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A cartesian grid embedded boundary method for hyperbolic conservation laws

Description: We present a second-order Godunov algorithm to solve time-dependent hyperbolic systems of conservation laws on irregular domains. Our approach is based on a formally consistent discretization of the conservation laws on a finite-volume grid obtained from intersecting the domain with a Cartesian grid. We address the small-cell stability problem associated with such methods by hybridizing our conservative discretization with a stable, nonconservative discretization at irregular control volumes, and redistributing the difference in the mass increments to nearby cells in a way that preserves stability and local conservation. The resulting method is second-order accurate in L{sup 1} for smooth problems, and is robust in the presence of large-amplitude discontinuities intersecting the irregular boundary.
Date: October 3, 2004
Creator: Colella, Phillip; Graves, Daniel T.; Keen, Benjamin J. & Modiano, David
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measurements of the optical constants of scandium in the 50-1300eV range.

Description: Scandium containing multilayers have been produced with very high reflectivity in the soft x-ray spectrum. Accurate optical constants are required in order to model the multilayer reflectivity. Since there are relatively few measurements of the optical constants of Scandium in the soft x-ray region we have performed measurements over the energy range of 50-1,300 eV. Thin films of Scandium were deposited by ion-assisted magnetron sputtering at Linkoping University and DC Magnetron sputtering at CXRO. Transmission measurements were performed at the Advanced Light Source beamline 6.3.2. The absorption coefficient was deduced from the measurements and the dispersive part of the index of refraction was obtained using the Kramers-Kronig relation. The measured optical constants are used to model the near-normal incidence reflectivity of Cr/Sc multilayers near the Sc L{sub 2,3} edge.
Date: October 3, 2004
Creator: Aquila, A.L.; Salmassi, F.; Gullikson, E.M; Eriksson, F. & Birch, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

OPTIMUM INTEGRAL DESIGN FOR MAXIMIZING THE FIELD IN SHORT MAGNETS.

Description: An Optimum Integral Design is introduced for cosine(n{theta}) coils where the entire end-to-end length of the coil generates field with the dilution from ends practically eliminated. The benefits of such a design are particularly significant in short magnets where the overall coil length is comparable to or a few times the coil diameter. The integral field strength is further enhanced since the design allows a larger number of turns than in typical magnet coils. In this concept, the ends and body harmonics are optimized together to create an integral cosine(n{theta}) azimuthal current distribution. The concept was initially developed for wire/cable wound magnets where the bend radius of turns in the ends can be small. However, the benefit of this general approach can be applied to cable magnets as well. The magnetic design of a corrector dipole for the AGS helical magnet, which was recently built and tested, is presented as one of several examples. The other examples include a few sub-compact designs: a dipole with coil length less than a coil diameter, a quadrupole with coil length less than a coil radius, etc. Apart from generating a large integral field for the given length, the computed integral field harmonics in these designs are only a few parts in 10,000 at 2/3, of the coil radius.
Date: October 3, 2004
Creator: GUPTA,R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

RADIATION RESISTANT HTS QUADRUPOLES FOR RIA.

Description: Extremely high radiation, levels with accumulated doses comparable to those in nuclear reactors than in accelerators, and very high heat loads ({approx}15 kw) make the quadrupole magnets in the fragment separator one of the most challenging elements of the proposed Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA). Removing large heat loads, protecting the superconducting coils against quenching, the long term survivability of magnet components, and in particular, insulation that can retain its functionality in such a harsh environment, are the major challenges associated with such magnets. A magnet design based on commercially available high temperature superconductor (HTS) and stainless steel tape insulation has been developed. HTS will efficiently remove these large heat loads and stainless steel can tolerate these large radiation doses. Construction of a model magnet has been started with several coils already built and tested. This paper presents the basic magnet design, results of the coil tests, the status and the future plans. In addition, preliminary results of radiation calculations are also presented.
Date: October 3, 2004
Creator: GUPTA,R.; ANERELLA,M.; HARRISON,M. & AL., ET
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.S. Department of Energy Program of International Technical Cooperation for Research Reactor Utilization

Description: The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) has initiated collaborations with the national nuclear authorities of Egypt, Peru, and Romania for the purpose of advancing the commercial potential and utilization of their respective research reactors. Under its Office of International Safeguards ''Sister Laboratory'' program, DOE/NNSA has undertaken numerous technical collaborations over the past decade intended to promote peaceful applications of nuclear technology. Among these has been technical assistance in research reactor applications, such as neutron activation analysis, nuclear analysis, reactor physics, and medical radioisotope production. The current collaborations are intended to provide the subject countries with a methodology for greater commercialization of research reactor products and services. Our primary goal is the transfer of knowledge, both in administrative and technical issues, needed for the establishment of an effective business plan and utilization strategy for the continued operation of the countries' research reactors. Technical consultation, cooperation, and the information transfer provided are related to: identification, evaluation, and assessment of current research reactor capabilities for products and services; identification of opportunities for technical upgrades for new or expanded products and services; advice and consultation on research reactor upgrades and technical modifications; characterization of markets for reactor products and services; identification of competition and estimation of potential for market penetration; integration of technical constraints; estimation of cash flow streams; and case studies.
Date: October 3, 2004
Creator: Chong, D.; Manning, M.; Ellis, R.; Apt, K.; Flaim, S. & Sylvester, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

United States Program on Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Management

Description: The President signed the Congressional Joint Resolution on July 23, 2002, that designated the Yucca Mountain site for a proposed geologic repository to dispose of the nation's spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW). The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is currently focusing its efforts on submitting a license application to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in December 2004 for construction of the proposed repository. The legislative framework underpinning the U.S. repository program is the basis for its continuity and success. The repository development program has significantly benefited from international collaborations with other nations in the Americas.
Date: October 3, 2004
Creator: Stewart, L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Impact of Nuclear Energy Futures on Advanced Fuel Cycle Options

Description: The Nuclear Waste Policy Act requires the Secretary of Energy to inform Congress before 2010 on the need for a second geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel. By that time, the spent fuel discharged from current commercial reactors will exceed the statutory limit of the first repository. There are several approaches to eliminate the need for another repository in this century. This paper presents a high-level analysis of these spent fuel management options in the context of a full range of possible nuclear energy futures. The analysis indicates the best option to implement varies depending on the nuclear energy future selected.
Date: October 3, 2004
Creator: Dixon, B.W. & Piet, S.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Inorganic profile of some Brazilian medicinal plants obtained from ethanolic extract and ''in natura'' samples

Description: The Anadenathera macrocarpa, Schinus molle, Hymenaea courbaril, Cariniana legalis, Solidago microglossa and Stryphnodendron barbatiman, were collected ''in natura'' samples (leaves, flowers, barks and seeds) from different commercial suppliers. The pharmaco-active compounds in ethanolic extracts had been made by the Mato Grosso Federal University (UFMT). The energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF) spectrometry was used for the elemental analysis in different parts of the plants and respective ethanolic extracts. The Ca, Cl, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Rb, S, Sr and Zn concentrations were determined by the fundamental parameters method. Some specimens showed a similar inorganic profile for ''in natura'' and ethanolic extract samples and some ones showed a distinct inorganic profile. For example, the Anadenathera macrocarpa showed a similar concentration in Mg, P, Cu, Zn and Rb elements in ''in natura'' and ethanolic extract samples; however very different concentration in Na, S, Cl, K , Ca, Mn, Fe and Sr was observed in distinctive samples. The Solidago microglossa showed the K, Ca, Cl, S, Mg, P and Fe elements as major constituents in both samples, suggesting that the extraction process did not affect in a considerable way the ''in natura'' inorganic composition. The elemental composition of the different parts of the plants (leaves, flowers, barks and seeds) has been also determined. For example, the Schinus molle specimen showed P, K, Cl and Ca elements as major constituents in the seeds, Mg, K and Sr in the barks and Mg, S, Cl and Mn in the leaves, demonstrating a differentiated elementary distribution. These inorganic profiles will contribute to evaluate the quality control of the Brazilian herbaceous trade and also will assist to identify which parts of the medicinal plants has greater therapeutic effect.
Date: October 3, 2004
Creator: Ferreira, M.O.M.; de Sousa, P.T.; Salvador, V.L.R. & Sato, I.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

IRIS Reactor a Suitable Option to Provide Energy and Water Desalination for the Mexican Northwest Region

Description: The Northwest region of Mexico has a deficit of potable water, along this necessity is the region growth, which requires of additional energy capacity. The IRIS reactor offers a very suitable source of energy given its modular size of 300 MWe and it can be coupled with a desalination plant to provide the potable water for human consumption, agriculture and industry. The present paper assess the water and energy requirements for the Northwest region of Mexico and how the deployment of the IRIS reactor can satisfy those necessities. The possible sites for deployment of Nuclear Reactors are considered given the seismic constraints and the closeness of the sea for external cooling. And in the other hand, the size of the desalination plant and the type of desalination process are assessed accordingly with the water deficit of the region.
Date: October 3, 2004
Creator: Alonso, G.; Ramirez, R.; Gomez, C. & Viais, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Nuclear Energy Option for the U.S.--How Far Are We from Public Acceptance?

Description: The recent rise of oil and gasoline prices accompanied by reluctant acknowledgement that traditional sources of energy are limited has renewed public interest in renewable energy sources. This perspective on energy is focusing attention on and facilitating acceptance of alternative energy concepts, such as solar, wind, and biomass. The nuclear energy alternative, while clean with potentially abundant fuel supplies and associated with low costs, is burdened with the frequently negative public opinion reserved for things nuclear. Coincident with the heightened examination of alternative energy concepts, 2004 marks the 25-year anniversary of the Three Mile Island accident. Since this pivotal accident in 1979, no new reactor licenses have been granted in the U.S. The resolution of the issues of nuclear waste management and disposition are central to and may advance public discussions of the future use of nuclear energy. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is currently preparing the licensing application for Yucca Mountain, which was designated in 2003 as the site for a high-level waste and spent nuclear fuel repository in the U.S. The DOE also has been operating a deep geologic repository for the permanent disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste since 1999. The operational status of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) as a repository for TRU waste was successfully realized along with the lesson learned that stakeholder trust and acceptance are as critical to the success of a repository program as the resolution of technical issues and obtaining regulatory approvals. For the five years of its operation and for decades prior, the challenge of attaining public acceptance of the WIPP has persisted for reasons aligned with the opposition to nuclear energy. Due to this commonality, the nuclear waste approach to public acceptance, with its pros and cons, provides a baseline for the examination of an approach for the ...
Date: October 3, 2004
Creator: Biedscheid, J.A. & Devarakonda, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Answering Key Fuel Cycle Questions

Description: Given the range of fuel cycle goals and criteria, and the wide range of fuel cycle options, how can the set of options eventually be narrowed in a transparent and justifiable fashion? It is impractical to develop all options. We suggest an approach that starts by considering a range of goals for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) and then posits seven questions, such as whether Cs and Sr isotopes should be separated from spent fuel and, if so, what should be done with them. For each question, we consider which of the goals may be relevant to eventually providing answers. The AFCI program has both ''outcome'' and ''process'' goals because it must address both waste already accumulating as well as completing the fuel cycle in connection with advanced nuclear power plant concepts. The outcome objectives are waste geologic repository capacity and cost, energy security and sustainability, proliferation resistance, fuel cycle economics, and safety. The process objectives are rea diness to proceed and adaptability and robustness in the face of uncertainties.
Date: October 3, 2004
Creator: Piet, S. J.; Dixon, B. W.; Bennett, R. G.; Smith, J. D. & Hill, R. N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

How to Shape a Successful Repository Program: Staged Development of Geologic Repositories for High-Level Waste

Description: Programs to manage and ultimately dispose of high-level radioactive wastes are unique from scientific and technological as well as socio-political aspects. From a scientific and technological perspective, high-level radioactive wastes remain potentially hazardous for geological time periods--many millennia--and scientific and technological programs must be put in place that result in a system that provides high confidence that the wastes will be isolated from the accessible environment for these many thousands of years. Of course, ''proof'' in the classical sense is not possible at the outset, since the performance of the system can only be known with assurance, if ever, after the waste has been emplaced for those geological time periods. Adding to this challenge, many uncertainties exist in both the natural and engineered systems that are intended to isolate the wastes, and some of the uncertainties will remain regardless of the time and expense in attempting to characterize the system and assess its performance.
Date: October 3, 2004
Creator: Isaacs, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DEVELOPMENT OF A NOVEL SOLVENT FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS SEPARATION OF STRONTIUM AND CESIUM FROM DISSOLVED SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL SOLUTIONS

Description: The recovery of Cs and Sr from acidic solutions by solvent extraction has been investigated. The goal of this project was to develop an extraction process to remove Cs and Sr from high-level waste in an effort to reduce the heat loading in storage. Solvents for the extraction of Cs and Sr separately have been used on both caustic and acidic spent nuclear fuel waste in the past. The objective of this research was to find a suitable solvent for the extraction of both Cs and Sr simultaneously from acidic nitrate media.
Date: October 3, 2004
Creator: Riddle, C.L.; Baker, J.D.; Law, J.D.; McGrath, C.A.; Meikrantz, D.H.; Mincher, B.J. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radionuclide Inventory Management at the New 100 MeV Isotope Production Facility at LANL

Description: The Isotope Production Facility (IPF) at Los Alamos is operated on the authorization basis of a radiological facility with an inventory limit of a Category 3 Nuclear Facility. For the commissioning of IPF, a ''dummy'' target stack containing Zn, Nb and Al disks, and a ''prototype'' stack were irradiated with a proton beam. The ''prototype'' stack contained two pressed RbCl disks, encapsulated in stainless steel, and a Ga metal target. Typical ''prototype'' stack beam parameters were 88.9 {micro}A, 101.3 h. Operation procedures require the projection of all generated radionuclide activities. This is mandatory in order to determine both maximum beam current and maximum beam exposure time. The Monte Carlo code MCNPX and the burn-up code CINDER90 were used to determine maximum beam parameters prior to irradiation. After irradiation, activity estimates were calculated assuming actual average beam parameters. They were entered into an online inventory database, and were later, after chemical separation and radioactive assays, replaced by experimental values. A comparison of ''prototype'' stack experimental yield data to Monte Carlo calculation results showed that the computer codes provide realistic, conservative estimates.
Date: October 3, 2004
Creator: Fassbender, M.E.; Phillips, D.R.; Nortier, F.M.; Trellue, H.R.; Hamilton, V.T.; Heaton, R.C. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radioactivity Dosage of Ornamental Granitic Rocks Based on Chemical, Mineralogical and Lithological Data

Description: One hundred samples of granitic rock were collected from granite traders in Belo Horizonte. Autoradiography, optical microscopy, diffractometry, and chemical analysis (X-ray spectrometry, X-ray fluorescence, neutron activation, gravimetry and electron probe microanalysis) were used to determine the mineral assemblages and lithotypes. Autoradiographic results for several samples showed the presence of monazite, allanite and zircon. Chemical analysis revealed concentrations of uranium of {le} 30ppm, and thorium {le} 130ppm. Higher concentrations generally correlated with high concentrations of light rare earths in silica-rich rocks of granitic composition. Calculations were made of radioactive doses for floor tiles in a standard room for samples with total concentration of uranium and thorium greater than 60ppm. On the basis of calculations of {sup 232}Th, {sup 40}K and {sup 226}Ra from Th, K and U analysis, the doses calculated were between 0.11 and 0.34 mSv/year, which are much lower than the acceptable international exposure standard of 1.0 mSv/year.
Date: October 3, 2004
Creator: Salas, H.T.; Nalini, H.A. Jr. & Mendes, J.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Optimum Plutonium Inert Matrix Fuel Form for Reactor-Based Plutonium Disposition

Description: The University of Florida has underway an ongoing research program to validate the economic, operational and performance benefits of developing an inert matrix fuel (IMF) for the disposition of the U.S. weapons plutonium (Pu) and for the recycle of reprocessed Pu. The current fuel form of choice for Pu disposition for the Department of Energy is as a mixed oxide (MOX) (PuO2/UO2). We will show analyses that demonstrate that a Silicon Carbide (SiC) IMF offers improved performance capabilities as a fuel form for Pu recycle and disposition. The reason that UF is reviewing various materials to serve as an inert matrix fuel is that an IMF fuel form can offer greatly reduced Pu and transuranic isotope (TRU) production and also improved thermal performance characteristics. Our studies showed that the Pu content is reduced by an order of magnitude while centerline fuel temperatures are reduced approximately 380 degrees centigrade compared to MOX. These reduced temperatures result in reduced stored heat and thermal stresses in the pellet. The reduced stored heat reduces the consequences of the loss of coolant accident, while the reduced temperatures and thermal stresses yield greatly improved fuel performance. Silicon Carbide is not new to the nuclear industry, being a basic fuel material in gas cooled reactors.
Date: October 3, 2004
Creator: Tulenko, J.S.; Wang, J. & Acosta, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Overview of the INPRO Project

Description: During the last fifty years remarkable results are achieved in the application of nuclear technology for the production of electricity. Looking ahead to the next fifty years it is clear that the demand for energy will grow considerably and also the requirements for the way the energy will be supplied. Within the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO), the future of the energy demand and supply was explored and several scenario's identified. A leading requirement for energy supply is coming up and will play a crucial role: sustainability of the way the energy supply will be realized. Fulfilling the growing need for energy in developing countries is as well an important issue. Based on these scenario's for the next fifty years, an inventory of requirements for the future of nuclear energy systems has been collected as well a methodology developed by INPRO to assess innovative nuclear systems and fuel cycles. On the base of this assessment, the need for innovations and breakthroughs in existing technology can be defined. To facilitate the deployment of innovative nuclear systems also the infrastructure, technical as well as institutional has to be adjusted to the anticipated changes in the world such as the globalization. As a contribution to the conference the main messages of INPRO will be presented.
Date: October 3, 2004
Creator: Kupitz, J.; Depisch, F. & Zou, Y.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

On-Going Comparison of Advanced Fuel Cycle Options

Description: This paper summarizes the current comprehensive comparison of four major fuel cycle strategies: once-through, thermal recycle, thermal+fast recycle, fast recycle. It then proceeds to summarize comparison of the major technology options for the key elements of the fuel cycle that can implement each of the four strategies - separation processing, transmutation reactors, and fuels.
Date: October 3, 2004
Creator: Piet, S. J.; Bennett, R. G.; Dixon, B. W.; Herring, J. S.; Shropshire, D. E.; Roth, M. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Smelting Associated with the Advanced Spent Fuel Conditioning Process

Description: The smelting process associated with the advanced spent fuel conditioning process (ACP) of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute was studied by using surrogate materials. Considering the vaporization behaviors of input materials, the operation procedure of smelting was set up as (1) removal of residual salts, (2) melting of metal powder, and (3) removal of dross from a metal ingot. The behaviors of porous MgO crucible during smelting were tested and the chemical stability of MgO in the salt-being atmosphere was confirmed.
Date: October 3, 2004
Creator: Hur, J-M.; Jeong, M-S.; Lee, W-K.; Cho, S-H.; Seo, C-S. & Park, S-W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CHARACTERISTICS OF NEXT-GENERATION SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL (SNF) TRANSPORT AND STORAGE CASKS

Description: The design of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) casks used in the present SNF disposition systems has evolved from early concepts about the nuclear fuel cycle. The reality today is much different from that envisioned by early nuclear scientists. Most SNF is placed in pool storage, awaiting reprocessing (as in Russia) or disposal at a geologic SNF repository (as in the United States). Very little transport of SNF occurs. This paper examines the requirements for SNF casks from today's perspective and attempts to answer this question: What type of SNF cask would be produced if we were to start over and design SNF casks based on today's requirements? The characteristics for a next-generation SNF cask system are examined and are found to be essentially the same in Russia and the United States. It appears that the new depleted uranium dioxide (DUO2)-steel cermet material will enable these requirements to be met. Depleted uranium (DU) is uranium in which a portion of the 235U isotope has been removed during a uranium enrichment process. The DUO2-steel cermet material is described. The United States and Russia are cooperating toward the development of a next-generation, dual-purpose, storage and transport SNF system.
Date: October 3, 2004
Creator: Haire, M. J.; Forsberg, C. W.; Matveev, V. Z. & Shapovalov, V. I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Secondary Contribution Effects on BNCT Dosimetry

Description: The aimed of this work consists of evaluating the influence of the dose secondary components (thermal neutrons dose, epithermal neutrons dose, fast neutrons dose and photon dose) in treatment planning with BNCT. MCNP4B Code was used to calculate RBE-Gy doses through the irradiation of the modified Snyder head phantom. A reduction of the therapeutical gain of monoenergetic neutron beans was observed in non invasive treatments, provoked for the predominance of the fast neutron dose component in the skin, showing that the secondary components of dose can to contribute more for to raise the healthy-tissue dose of that in the tumor, reducing the treatment efficiency.
Date: October 3, 2004
Creator: Monteiro, E.; Goncalves, M. & Pereira, W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Science and Technology Development to Integrate Energy Production and Greenhouse Gas Management

Description: This paper reviews the carbon cycle from the point of view of past and present human influence. Potential future human input to the cycle through science and technology to manage atmospheric greenhouse gas are considered. The review suggests that humans will need to ingeniously exploit even more energy to integrate its use with control of atmospheric greenhouse gases. Continuing development and application of energy is essential if the development of human society is to be sustained through the coming centuries. The continuing development of nuclear energy seems an essential energy supply component.
Date: October 3, 2004
Creator: Pendergast, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fuel-Cycle and Nuclear Material Disposition Issues Associated with High-Temperature Gas Reactors

Description: The objective of this paper is to facilitate a better understanding of the fuel-cycle and nuclear material disposition issues associated with high-temperature gas reactors (HTGRs). This paper reviews the nuclear fuel cycles supporting early and present day gas reactors, and identifies challenges for the advanced fuel cycles and waste management systems supporting the next generation of HTGRs, including the Very High Temperature Reactor, which is under development in the Generation IV Program. The earliest gas-cooled reactors were the carbon dioxide (CO2)-cooled reactors. Historical experience is available from over 1,000 reactor-years of operation from 52 electricity-generating, CO2-cooled reactor plants that were placed in operation worldwide. Following the CO2 reactor development, seven HTGR plants were built and operated. The HTGR came about from the combination of helium coolant and graphite moderator. Helium was used instead of air or CO2 as the coolant. The helium gas has a significant technical base due to the experience gained in the United States from the 40-MWe Peach Bottom and 330-MWe Fort St. Vrain reactors designed by General Atomics. Germany also built and operated the 15-MWe Arbeitsgemeinschaft Versuchsreaktor (AVR) and the 300-MWe Thorium High-Temperature Reactor (THTR) power plants. The AVR, THTR, Peach Bottom and Fort St. Vrain all used fuel containing thorium in various forms (i.e., carbides, oxides, thorium particles) and mixtures with highly enriched uranium. The operational experience gained from these early gas reactors can be applied to the next generation of nuclear power systems. HTGR systems are being developed in South Africa, China, Japan, the United States, and Russia. Elements of the HTGR system evaluated included fuel demands on uranium ore mining and milling, conversion, enrichment services, and fuel fabrication; fuel management in-core; spent fuel characteristics affecting fuel recycling and refabrication, fuel handling, interim storage, packaging, transportation, waste forms, waste treatment, decontamination and decommissioning issues; ...
Date: October 3, 2004
Creator: Shropshire, D.E. & Herring, J.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department