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Decanting of Neutralized H-Canyon Unirradiated Nuclear Material High Activity Waste Streams

Description: An option to dispose of the High Activity Waste (HAW) stream from the processing of unirradiated materials directly to Saltstone is being evaluated to conserve High Level Waste (HLW) tank farm space and to reduce the future production of HLW glass logs. To meet the Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC), decanting the supernate from precipitated solids was proposed to reduce mercury and radionuclide levels in the waste. Only the caustic supernate will then be sent to Saltstone. Verification that the Saltstone WAC will be met has involved a series of laboratory studies using surrogate and actual HAW solutions from H-Canyon. The initial experiment involved addition of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) to a surrogate HAW test solution and subsequent decanting of the supernate away from the precipitated solids. The chemical composition of the surrogate solution was based on a composition defined from analyses of actual HAW solutions generated during dissolution of unirradiated nuclear materials in H-Canyon [1]. Results from testing the surrogate HAW solution were reported in Reference [2]. Information obtained from the surrogate test solution study was used to define additional experiments on actual HAW solutions obtained from H-Canyon. These experiments were conducted with samples from three different batches of HAW solutions. The first and third HAW samples (HAW No.1 and HAW No.3 solutions) contained the centrifuge filter cake material from a gelatin strike that is periodically added to the waste stream. The second HAW sample (HAW No.2 solution) did not contain filter cake material. Monosodium titanate (MST) was added to the HAW No.2 and HAW No.3 solutions after addition of NaOH was complete and before the settling step. The addition of MST was to improve the decontamination of alpha and beta emitters (primarily plutonium and strontium) from the supernate. The addition of excess NaOH and the addition of MST were ...
Date: August 5, 2004
Creator: BRONIKOWSKI, MICHAELG.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

STRONTIUM-90 LIQUID CONCENTRATION SOLUBILITY CORRELATION IN THE HANFORD TANK WASTE OPERATIONS SIMULATOR

Description: A new correlation was developed to estimate the concentration of strontium-90 in a waste solution based on total organic carbon. This correlation replaces the strontium-90 wash factors, and when applied in the Hanford Tank Waste Operations Simulator, significantly reduced the estimated quantity of strontium-90 in the delivered low-activity waste feed. This is thought to be a more realistic estimate of strontium-90 than using the wash-factor method.
Date: August 5, 2004
Creator: HOHL, T.; PLACE, D. & WITTMAN, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

''CPT Theorem'' for Accelerators

Description: In this paper we attempt to reveal common features in evolution of various colliders' luminosity over commissioning periods. A simplified formula, ''CPT theorem'' or CP = T, is proposed which relates the time needed for commissioning T, the ''complexity'' of the machine C and performance increase goal P.
Date: August 5, 2004
Creator: Shiltsev, Vladimir
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Baseline information development for energy smart schools -- applied research, field testing and technology integration

Description: The original scope of work was to obtain and analyze existing and emerging data in four states: California, Florida, New York, and Wisconsin. The goal of this data collection was to deliver a baseline database or recommendations for such a database that could possibly contain window and daylighting features and energy performance characteristics of Kindergarten through 12th grade (K-12) school buildings (or those of classrooms when available). In particular, data analyses were performed based upon the California Commercial End-Use Survey (CEUS) databases to understand school energy use, features of window glazing, and availability of daylighting in California K-12 schools. The outcomes from this baseline task can be used to assist in establishing a database of school energy performance, assessing applications of existing technologies relevant to window and daylighting design, and identifying future R&D needs. These are in line with the overall project goals as outlined in the proposal. Through the review and analysis of this data, it is clear that there are many compounding factors impacting energy use in K-12 school buildings in the U.S., and that there are various challenges in understanding the impact of K-12 classroom energy use associated with design features of window glazing and skylight. First, the energy data in the existing CEUS databases has, at most, provided the aggregated electricity and/or gas usages for the building establishments that include other school facilities on top of the classroom spaces. Although the percentage of classroom floor area in schools is often available from the databases, there is no additional information that can be used to quantitatively segregate the EUI for classroom spaces. In order to quantify the EUI for classrooms, sub-metering of energy usage by classrooms must be obtained. Second, magnitudes of energy use for electricity lighting are not attainable from the existing databases, nor are the ...
Date: August 5, 2004
Creator: Xu, Tengfang & Piette, Mary Ann
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of the third harmonic SC cavity at Fermilab

Description: The third harmonic 3.9 GHz superconducting cavity was recently proposed by DESY for a new generation of high brightness photo-injector (TTF photoinjector-2) to compensate nonlinear distortion of the longitudinal phase space due to RF curvature of the 1.3 GHz TESLA cavities [1,2]. Installation of the 3rd harmonic cavity will allow us to generate ultra-short (<50 {micro}m rms) highly charged electron bunches with an extremely small transverse normalized emittance (<1 {micro}m). This is required to support a new generation of linear colliders, free electron lasers and synchrotron radiation sources. In this paper we present the current status of the 3rd harmonic cavity being developed at Fermilab. We discuss the design procedure, the building and testing of the copper and niobium half-cells and components, the design of input and HOM couplers.
Date: August 5, 2004
Creator: al., Nikolay Solyak et
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mechanical design and engineering of the 3.9 GHZ, 3rd harmonic SRF system at Fermilab

Description: The mechanical development of the 3.9 GHz, 3rd Harmonic SRF System is summarized to include: the development of a full scale copper prototype cavity structure; the design of the niobium 3 cell and niobium 9 cell structures; the design of the helium vessel and cryostat; the HOM coupler design; and a preliminary look at the main coupler design. The manufacturing processes for forming, rolling, and e-beam welding the HOM coupler, cavity cells, and end tubes are also described. Due to the exotic materials and manufacturing processes used in this type of device, a cost estimate for the material and fabrication is provided. The 3rd harmonic design is organized via a web-based data management approach.
Date: August 5, 2004
Creator: al., Don Mitchell et
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Results and commissioning issues from an automated demand responsepilot

Description: This paper describes a research project to develop and test Automated Demand Response hardware and software technology in large facilities. We describe the overall project and some of the commissioning and system design problems that took place. Demand Response (DR) is a set of activities to reduce or shift electricity use to improve the electric grid reliability purposes, manage electricity costs, and ensure that customers receive signals that encourage load reduction during times when the electric grid is near its capacity. There were a number of specific commissioning challenges in conducting this test including software compatibility, incorrect time zones, IT and EMCS failures, and hardware issues. The knowledge needed for this type of system commissioning combines knowledge of building controls with network management and knowledge of emerging information technologies.
Date: August 5, 2004
Creator: Piette, Mary Ann; Watson, Dave; Sezgen, Osman & Motegi, Naoya
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The QCD/SM Working Group: Summary Report

Description: Among the many physics processes at TeV hadron colliders, we look most eagerly for those that display signs of the Higgs boson or of new physics. We do so however amid an abundance of processes that proceed via Standard Model (SM) and in particular Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) interactions, and that are interesting in their own right. Good knowledge of these processes is required to help us distinguish the new from the known. Their theoretical and experimental study teaches us at the same time more about QCD/SM dynamics, and thereby enables us to further improve such distinctions. This is important because it is becoming increasingly clear that the success of finding and exploring Higgs boson physics or other New Physics at the Tevatron and LHC will depend significantly on precise understanding of QCD/SM effects for many observables. To improve predictions and deepen the study of QCD/SM signals and backgrounds was therefore the ambition for our QCD/SM working group at this Les Houches workshop. Members of the working group made significant progress towards this on a number of fronts. A variety of tools were further developed, from methods to perform higher order perturbative calculations or various types of resummation, to improvements in the modeling of underlying events and parton showers. Furthermore, various precise studies of important specific processes were conducted. A significant part of the activities in Les Houches revolved around Monte Carlo simulation of collision events. A number of contributions in this report reflect the progress made in this area. At present a large number of Monte Carlo programs exist, each written with a different purpose and employing different techniques. Discussions in Les Houches revealed the need for an accessible primer on Monte Carlo programs, featuring a listing of various codes, each with a short description, but also providing a low-level ...
Date: August 5, 2004
Creator: al., M. Dobbs et
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory: Further Improvements Needed to Strengthen Controls Over the Purchase Card Program

Description: Correspondence issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Lawrence Berkeley) located in Berkeley, California, is a government-owned, contractor-operated Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratory. The University of California manages the lab under a cost-reimbursable contract with DOE. The university is paid a management fee to operate the lab and is reimbursed for all allowable costs charged to the contract. During the fall of 2002, the Federal Bureau of Investigation began investigating two Los Alamos National Laboratory employees for alleged misuse of lab credit cards. Other allegations of theft and misuse of government funds at Los Alamos soon followed. In light of the problems identified at Los Alamos, Congress asked us to review selected procurement and property management practices at two NNSA and two DOE contractor labs, including Lawrence Berkeley. This report summarizes the information provided during our June 14, 2004 briefing to GAO's staff on these issues as they relate to Lawrence Berkeley. Specifically, we reviewed Lawrence Berkeley's purchase card program and property management practices to determine whether (1) internal controls over the lab's purchase card (Pcard) program provided reasonable assurance that improper purchases would not occur or would be detected in the normal course of business, (2) purchase card expenditures made under the contract properly complied with lab policies and other applicable requirements and were reasonable in nature and amount and thus were allowable costs payable to the contractor under the contract, and (3) property controls over selected asset acquisitions provided reasonable assurance that accountable assets would be properly recorded and tracked. Our review covered selected transactions that occurred during fiscal year 2002 and the first half of fiscal year 2003 (October 1, 2001, through March 31, 2003), which were the most current data available when we requested the data ...
Date: August 5, 2004
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: Enhancements Needed to Strengthen Controls Over the Purchase Card Program

Description: Correspondence issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) located in Richland, Washington, is a government-owned, contractor-operated Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratory. The Battelle Memorial Institute manages the lab under a costreimbursable contract with DOE. Battelle is paid a management fee to operate the lab and is reimbursed for all allowable costs charged to the contract. During the fall of 2002, the Federal Bureau of Investigation began investigating two Los Alamos National Laboratory employees for alleged misuse of lab credit cards. Other allegations of theft and misuse of government funds at Los Alamos soon followed. In light of the problems identified at Los Alamos, GAO was asked to review selected procurement and property management practices at two NNSA and two DOE contractor labs, including PNNL. This report summarizes the information provided during our June 14, 2004 briefing to staff of the House Committees on Science and Energy and Commerce on these issues as they relate to PNNL. Specifically, we reviewed PNNL's purchase card program and property management practices to determine whether (1) internal controls over the lab's purchase card (Pcard) program provided reasonable assurance that improper purchases would not occur or would be detected in the normal course of business, (2) purchase card expenditures made under the contract properly complied with lab policies and other applicable requirements and were reasonable in nature and amount and thus were allowable costs payable to the contractor under the contract, and (3) property controls over selected asset acquisitions provided reasonable assurance that accountable assets would be properly recorded and tracked. Our review covered selected transactions that occurred during fiscal year 2002 and the first half of fiscal year 2003 (October 1, 2001, through March 31, 2003), which were the most current data available when ...
Date: August 5, 2004
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory: Further Improvements Needed to Strengthen Controls Over the Purchase Card Program

Description: Correspondence issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is a government-owned, contractor-operated national laboratory of the Department of Energy's (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). The University of California manages the lab under a cost-reimbursable contract with NNSA. During the fall of 2002, the Federal Bureau of Investigation began investigating two Los Alamos National Laboratory employees for alleged misuse of lab credit cards. Other allegations of theft and misuse of government funds at Los Alamos soon followed. In light of the problems identified at Los Alamos, Congress asked us to review selected procurement and property management practices at two DOE and two NNSA contractor labs, including LLNL. This report summarizes the information provided during our June 4, 2004 briefing to Congressional staff on these issues as they relate to Lawrence Livermore. Specifically, we reviewed LLNL's purchase card program and property management practices to determine whether (1) internal controls over the lab's purchase card (Pcard) program provided reasonable assurance that improper purchases would not occur or would be detected in the normal course of business, (2) purchase card expenditures made under the contract properly complied with lab policies and other applicable requirements and were reasonable in nature and amount and thus were allowable costs payable to the contractor under the contract, and (3) property controls over selected asset acquisitions provided reasonable assurance that accountable assets would be properly recorded and tracked. Our review covered selected transactions that occurred during fiscal year 2002 and the first half of fiscal year 2003, which were the most current data available when we requested the data for our review."
Date: August 5, 2004
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sandia National Laboratories: Further Improvements Needed to Strengthen Controls Over the Purchase Card Program

Description: Correspondence issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "The Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) operate in Albuquerque, New Mexico and Livermore, California. Sandia is a government-owned, contractor-operated national laboratory of the Department of Energy's (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). During the fall of 2002, the Federal Bureau of Investigation began investigating two Los Alamos National Laboratory employees for alleged misuse of lab credit cards. Other allegations of theft and misuse of government funds at Los Alamos soon followed. In light of the problems identified at Los Alamos, Congress asked us to review selected procurement and property management practices at two DOE and two NNSA contractor labs, including Sandia. This report summarizes the information provided during our June 14, 2004 briefing to Congressional staff on these issues as they relate to Sandia. Specifically, we reviewed Sandia's purchase card program and property management practices to determine whether (1) internal controls over the lab's purchase card (Pcard) program provided reasonable assurance that improper purchases would not occur or would be detected in the normal course of business, (2) purchase card expenditures made under the contract properly complied with lab policies and other applicable requirements and were reasonable in nature and amount and thus were allowable costs payable to the contractor under the contract, and (3) property controls over selected asset acquisitions provided reasonable assurance that accountable assets would be properly recorded and tracked. Our review covered selected transactions that occurred during fiscal year 2002 and the first half of fiscal year 2003, which were the most current data available when we requested the data for our review."
Date: August 5, 2004
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Upgrade for the Advanced Light Source

Description: One of the first third-generation synchrotron light sources, the ALS, has been operating for almost a decade at Berkeley Lab, where experimenters have been exploiting its high brightness for forefront science. However, accelerator and insertion-device technology have significantly changed since the ALS was designed. As a result, the performance of the ALS is in danger of being eclipsed by that of newer, more advanced sources. The ALS upgrade that we are planning includes full-energy, top-off injection with higher storage-ring current and the replacement of five first-generation insertion devices with nine state-of-the art insertion devices and four new application-specific beamlines now being identified in a strategic planning process. The upgrade will help keep the ALS at the forefront of soft x-ray synchrotron light sources for the next two decades.
Date: August 5, 2004
Creator: Chemla, Daniel S.; Feinberg, Benedict; Hussain, Zahid; Kirz,Janos; Krebs, Gary F.; Padmore, Howard A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Homeland Security: Navy Operations — Background and Issues for Congress

Description: This report discusses potential Navy homeland security roles include defending the United States against ballistic or cruise missile attack, defending U.S. naval bases and naval computer networks against attack, searching for terrorists at sea, and assisting civil authorities in responding to terrorist attacks. The Navy’s role in homeland security raises several potential issues for Congress.
Date: August 5, 2004
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Regulation of Development and Nitrogen Fixation in Anabaena

Description: The nitrogen-fixing filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 is being used as a simple model of microbial development and pattern formation in a multicellular prokaryotic organism. Anabaena reduces atmospheric nitrogen to ammonia in highly specialized, terminally differentiated cells called heterocysts. Anabaena is an important model system because of the multicellular growth pattern, the suspected antiquity of heterocyst development, and the contribution of fixed nitrogen to the environment. We are especially interested in understanding the molecular signaling pathways and genetic regulation that control heterocyst development. In the presence of an external source of reduced nitrogen, the differentiation of heterocysts is inhibited. When Anabaena is grown on dinitrogen, a one-dimensional developmental pattern of single heterocysts separated by approximately ten vegetative cells is established to form a multicellular organism composed of two interdependent cell types. The goal of this project is to understand the signaling and regulatory pathways that commit a vegetative cell to terminally differentiate into a nitrogen-fixing heterocyst. Several genes identified by us and by others were chosen as entry points into the regulatory network. Our research, which was initially focused on transcriptional regulation by group 2 sigma factors, was expanded to include group 3 sigma factors and their regulators after the complete Anabaena genome sequence became available. Surprisingly, no individual sigma factor is essential for heterocyst development. We have used the isolation of extragenic suppressors to study genetic interactions between key regulatory genes such as patS, hetR, and hetC in signaling and developmental pathways. We identified a hetR R223W mutation as a bypass suppressor of patS overexpression. Strains containing the hetR R223W allele fail to respond to pattern formation signals and overexpression of this allele results in a lethal phenotype because all cells differentiate a few days after nitrogen step-down. Our continued analysis of these genes will provide a ...
Date: August 5, 2004
Creator: Golden, James W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Prehistorical Record of Cultural Eutrophication from Crawford Lake, Canada

Description: Cultural eutrophication--the process by which human activities increase nutrient input rates to aquatic ecosystems and thereby cause undesirable changes in surface-water quality--is generally thought to have begun with the start of the industrial era. The prehistoric dimension of human impacts on aquatic ecosystems remains relatively undescribed, particularly in North America. Here we present fossil plankton data (diatoms and rotifers), organic and inorganic carbon accumulations, and carbon isotope ratios from a 1000-yr sediment core record from Crawford Lake, Ontario, Canada. The data documents increased nutrient input to Crawford Lake caused by Iroquoian horticultural activity from A.D. 1268 to 1486 and shows how this increased nutrient input elevated lake productivity, caused bottom-water anoxia, and irreversibly altered diatom community structure within just a few years. Iroquoian settlement in the region declined in the fifteenth century, yet diatom communities and lake circulation never recovered to the predisturbance state. A second phase of cultural eutrophication starting in A.D. 1867, initiated by Canadian agricultural disturbance, increased lake productivity but had comparatively less of an impact on diatom assemblages and carbon-storage pathways than the initial Iroquoian disturbance. This study deepens our understanding of the impact of cultural eutrophication on lake systems, highlights the lasting influence of initial environmental perturbation, and contributes to the debate on the ecological impacts of density and agricultural practices of native North American inhabitants.
Date: August 5, 2004
Creator: Ekdahl, E J; Teranes, J; Guilderson, T; Turton, C L; McAndrews, J H; Wittkop, C A et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preparation of Peptide p-Nitroanilides using an Aryl Hydrazine Solid Support

Description: Peptide p-nitroanilides are useful compounds for studying protease activity, however the poor nucleophilicity of p-nitroaniline makes their preparation difficult. We describe a new efficient approach for the Fmoc-based synthesis of peptide p-nitroanilides using an aryl hydrazine resin. Mild oxidation of the peptide hydrazide resin yields a highly reactive acyl diazene, which efficiently reacts with weak nucleophiles. We have prepared several peptide p-nitroanilides, including substrates for the Lethal Factor protease from B. anthracis.
Date: August 5, 2004
Creator: Kwon, Y; Welsh, K; Mitchell, A R & Camarero, J A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Congressional Salaries and Allowances

Description: This report provides basic information on congressional salaries and allowances. First, the report briefly summarizes the current salary of Members of Congress, limits on their outside earned income and honoraria, and applicable health insurance and retirement benefits. Second, it provides information on allowances available to Representatives and Senators to support them in their official and representational duties as Members. Third, it provides the salaries and allowances available to the Speaker of the House and the Vice President, as President of the Senate, and lists the salaries of congressional officers and officials and committee staff.
Date: August 5, 2004
Creator: Dwyer, Paul E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department