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CO2-H2O Mixtures in the Geological Sequestration of CO2. II. Partitioning in Chloride Brines at 12-100oC and up to 600 bar

Description: Correlations presented by Spycher et al. (2003) to compute the mutual solubilities of CO2 and H2O are extended to include the effect of chloride salts in the aqueous phase. This is accomplished by including, in the original formulation, activity coefficients for aqueous CO2 derived from several literature sources, primarily for NaCl solutions. Best results are obtained when combining the solubility correlations of Spycher et al. (2003) with the activity coefficient formulation of Rumpf et al. (1994) and Duan and Sun (2003), which can be extended to chloride solutions other than NaCl. This approach allows computing mutual solubilities in a noniterative manner with an accuracy typically within experimental uncertainty for solutions up to 6 molal NaCl and 4 molal CaCl2.
Date: September 13, 2004
Creator: Spycher, Nicolas & Pruess, Karsten
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Total On-line Access Data System (TOADS): Phase II Final Report for the Period August 2002 - August 2004

Description: TOADS (Total On-line Access Data System) is a new generation of real-time monitoring and information management system developed to support unattended environmental monitoring and long-term stewardship of U.S. Department of Energy facilities and sites. TOADS enables project managers, regulators, and stakeholders to view environmental monitoring information in realtime over the Internet. Deployment of TOADS at government facilities and sites will reduce the cost of monitoring while increasing confidence and trust in cleanup and long term stewardship activities. TOADS: � Reliably interfaces with and acquires data from a wide variety of external databases, remote systems, and sensors such as contaminant monitors, area monitors, atmospheric condition monitors, visual surveillance systems, intrusion devices, motion detectors, fire/heat detection devices, and gas/vapor detectors; � Provides notification and triggers alarms as appropriate; � Performs QA/QC on data inputs and logs the status of instruments/devices; � Provides a fully functional data management system capable of storing, analyzing, and reporting on data; � Provides an easy-to-use Internet-based user interface that provides visualization of the site, data, and events; and � Enables the community to monitor local environmental conditions in real time. During this Phase II STTR project, TOADS has been developed and successfully deployed for unattended facility, environmental, and radiological monitoring at a Department of Energy facility.
Date: September 13, 2004
Creator: Yuracko, K L; Parang, M; Landguth, D C & Coleman, R
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pressure-dependent photoluminescence study of ZnO nanowires

Description: The pressure dependence of the photoluminescence (PL) transition associated with the fundamental band gap of ZnO nanowires has been studied at pressures up to 15 GPa. ZnO nanowires are found to have a higher structural phase transition pressure around 12 GPa as compared to 9.0 GPa for bulk ZnO. The pressure-induced energy shift of the near band-edge luminescence emission yields a linear pressure coefficient of 29.6 meV/GPa with a small sublinear term of -0.43 meV/GPa{sup 2}. An effective hydrostatic deformation potential -3.97 eV for the direct band gap of the ZnO nanowires is derived from the result.
Date: September 13, 2004
Creator: Shan, W.; Walukiewicz, W.; Ager III, J.W.; Yu, K.M.; Zhang, Y.; Mao, S.S. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tax Policy: Historical Tax Treatment of INTELSAT and Current Tax Rules for Satellite Corporations

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "The International Telecommunications Satellite Organization (INTELSAT)--an intergovernmental organization launched in 1964 to design, develop, and operate a commercial telecommunications satellite system--enjoyed certain privileges that domestic companies do not, including some related to taxation. Each member nation designated a Signatory to participate as an investor. The U.S. Signatory was COMSAT, a private corporation. Intelsat privatized in 2001, and its tax situation changed. In response to congressional requests for information on whether Intelsat could continue to enjoy any preferential tax treatment as a foreign corporation, GAO did this study to describe how INTELSAT and COMSAT were treated for U.S. tax purposes prior to INTELSAT'S privatization and to describe how current U.S. tax treatment for a domestically incorporated satellite company in the United States compares to current U.S. tax treatment for a foreign corporation with operations, services, and revenue in the United States."
Date: September 13, 2004
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Maritime Security Fleet: Many Factors Determine Impact of Potential Limits on Food Aid Shipments

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "Food aid cargo must generally be carried on U.S.-flag ships under requirements set by the cargo preference program. Two groups of carriers compete for this cargo: (1) those that participate in the Maritime Security Program and receive an annual government subsidy--generally liners operating on scheduled routes and (2) those that do not--generally carriers operating on a charter basis. Congress directed GAO to study (1) how the cargo preference and Maritime Security programs are designed and who participates;(2) the nature and extent of MSF and non-MSF carrier participation and competition in the food aid program; and (3) how a tonnage limitation on bagged preference cargo for MSF vessels could affect MSF, other U.S.-flag ships, the cargo preference food aid program, and the ports servicing these ships."
Date: September 13, 2004
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Telecommunications: Intelsat Privatization and the Implementation of the ORBIT Act

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "In 2000, the Congress passed the Open-market Reorganization for the Betterment of International Telecommunications Act (ORBIT Act) to help promote a more competitive global satellite services market. The ORBIT Act called for the full privatization of INTELSAT, a former intergovernmental organization that provided international satellite services. GAO agreed to provide federal officials' and stakeholders' views on (1) whether the privatization steps required by the ORBIT Act have been implemented and whether there were potential inconsistencies between ORBIT Act requirements and U.S. obligations made in international trade agreements; (2) whether access by global satellite companies to non-U.S. markets has improved since the enactment of the ORBIT Act and, if so, to what is this generally attributed; and (3) if any market access problems remain, what role does the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) have in addressing those problems under the ORBIT Act."
Date: September 13, 2004
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Defense Management: Tools for Measuring and Managing Defense Agency Performance Could Be Strengthened

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "GAO was mandated to assess the effectiveness of defense agency performance contracts as management tools. As agreed, GAO also reviewed other tools (performance plans and balanced scorecards) and focused on three defense agencies--the Defense Logistics Agency (DLA), the Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA), and the Department of Defense Education Activity (DODEA). GAO addressed (1) the extent that the defense agencies initially used performance contracts, including whether this tool addressed attributes associated with results-oriented management; (2) defense agencies' efforts to implement performance plans using lessons learned from the initial contracts; and (3) the extent DOD established mechanisms to share lessons learned. GAO reviewed the content of these tools, but not the actual or reported performance. DISA has not yet finalized its scorecard, thus this report discusses only DISA's plans for its scorecard."
Date: September 13, 2004
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Rural Housing Service: Updated Guidance and Additional Monitoring Needed for Rental Assistance Distribution Process

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "The Rural Housing Service's (RHS) Section 521 rental assistance program provides rental subsidies for about 250,000 rural tenants. Because the program has a waiting list of 80,000 eligible tenants and there are over 1.3 million rural low-income renters eligible for housing subsidies, it is important to effectively distribute resources to extend assistance to as many needy tenants as possible. Therefore, GAO was asked to assess (1) how RHS distributes rental assistance funds to properties and tenants, (2) how RHS monitors the use of rental assistance funds, and (3) whether there are sufficient internal controls in place to ensure that these funds are being effectively administered and used."
Date: September 13, 2004
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Search for X-ray induced decay of the 31-yr isomer of 178Hf using synchrotron radiation

Description: Isomeric {sup 178}Hf (t{sub 1/2} = 31 yr, E{sub x} = 2.446 MeV, J{sup {pi}} = 16{sup +}) was bombarded by a white beam of x-rays from the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory. A search was made for x-ray induced decay of the isomer by detecting prompt and delayed {gamma} rays associated with the decay. No induced decay was observed. Upper limits for such a process for x-ray energies between 7-100 keV were set. The limits between 7 and 30 keV are below {approx} 3 x 10{sup -27} cm{sup 2}-keV for induced decay that bypasses the 4-s isomer and {approx} 5 x 10{sup -27} cm{sup 2}-keV for induced decay that is delayed through this isomer, orders of magnitude below values at which induced decay was reported previously. These limits are consistent with what is known about the properties of atomic nuclei.
Date: September 13, 2004
Creator: Ahmad, I; Banar, J C; Becker, J A; Bredeweg, T A; Cooper, J R; Gemmell, D S et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Raman Spectroscopic Analysis of Biochemical Changes in Individual Triglyceride-Rich Lipoproteins in the Pre- and Postprandial State

Description: Individual triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TGRL) particles derived from human volunteers are non-destructively analyzed by laser tweezers Raman microspectroscopy and information on their composition and distribution is obtained. The Raman signature of single optically trapped very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL), a subclass of TGRL, which play an important role in cardiovascular disease, exhibits distinct peaks associated with molecular vibrations of fatty acids, proteins, lipids, and structural rearrangements of lipids. Our analysis of pre- and postprandial VLDL exhibits the signature of biochemical changes in individual lipoprotein particles following the consumption of meals. Interaction of VLDL with endothelium leads to the breakdown of complex triacylglycerols and the formation of a highly ordered core of free saturated fatty acids in the particle. A particle distribution analysis reveals trends in the degree to which this process has occurred in particles at different times during the postprandial period. Differences in particle distributions based on the different ratios of polyunsaturated to saturated fats in the consumed meals are also easily discerned. Individual lipoprotein particles hydrolyzed in-vitro through addition of lipoprotein lipase (LpL) exhibit strikingly similar changes in their Raman spectra. These results demonstrate the feasibility of monitoring the dynamics of lipid metabolism of individual TGRL particles as they interact with LpL in the endothelial cell wall using Raman spectroscopy.
Date: September 13, 2004
Creator: Chan, J; Motton, D; Rutledge, J; Keim, N & Huser, T
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Current Status of Radiation Transport Tools for Proliferation and Terrorism Prevention

Description: We present the current status and future plans for the set of calculational tools and data bases developed and maintained at LLNL. The calculational tools include the Monte Carlo codes TART and COG as well as the deterministic code ARDRA. In addition to these codes presently in use there is a major development effort for a new massively parallel transport code. An important part of the capability we're developing is a sophisticated user interface, based on a commercial 3-D modeling product, to improve the model development process. A major part of this user interface tool is being developed by Strela under the Nuclear Cities Initiative. Strela has developed a hub-and-spoke technology for code input interconversions (between COG, TART and MCNP) and will produce the plug-ins that extend the capabilities of the 3-D modeler for use as a radiation transport input generator. The major advantages of this approach are the built-in user interface for 3-D modeling and the ability to read a large variety of CAD-file formats. In addition to supporting our current radiation transport codes and developing new capabilities we are working on some nuclear data needs for homeland security. These projects are carried out and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 88'' cyclotron and at the Institute for Nuclear Research of the National Academy of Science of Ukraine under an STCU contract.
Date: September 13, 2004
Creator: Sale, K E
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An assesment of yttrium optical constants in the EUV using Mo/Y multilayers designed as linear polarizers

Description: We have produced and characterized Mo/Y multilayers designed as linear-polarizers for use near {lambda} {approx} 8 nm. By depositing these films directly onto silicon photodiodes, we are able to measure both reflectance and transmittance in the EUV using synchrotron radiation. These measurements have been used to access the accuracy of yttrium optical constants in this wavelength range. We describe our experimental results and discuss the prospects for the future development of efficient EUV polarization elements.
Date: September 13, 2004
Creator: Kjornrattanawanich, B; Soufli, R; Bajt, S; Windt, D L & Seely, J F
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Jupiter Oxygen Corporation/Albany Research Center Crada Progress Report, September

Description: The Albany Research Center (ARC) has developed a new Integrated Pollutant Removal (IPR) process for fossil-fueled boilers. Pursuant to a cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) with Jupiter Oxygen Corporation, ARC currently is studying the IPR process as applied to the oxygen fuel technology developed by Jupiter. As discussed further below, these two new technologies are complementary. This interim report summarizes the study results to date and outlines the potential activities under the next phase of the CRADA with Jupiter.
Date: September 13, 2004
Creator: Turner, Paul C. & Schoenfield, Mark (Jupiter Oxygen Corp.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department