expansion pump analysis

Description: Modifications to the 100-K water plant will be made, under Project CG-775, to increase total process water flow rates to 175,000 gpm or greater. Included in the modifications will be the installation of new pump impellers for the primary and secondary process water pumps located in the 190-K Buildings.
Date: June 5, 1958
Creator: Rudock, E. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Jefferson Lab personnel safety fast beam kicker system

Description: The CEBAF accelerator at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) uses a continuous electron beam with up to 800 kilowatts of average beam power. The laboratory beam containment policy requires that in the event of an errant beam striking a beam blocking device, the beam must be shut off by three methods in less than 1 millisecond. One method implemented is to shut off the beam at the gun. Two additional methods have been developed which use fast beam kickers to deflect the injector beam on to a water cooled aperture. The kickers designed and implemented at Jefferson lab are able to deflect the injector beam in less than 200 microseconds. The kicker system includes self-test and monitoring capabilities that enable the system to be used for personnel safety.
Date: August 1, 1997
Creator: Mahoney, K.; Garza, O.; Stitts, E.; Areti, H. & O`Sullivan, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department