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Development of numerical Grids for UZ Flow and Transport Modeling

Description: This report describes the methods used to develop numerical grids of the unsaturated hydrogeologic system beneath Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Numerical grid generation is an integral part of the development of the unsaturated zone (UZ) flow and transport model, a complex, three-dimensional (3-D) model of Yucca Mountain. This revision contains changes made to improve the clarity of the description of grid generation. The numerical grids, developed using current geologic, hydrogeologic, and mineralogic data, provide the necessary framework to: (1) develop calibrated hydrogeologic property sets and flow fields, (2) test conceptual hypotheses of flow and transport, and (3) predict flow and transport behavior under a variety of climatic and thermal-loading conditions. The technical scope, content, and management for the current revision of this report are described in the planning document ''Technical Work Plan for: Unsaturated Zone Flow Analysis and Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169654], Section 2). Grids generated and documented in this report supersede those documented in Revision 00 of this report, ''Development of Numerical Grids for UZ Flow and Transport Modeling'' (BSC 2001 [DIRS 159356]). The grids presented in this report are the same as those developed in Revision 01 (BSC 2003 [DIRS 160109]); however, the documentation of the development of the grids in Revision 02 has been updated to address technical inconsistencies and achieve greater transparency, readability, and traceability. The constraints, assumptions, and limitations associated with this report are discussed in the appropriate sections that follow.
Date: August 31, 2004
Creator: Dobson, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Architecture independent performance characterization andbenchmarking for scientific applications

Description: A simple, tunable, synthetic benchmark with a performance directly related to applications would be of great benefit to the scientific computing community. In this paper, we present a novel approach to develop such a benchmark. The initial focus of this project is on data access performance of scientific applications. First a hardware independent characterization of code performance in terms of address streams is developed. The parameters chosen to characterize a single address stream are related to regularity, size, spatial, and temporal locality. These parameters are then used to implement a synthetic benchmark program that mimics the performance of a corresponding code. To test the validity of our approach we performed experiments using five test kernels on six different platforms. The performance of most of our test kernels can be approximated by a single synthetic address stream. However in some cases overlapping two address streams is necessary to achieve a good approximation.
Date: August 31, 2004
Creator: Strohmaier, Erich & Shan, Hongzhang
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A NEW APPROACH TO RADIONUCLIDE ANALYSIS IN GROUNDWATERS

Description: A method using liquid scintillation spectral analysis (LSSA) for analyzing mixtures of radionuclides in groundwater samples, which is fast, simple, and inexpensive, was developed and bench-tested. Samples can be measured in a field laboratory with a new commercial portable liquid scintillation instrument that provides advanced analysis, display, and computational features previously found only in large expensive laboratory models. Results can be available within hours from the time samples are collected. The analysis provides a good measure of total sample activity and a spectral index value that may detect changes in radionuclide distributions from previous analyses when counting statistic are adequate. If a sample shows no change, further analytical costs for it may be avoided. A method that rapidly and quantitatively concentrates very low levels of activity from liter-size samples in minutes was also tested. With some modest improvements in this step, this work offers a completely new methodology and approach to groundwater remediation, which can dramatically reduce analytical costs and speed monitored cleanup and closure in many types of radiological work programs.
Date: August 31, 2004
Creator: HOCHEL, ROBERTC.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Demonstrating the Feasibility of Molten Aluminum for Destroying Polymeric Encapsulants in SNG-Bearing Metallographic Mounts

Description: DOE-owned spent nuclear fuel (SNF) rods have been cross sectioned and mounted for metallography throughout the history of nuclear reactors. Many hundreds of these ''met mounts'' have accumulated in storage across the DOE complex. However, because of potential hydrogen generation from radiolysis of the polymeric encapsulants, the met mounts are problematic for eventual disposal in a geologic repository.
Date: August 31, 2004
Creator: Stout, Dan & Ploger, Scott
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Users' Guide to ADIC 1.1.

Description: This guide describes the use of the Automatic Differentiation in C (ADIC) system. ADIC is a suite of tools and libraries that automates the process of generating derivatives for scientific programs. In the context of solving PDEs, optimizations, sensitivity analysis, and inverse problems, researchers often require the derivatives {partial_derivative}f/{partial_derivative}x of a function f expressed as a program with respect to some input parameter(s) x. Automatic differentiation (AD) techniques augment the program with derivative computation by applying the chain rule of calculus to elementary operations in an automated fashion. ADIC uses sophisticated compiler techniques to augment the input C programs with derivative computation capability in an automatic fashion. It also provides a finer control of derivative code generation process via control scripts and pragmas. Another significant capability of ADIC is its component architecture, AIF, that allows ADIC's capability to be extended via plug-in modules.
Date: August 31, 2004
Creator: Hovland, P. D. & Norris, B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

21st Century Locomotive Technology: Quarterly Technical Status Report 6 DOE/AL68284-TSR06

Description: Experimental work to map the performance of the High Pressure Common Rail (HPCR) system on a locomotive is in progress. The experimental trends agree with KIVA modeling predictions. Injection optimization is in progress. Electrically-assisted turbocharger modeling was used to study passenger locomotive performance improvements. Energy storage cycling life testing began, and an improved battery state algorithm was determined. The hybrid locomotive energy storage was prepared for energy management system algorithm testing. Progress in reliable methods for computing optimal driving plans, and methods to reduce the complexity of the necessary optimization are reported.
Date: August 31, 2004
Creator: Salasoo, Lembit; Topinka, Jennifer & Houpt, Paul K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Impact of the FY 2005 Building Technologies Program on United States Employment and Earned Income

Description: The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) is interested in assessing the potential economic impacts of its portfolio of subprograms on national employment and income. A special purpose version of the IMPLAN input-output model called ImBuild II is used in this study of all 21 Building Technologies Program subprograms in the EERE final FY 2005 budget request to the Office of Management and Budget on February 2, 2004. Energy savings, investments, and impacts on U.S. national employment and earned income are reported by subprogram for selected years to the year 2030. Energy savings and investments from these subprograms have the potential of creating a total of 396,000 jobs and about $5.6 billion in earned income (2003$) by the year 2030.
Date: August 31, 2004
Creator: Scott, Michael J.; Anderson, Dave M.; Belzer, David B.; Cort, Katherine A.; Dirks, James A.; Elliott, Douglas B. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Breeding pond selection and movement patterns by eastern spadefoot toads (Scaphiopus holbrookii) in relation to weather and edaphic conditions.

Description: Cathryn H. Greenberg and George W. Tanner. 2004. Breeding pond selection and movement patterns by eastern spadefoot toads (Scaphiopus holbrookii) in relation to weather and edaphic conditions. J. Herp. 38(4):569-577. Abstract: Eastern Spadefoot Toads (Scaphiopus holbrookii) require fish-free, isolated, ephemeral ponds for breeding but otherwise inhabit the surrounding uplands, commonly xeric longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) –wiregrass (Aristida beyrichiana). Hence both pond and upland conditions can potentially affect their breeding biology, and population persistence. Hardwood invasion due to fire suppression in sandhills could alter upland and pond suitability by higher hardwood density and increased transpiration. In this paper we explore breeding and neonatal emigration movements in relation to weather, hydrological conditions of ponds, and surrounding upland matrices. We use 9 years of data from continuous monitoring with drift fences and pitfall traps at 8 ephemeral ponds in 2 upland matrices: regularly-burned, savanna-like sandhills (n = 4), and hardwood-invaded sandhills (n = 4). Neither adult nor neonate captures differed between ponds within the 2 upland matrices, suggesting that they are tolerant of upland heterogeneity created by fire frequency. Explosive breeding occurred during 9 periods and in all seasons; adults were captured rarely otherwise. At a landscape-level rainfall, maximum change in barometric pressure, and an interaction between those 2 variables were significant predictors of explosive breeding. At a pond-level, rainfall, change in pond depth during the month prior to breeding, and days since a pond was last dry were significant predictors of adult captures. Transformation date, rather than weather, was associated with neonatal emigrations, which usually were complete within a week. Movement by first-captured adults and neonates was directional, but adult emigrations were apparently not always toward their origin. Our results suggest that Spadefoot Toads are highly adapted to breeding conditions and upland habitat heterogeneity created by weather patterns and fire frequency in ...
Date: August 31, 2004
Creator: Greenberg, Cathyrn, H. & Tanner, George, W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Impact of the FY 2005 Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program on United States Employment and Earned Income

Description: The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) is interested in assessing the potential economic impacts of its portfolio of subprograms on national employment and income. A special purpose version of the IMPLAN input-output model called ImBuild II is used in this study of 20 subprograms of the Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program contained in the EERE final FY 2005 budget request to the Office of Management and Budget on February 2, 2004. Energy savings, investments, and impacts on U.S. national employment and earned income are reported by subprogram for selected years to the year 2030. Energy savings and investments from these subprograms have the potential of creating a total of 228,000 jobs and about $3.1 billion in earned income (2003$) by the year 2030.
Date: August 31, 2004
Creator: Scott, Michael J.; Anderson, David M.; Belzer, David B.; Cort, Katherine A.; Dirks, James A.; Elliott, Douglas B. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Vortices, Reconnection and Turbulence in High Electron-Beta Plasmas

Description: Plasmas in which the kinetic energy exceeds the magnetic energy by a significant factor are common in space and in the laboratory. Such plasmas can convect magnetic fields and create null points in whose vicinity first the ions become unmagnetized, then the electrons. This project focuses on the detailed study of the transition regime of these plasmas.
Date: August 31, 2004
Creator: Stenzel, R. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Small Business Administration: SBA Followed Appropriate Policies and Procedures for September 11 Disaster Loan Applications

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "The Small Business Administration (SBA) played a key role in assisting small businesses affected by the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks by providing over $1 billion in disaster loans to businesses that sustained physical damage or economic injury. Small businesses in the immediate areas of the attacks and others nationwide that suffered related economic injury were eligible to apply for disaster loans. SBA declined or withdrew about half of these loan applications. SBA's disaster loans are direct federal government loans provided at a subsidized interest rate. In response to concerns that more small businesses impacted by September 11 could have benefited from SBA's disaster loans, GAO conducted a review of its Disaster Loan Program. Specifically, GAO addressed the following questions: (1) Are the disaster program policies consistent with the law and the overall mission of SBA's Disaster Loan Program? (2) What were SBA's underwriting policies and criteria for September 11 Economic Injury Disaster Loans (EIDL) and how did they compare with those applied by nonprofit lenders that were active in New York City after September 11? (3) Did SBA correctly apply its policies and procedures in its disposition of September 11 EIDLs?"
Date: August 31, 2004
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Federal-Aid Highways: Trends, Effect on State Spending, and Options for Future Program Design

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "In 2004, both houses of Congress approved separate legislation to reauthorize the federal-aid highway program to help meet the Nation's surface transportation needs, enhance mobility, and promote economic growth. Both bills also recognized that the Nation faces significant transportation challenges in the future, and each established a National Commission to assess future revenue sources for the Highway Trust Fund and to consider the roles of the various levels of government and the private sector in meeting future surface transportation financing needs. This report (1) updates information on trends in federal, state, and local capital investment in highways; (2) assesses the influence that federal-aid highway grants have had on state and local highway spending; (3) discusses the implications of these trends for the federal-aid highway program; and (4) discusses options for the federal-aid highway program."
Date: August 31, 2004
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Architect of the Capitol: Midyear Status Report on Implementation of Management Review Recommendations

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "The Conference Report on the Consolidated Appropriations Resolution, 2003, directed GAO to monitor AOC's progress in implementing recommendations contained in GAO's management review of AOC's operations, issued in January 2003. This is the second status report in which GAO examines the actions taken by AOC to implement selected GAO recommendations. Additionally, the Consolidated Appropriations Resolution, 2003, mandated GAO to assess AOC's Chief Operating Officer's (COO) action plan. This report provides that assessment."
Date: August 31, 2004
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

FBI Transformation: Data Inconclusive on Effects of Shift to Counterterrorism-Related Priorities on Traditional Crime Enforcement

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "As a result of the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) has committed to a transformation to increase its focus on national security. The FBI has shifted agent resources to its top priorities of counterterrorism, counterintelligence, and cyber crime. Some of these agent resources were shifted away from drug, white-collar, and violent crime enforcement programs. The FBI's drug program has sustained, by far, the largest reduction in FBI agent workforce--about 550 positions, or more than 80 percent of the nonsupervisory field agents who were permanently reprogrammed. In addition, the FBI has had a continuing need to temporarily redirect agents from drug, white-collar, and violent crime enforcement to address counterterrorism-related workload demands. While GAO and other organizations have focused considerable attention on the progress of the FBI's transformation, this report addresses questions about the extent to which the shift in resources has affected federal efforts to combat drug, white-collar, and violent crime and whether other agencies, including the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) in the drug enforcement area, are filling gaps created by FBI resource shifts."
Date: August 31, 2004
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tax Administration: IRS Needs to Consider Options for Revising Regulations to Increase the Accuracy of Social Security Numbers on Wage Statements

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "Inaccurate social security numbers (SSN) on wage statements contribute to growth in the Social Security Administration's (SSA) Earnings Suspense File, increase the Internal Revenue Service's (IRS) workload to ensure that wages are properly identified for those earning them, and burden individuals who must work with SSA and IRS to resolve disputes that may affect their social security benefits and tax obligations. IRS's ability to penalize employers for submitting inaccurate SSNs on wage statements is intended to promote SSN accuracy. Items GAO was asked to describe included: (1) the statutory provisions authorizing IRS to penalize employers who file wage statements with inaccurate SSNs; (2) IRS's program to penalize such employers; and (3) the extent IRS's program meets legislative requirements, the likelihood of any penalties, and any program changes being considered."
Date: August 31, 2004
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Stoichiometric changes in KH2PO4 crystals during laser-induced breakdown

Description: The structure of KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4} single crystals (so-called KDP) irradiated with {approx} 3-ns, 355-nm laser pulses with fluences above the laser-induced breakdown threshold is studied by a combination of Raman scattering, photoluminescence, and soft x-ray absorption spectroscopies. We compare spectra from the as-grown material, surface and bulk laser-induced damage sites, as well as from KPO{sub 3} references. Results show that irradiation with fluences above the laser-induced breakdown threshold leads to stoichiometric changes at surface damage sites but not at bulk damage sites. New spectroscopic features are attributed to dehydration products. For the laser irradiation conditions used in this study, the decomposed near-surface layer absorbs photons at {approx} 3.4 eV (364 nm). These results may explain the recently reported fact that surface laser damage sites in KDP crystals tend to grow with subsequent exposure to high-power laser pulses, while bulk damage sites do not.
Date: August 31, 2004
Creator: Negres, R A; Kucheyev, S O; DeMange, P; Bostedt, C; van Buuren, T; Nelson, A J et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Shape Change Studies of BCC Single Crystals Using a Non-Contact Image Correlation System

Description: A 3-D image correlation system has been used to study the deformation behavior of high purity molybdenum single crystals. This system, in conjunction with a recently developed experimental apparatus, provides the full field displacement and strain data needed to validate dislocation dynamics simulations. The accuracy of the image correlation system was verified by comparing the results with data taken from conventional strain gage rosettes. In addition, a stress analysis has been performed to examine the non-uniformities in stress. The results of the analysis show that after the sample has been strain 2%, the axial stress in the sample varies by {+-} 20%.
Date: August 31, 2004
Creator: Florando, J N; Lassila, D H; Leblanc, M M; Kay, G J; Perfect, S A; Arsenlis, A et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Hydrogen Economy: Opportunities, Costs, Barriers, and R&D Needs

Description: The announcement of a hydrogen fuel initiative in the President’s 2003 State of the Union speech substantially increased interest in the potential for hydrogen to play a major role in the nation’s long-term energy future. Prior to that event, DOE asked the National Research Council to examine key technical issues about the hydrogen economy to assist in the development of its hydrogen R&D program. Included in the assessment were the current state of technology; future cost estimates; CO2 emissions; distribution, storage, and end use considerations; and the DOE RD&D program. The report provides an assessment of hydrogen as a fuel in the nation’s future energy economy and describes a number of important challenges that must be overcome if it is to make a major energy contribution. Topics covered include the hydrogen end-use technologies, transportation, hydrogen production technologies, and transition issues for hydrogen in vehicles.
Date: August 31, 2004
Creator: Use, Committee on Alternatives and Strategies for Future Hydrogen Production and
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effects of Altered Temperature & Precipitation on Soil Bacterial & Microfaunal Communities as Mediated by Biological Soil Crusts

Description: With increased temperatures in our original pot study we observed a decline in lichen/moss crust cover and with that a decline in carbon and nitrogen fixation, and thus a probable decline of C and N input into crusts and soils. Soil bacteria and fauna were affected negatively by increased temperature in both light and dark crusts, and with movement from cool to hot and hot to hotter desert climates. Crust microbial biomass and relative abundance of diazotrophs was reduced greatly after one year, even in pots that were not moved from their original location, although no change in diazotroph community structure was observed. Populations of soil fauna moved from cool to hot deserts were affected more negatively than those moved from hot to hotter deserts.
Date: August 31, 2004
Creator: Neher, Deborah A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sampling and Hydrogeology of the Vadose Zone Beneath the 300 Area Process Ponds

Description: Four open pits were dug with a backhoe into the vadose zone beneath the former 300 Area Process Ponds in April 2003. Samples were collected about every 2 feet for physical, chemical, and/or microbiological characterization. This reports presents a stratigraphic and geohydrologic summary of the four excavations.
Date: August 31, 2004
Creator: Bjornstad, Bruce N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department