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Solid State Reactor Final Report

Description: The Solid State Reactor (SSR) is an advanced reactor concept designed to take advantage of Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL's) recently developed graphite foam that has enhanced heat transfer characteristics and excellent high-temperature mechanical properties, to provide an inherently safe, self-regulated, source of heat for power and other potential applications. This work was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) program (Project No. 99-064) from August 1999 through September 30, 2002. The initial concept of utilizing the graphite foam as a basis for developing an advanced reactor concept envisioned that a suite of reactor configurations and power levels could be developed for several different applications. The initial focus was looking at the reactor as a heat source that was scalable, independent of any heat removal/power conversion process. These applications might include conventional power generation, isotope production and destruction (actinides), and hydrogen production. Having conducted the initial research on the graphite foam and having performed the scoping parametric analyses from neutronics and thermal-hydraulic perspectives, it was necessary to focus on a particular application that would (1) demonstrate the viability of the overall concept and (2) require a reasonably structured design analysis process that would synthesize those important parameters that influence the concept the most as part of a feasible, working reactor system. Thus, the application targeted for this concept was supplying power for remote/harsh environments and a design that was easily deployable, simplistic from an operational standpoint, and utilized the new graphite foam. Specifically, a 500-kW(t) reactor concept was pursued that is naturally load following, inherently safe, optimized via neutronic studies to achieve near-zero reactivity change with burnup, and proliferation resistant. These four major areas of research were undertaken: (1) establishing the design and safety-related basis via neutronic and reactor control assessments with the graphite foam ...
Date: March 10, 2004
Creator: Mays, G.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A survey of cavity-nesting bees and wasps in loblolly pine stands of the Savannah River Site, Aiken County, South Carolina.

Description: Horn, Scott, and James L. Hanula. 2004. A survey of cavity-nesting bees and wasps in loblolly pine stands of the Savannah River Site, Aiken County, South Carolina. 39(3): 464-469. Abstract: In recent years concern over widespread losses in biodiversity has grown to include a possible decline of many native pollinators, primarily bees. Factors such as habitat fragmentation, agricultural practices, use of pesticides, the introduction of invasive species, or changes in land use may negatively impact these vital organisims. Most reported studies show that human impacts on pollinators are overwhelmingly negative. Reductions in pollinator populations may profoundly impact plant population dynamics and ecosystem function. Little baseline data exists on the diversity and relative abundance of bees and wasps in southern forests. The objective of this study was to develop a simple, effective method of surveying cavity-nesting bees and wasps and to determine species diversity in mature forests of loblolly pine, the most widely planted tree species in the southern United States.
Date: March 10, 2004
Creator: Horn, S. & Hanula, J., L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Structural Biology of The sequestration & Transport of Heavy Metal Toxins: NMR Structure Determination of Proteins Containing the CYS-X-Y-Metal Binding Motif

Description: The support from the Department of Energy enabled us to initiate research on several proteins from the bacterial mercury detoxification system; in particular, we were able to determine the structures of MerP and related metal binding sequences. We have also worked on the membrane transport proteins MerF and MerT.
Date: March 10, 2004
Creator: Opella, Stanley J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ORIGEN-ARP Cross-Section Libraries for Magnox, Advanced Gas-Cooled, and VVER Reactor Designs

Description: Cross-section libraries for the ORIGEN-ARP system were extended to include four non-U.S. reactor types: the Magnox reactor, the Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactor, the VVER-440, and the VVER-1000. Typical design and operational parameters for these four reactor types were determined by an examination of a variety of published information sources. Burnup simulation models of the reactors were then developed using the SAS2H sequence from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory SCALE code system. In turn, these models were used to prepare the burnup-dependent cross-section libraries suitable for use with ORIGEN-ARP. The reactor designs together with the development of the SAS2H models are described, and a small number of validation results using spent-fuel assay data are reported.
Date: March 10, 2004
Creator: Murphy, BD
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An evaluation of savings and measure persistence fromretrocommissioning of large commercial buildings

Description: Commercial building retrocommissioning activity has increased in recent years. LBNL recently conducted a study of 8 participants in Sacramento Municipal Utility District's (SMUD) retrocommissioning program. We evaluated the persistence of energy savings and measure implementation, in an effort to identify and understand factors that affect the longevity of retrocommissioning benefits. The LBNL analysis looked at whole-building energy and the retrocommissioning measure implementation status, incorporating elements from previous work by Texas A&M University and Portland Energy Conservation Inc. When possible, adjustments due to newly discovered major end uses, occupancy patterns and 2001 energy crisis responses were included in the whole-building energy analysis. The measure implementation analysis categorized each recommended measure and tracked the measures to their current operational status. Results showed a 59% implementation rate of recommended measures. The whole-building energy analysis showed an aggregate electricity savings of approximately 10.5% in the second post-retrocommissioning year, diminishing to approximately 8% in the fourth year. Results also showed the 2001 energy crisis played a significant role in the post-retrocommissioning energy use at the candidate sites. When natural gas consumption was included in the analysis, savings were reduced slightly, showing the importance in considering interactive effects between cooling and heating systems. The cost effectiveness of retrocommissioning was very attractive at the sites studied. However, funding for retrocommissioning activities is still very constrained.
Date: March 10, 2004
Creator: Bourassa, Norman J.; Piette, Mary Ann & Motegi, Naoya
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Department of Defense Rules for Military Commissions: Analysis of Procedural Rules and Comparison with Proposed Legislation and the Uniform Code of Military Justice

Description: This report provides a background and analysis comparing military commissions as envisioned under M.C.O. No. 1 to general military courts-martial conducted under the UCMJ. The report notes some of the criticism directed at the President’s M.O., and explains how those concerns are addressed by the military commission orders and instructions. The report provides two charts to compare the regulations issued by the Department of Defense and standard procedures for general courts-martial under the Manual for Courts-Martial. The second chart, which compares procedural safeguards incorporated in the regulations with established procedures in courts martial, follows the same order and format used in CRS Report RL31262, Selected Procedural Safeguards in Federal, Military, and International Courts, in order to facilitate comparison with safeguards provided in federal court and the International Criminal Court.
Date: March 10, 2004
Creator: Elsea, Jennifer K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Department of Defense Rules for Military Commissions: Analysis of Procedural Rules and Comparison with Proposed Legislation and the Uniform Code of Military Justice

Description: This report provides a background and analysis comparing military commissions as envisioned under M.C.O. No. 1 to general military courts-martial conducted under the UCMJ. The report notes some of the criticism directed at the President’s M.O., and explains how those concerns are addressed by the military commission orders and instructions. The report provides two charts to compare the regulations issued by the Department of Defense and standard procedures for general courts-martial under the Manual for Courts-Martial. The second chart, which compares procedural safeguards incorporated in the regulations with established procedures in courts martial, follows the same order and format used in CRS Report RL31262, Selected Procedural Safeguards in Federal, Military, and International Courts, in order to facilitate comparison with safeguards provided in federal court and the International Criminal Court.
Date: March 10, 2004
Creator: Elsea, Jennifer K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Internal Revenue Service: Individual Taxpayer Indentification Numbers Can Be Improperly Obtained and Used

Description: Testimony issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "The Internal Revenue Service (IRS) issues Individual Taxpayer Identification Numbers (ITINs) to those who are not eligible for a social security number (SSN) from the Social Security Administration (SSA). ITIN-related concerns include whether any weaknesses in IRS's controls would allow ITINs to be issued and used for illegal purposes and possible security breaches, whether employers are confused about their responsibilities to IRS, SSA, and the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) for identifying their employees, and how IRS, SSA, and DHS share data when illegal resident aliens receive ITINs. Because of these concerns, GAO was asked to: (1) describe why IRS created the ITIN, (2) describe IRS's processes and controls for issuing ITINs, (3) do a limited test of IRS's processes and controls, and (4) describe certain concerns and problems for employers and government agencies when ITINs are issued to illegal resident aliens."
Date: March 10, 2004
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Results-Oriented Government: GPRA Has Established a Solid Foundation for Achieving Greater Results

Description: A chapter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Now that the Government Performance and Results Act (GPRA) has been in effect for 10 years, GAO was asked to address (1) the effect of GPRA in creating a governmentwide focus on results and the government's ability to deliver results to the American public, (2) the challenges agencies face in measuring performance and using performance information in management decisions, and (3) how the federal government can continue to shift toward a more results-oriented focus."
Date: March 10, 2004
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mutual Funds: Assessment of Regulatory Reforms to Improve the Management and Sale of Mutual Funds

Description: Testimony issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Since September 2003, widespread allegations of abusive practices involving mutual funds have come to light. An abuse called late trading allowed some investors, at times in collusion with pension plan intermediary, broker-dealer, or fund adviser staff, to profit at other investors' expense by submitting orders for fund shares to receive that day's price after the legal cutoff. Other investors were allowed to conduct market timing trades to take advantage of stale prices used by funds to calculate their net asset values at funds with stated policies against such trading. SEC and other regulators have responded with numerous proposals for new or revised practices. Based on a body of work that GAO has conducted involving mutual funds, GAO analyzed and provides views on proposed and final rules involving (1) fund pricing and compliance practices intended to address various mutual fund trading abuses that have come to light recently, (2) fund boards' independence and effectiveness, (3) fund adviser compensation of broker-dealers that sell fund shares, and (4) additional actions regulators could take to further improve transparency and investor understanding of the fees they pay."
Date: March 10, 2004
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Department of Defense Rules for Military Commissions: Analysis of Procedural Rules and Comparison with Proposed Legislation and the Uniform Code of Military Justice

Description: This report provides a background and analysis comparing military commissions as envisioned under Military Commission Order (M.C.O.) No. 1 and general military courts-martial conducted under the Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ). The report notes some of the criticism directed at the President's Military Order (M.O.), and explains how those concerns are addressed by the military commission orders and instructions. The report concludes by summarizing legislation introduced to authorize and regulate military tribunals to try suspected Al Qaeda and Taliban members, and provides two charts to compare the proposed military tribunals under proposed legislation, the regulations issued by the Department of Defense, and standard procedures for general courts-martial under the Manual for Courts-Martial.
Date: March 10, 2004
Creator: Elsea, Jennifer
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Budget for Fiscal Year 2005

Description: The Congressional Budget Office’s (CBO) January 2004 budget report for FY2005 (the Budget and Economic Outlook: Fiscal Years 2005-2014) estimated the FY2005 baseline deficit at $362 billion, not much different from that proposed by the Administration. Selected alternative policies included in the CBO report, estimates for the cost of extending the tax cuts, reforming the AMT, and letting discretionary spending grow at the rate of gross domestic product (GDP) growth, would increase the deficit, particularly in the years beyond FY2009.
Date: March 10, 2004
Creator: Winters, Philip D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Medical Records Privacy: Questions and Answers on the HIPAA Final Rule

Description: This report discusses the issue facing Congress on whether to continue to support the executive branch’s prosecution of medical marijuana patients and their providers, in accordance with marijuana’s status as a Schedule I drug under the Controlled Substances Act, or whether to relax federal marijuana prohibition enough to permit the medical use of botanical cannabis products by seriously ill persons, especially in states that have created medical marijuana programs under state law.
Date: March 10, 2004
Creator: Redhead, C. Stephen
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nuclear Fuel Leasing, Recycling and proliferation: Modeling a Global View

Description: On February 11, 2004, U.S. President George W. Bush, in a speech to the National Defense University stated: ''The world must create a safe, orderly system to field civilian nuclear plants without adding to the danger of weapons proliferation. The world's leading nuclear exporters should ensure that states have reliable access at reasonable cost to fuel for civilian reactors, so long as those states renounce enrichment and reprocessing. Enrichment and reprocessing are not necessary for nations seeking to harness nuclear energy for peaceful purposes.'' This concept would require nations to choose one of two paths for civilian nuclear development: those that only have reactors and those that contain one or more elements of the nuclear fuel cycle, including recycling. ''Fuel cycle'' states would enrich uranium, manufacture and lease fuel to ''reactor'' states and receive the reactor states' spent fuel. All parties would accede to stringent security and safeguard standards, embedded within a newly invigorated international regime. Reactor states would be relieved of the financial, environmental (and political) burden of enriching and manufacturing fuel and dealing with spent fuel. Fuel cycle states would potentially earn money on leasing the fuel and perhaps on sales of reactors to the reactor states. Such a leasing concept is especially interesting in scenarios which envision growth in nuclear power, and an important consideration for such a nuclear growth regime is the role of recycling of civilian spent fuel. Recycling holds promise for improved management of spent fuel and efficient utilization of resources, but continues to raise the specter of a world with uncontrolled nuclear weapons proliferation. If done effectively, a fuel-leasing concept could help create a political and economic foundation for significant growth of clean, carbon-free nuclear power while providing a mechanism for significant international cooperation to reduce proliferation concern. This would extend the spirit ...
Date: March 10, 2004
Creator: Crozat, M P; Choi, J; Reis, V H & Hill, R
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mechanism of GEMS formation

Description: GEMS (glass with embedded metal and sulfides) in interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) were examined using 200 keV analytical transmission electron microscopy. The morphologies and crystallography of embedded relict grains reveal that GEMS are pseudomorphs formed by irradiation processing of crystals free-floating in space. Some GEMS retain a compositional and morphological ''memory'' of the crystal from which they formed. Pseudomorphism rules out condensation, annealing, flash heating, or shock melting as alternative mechanisms of GEMS formation. A significant and often dominant fraction of the atoms in GEMS were sputtered deposited from other grains. Therefore, a normal (solar) isotopic composition is not a reliable indicator of whether GEMS formed in the solar system or in presolar interstellar or circumstellar environments.
Date: March 10, 2004
Creator: Bradley, J P & Dai, Z R
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Linear Scaling First-Principles Molecular Dynamics with Controlled Accuracy

Description: In our quest for accurate linear scaling first-principles molecular dynamics methods for pseudopotential DFT calculations, we investigate the accuracy of real-space grid approaches, with finite differences and spherical localization regions. We examine how the positions of the localization centers affect the accuracy and the convergence rate of the optimization process. In particular we investigate the accuracy of the atomic forces computation compared to the standard O(N{sup 3}) approach. We show the exponential decay of the error on the energy and forces with the size of the localization regions for a variety of realistic physical systems. We propose a new algorithm to automatically adapt the localization centers during the ground state computation which allows for molecular dynamics simulations with diffusion processes. The combination of algorithms proposed lead to a genuine linear scaling First-Principles Molecular Dynamics method with controlled accuracy. We illustrate our approach with examples of microcanonical molecular dynamics with localized orbitals.
Date: March 10, 2004
Creator: Gygi, F & Fattebert, J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

COMPUTATIONAL STUDIES OF COLLECTIVE BEAM DYNAMICS IN HIGH INTENSITY RINGS.

Description: Collective interactions of the beam with itself and with its periodic lattice surroundings in high intensity accelerator rings, such as PSR and SNS, can lead to beam growth, halo generation, and losses. These interactions also provide a rich source of dynamic phenomena for analytical, computational, and experimental study. With continuing increases in model development and computer power, a number of sophisticated codes are now capable of detailed realistic studies of collective beam dynamics in rings. We concentrate here on a computational examination of high intensity beam dynamics in SNS. These studies include the effects of the accelerator lattice, space charge, impedances, losses and collimation, and magnet errors.
Date: March 10, 2004
Creator: HOLMES,J. A. COUSINEAU,S. DANILOV,V. HENDERSON,S. SHISHLO,A. FEDOTOV,A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

China's sustainable energy future: Scenarios of energy and carbonemissions (Summary)

Description: China has ambitious goals for economic development, and mustfind ways to power the achievement of those goals that are bothenvironmentally and socially sustainable. Integration into the globaleconomy presents opportunities for technological improvement and accessto energy resources. China also has options for innovative policies andmeasures that could significantly alter the way energy is acquired andused. These opportunities andoptions, along with long-term social,demographic, and economic trends, will shape China s future energysystem, and consequently its contribution to emissions of greenhousegases, particularly carbon dioxide (CO2). In this study, entitled China sSustainable Energy Future: Scenarios of Energy and Carbon Emissions, theEnergy Research Institute (ERI), an independent analytic organizationunder China's Na tional Development and Reform Commission (NDRC), soughtto explore in detail how China could achieve the goals of the TenthFive-Year Plan and its longer term aims through a sustainable developmentstrategy. China's ability to forge a sustainable energy path has globalconsequences. China's annual emissions of greenhouse gases comprisenearly half of those from developing countries, and 12 percent of globalemissions. Most of China's greenhouse gas emissions are in the form ofCO2, 87 percent of which came from energy use in 2000. In that year,China's carbon emissions from energy use and cement production were 760million metric tons (Mt-C), second only to the 1,500 Mt-C emitted by theUS (CDIAC, 2003). As China's energy consumption continues to increase,greenhouse gas emissions are expected to inevitably increase into thefuture. However, the rate at which energy consumption and emissions willincrease can vary significantly depending on whether sustainabledevelopment is recognized as an important policy goal. If the ChineseGovernment chooses to adopt measures to enhance energy efficiency andimprove the overall structure of energy supply, it is possible thatfuture economic growth may be supported by a relatively lower increase inenergy consumption. Over the past 20 years, energy intensity in China hasbeen reduced partly through technological and ...
Date: March 10, 2004
Creator: Zhou, Dadi; Levine, Mark; Dai, Yande; Yu, Cong; Guo, Yuan; Sinton, Jonathan E. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Deformation-DIA: A Novel Apparatus for Measuring the Strength of Materials at High Strain to Pressures at Elevated Temperature

Description: The primary focus of this 3-year project was to develop and put to use an instrument to test experimentally the effect of pressure on body centered cubic (BCC) metals and other materials of interest to the Stockpile Stewardship program. Well-resolved materials testing requires measurements of load and deformation rate be measured at separable conditions of temperature, pressure, and plastic strain. The new apparatus at the heart of this work, the Deformation-DIA (D-DIA), began the project as a design concept. Its principal feature would be the capability to extend the conditions for such controlled materials testing from the current pressure limit of about 3 to almost 15 GPa, a factor of 5 increase. Once constructed and successfully tested, the plan of the project was to deform samples of BCC metals at arbitrary temperature and high pressures in order to provide preliminary measurements of strength and to prove its worth to the Stockpile Stewardship program. The project has been a stunning success. Progress toward demonstrating the worth of the D-DIA as a workhorse instrument for materials strength measurement at high pressure was given a huge boost by the fact that the machine itself functioned flawlessly from the very start, allowing the investigators to focus on measurement quality rather than technical operational issues. By the end of the project, we had deformed several samples of polycrystalline molybdenum (Mo) and tantalum (Ta) under very precisely controlled conditions, and for the Ta, had produced the first rudimentary measurements of strength to pressures of 8 GPa.
Date: March 10, 2004
Creator: Durham, W
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

EXAFS Measurements of Laser-Shocked V and Ti and Crystal Phase Transformation in Ti

Description: Extended X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS), using a laser-imploded target as a source, can yield the properties of laser-shocked metals on a nanosecond time scale. EXAFS measurements of vanadium shocked to {approx}0.4 Mbar yield the compression and temperature in good agreement with hydrodynamic simulations and shock-speed measurements. In laser-shocked titanium at the same pressure, the EXAFS modulation damping is much higher than warranted by the predicted temperature increase. This is shown to be due to the {alpha}-Ti to {omega}-Ti crystal-phase transformation, known to occur below {approx}0.1 Mbar for slower shock waves. The dynamics of material response to shock loading has been extensively studied in the past [1]. The goal of those studies has been to understand the shock-induced deformation and structural changes at the microscopic level [2]. Laser-generated shocks can be employed to broaden these studies to higher pressures ({approx}1 Mbar) and strain rates ({approx} 10{sup 7}-10{sup 8} s{sup -1}). Recently, laser-shocked materials have been studied with in-situ x-ray diffraction [3,4]. The goal of this work is to examine the use of in-situ EXAFS [5] as a complementary characterization of laser-shocked metals. EXAFS is the modulation in the x-ray absorption above the K edge (or L edge) due to the interference of the photoelectron waves with the waves reflected from neighboring atoms. The frequency of EXAFS modulations is related to the inter-particle distance, hence to the compression. The damping rate of the modulation can yield the lattice temperature, which is not readily available by other methods.
Date: March 10, 2004
Creator: Yaakobi, B; Meyerhofer, D D; Boehly, T R; Rehr, J J; Remington, B A; Allen, P G et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

21st Century Steam for Asteroid Mitigation

Description: The systematic requirements to divert an object on an earth-impacting course are developed relating the minimum velocity perturbation (both magnitude and direction) to the time available before impact. This, coupled with the accuracy to which orbits can be determined, restricts the time available for any mitigation technology to operate. Because nuclear energy densities are nearly a million times higher than those possible with chemical bonds, it is the most mass efficient means for storing delivering energy with today's technology. The question is how to most effectively apply that energy. This paper will examine the simple case of shattering the body, as well as a more controlled approach in which one or more small velocity increments divert a body. The optimal approach depends on the detailed circumstances, but in either case, already developed technology permits a successful diversion with a few years to decades of notice. The success of nuclear options on relatively short timescales permits consideration of other technologies that while not so well developed might be sufficiently improved to divert small (100 meter) bodies.
Date: March 10, 2004
Creator: Dearborn, D S
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

THIN DIAMOND FILMS FOR SNS H INJECTIONS STRIPPING.

Description: We have investigated the preparation and testing of thin diamond foils for use in stripping the SNS H{sup -} Linac beam. A long useful lifetime for these foils is desirable to improve operational efficiency. Preliminary data presented at PAC 2001 indicated that diamond foils were superior to conventional evaporated carbon foils, exhibiting lifetimes approximately five-fold longer [1]. That work employed a fully supported diamond foil, a format that is not acceptable for the SNS application; at least two edges of the approximately 1 x 1 cm foils must be free standing to allow for beam rastering. Residual stress in a chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond foil results in film distortion (scrolling) when the film is released from its silicon growth substrate. We have attacked this problem by initially patterning the surface of CVD growth substrates with a 50 or 100 line/inch trapezoidal grating, followed by conformal diamond film growth on the patterned substrate. Then removal of the substrate by chemical etching produced a foil that possessed improved mechanical integrity due to its corrugation. The high nucleation density required to grow continuous, pinhole free diamond foils of the desired thickness (1 {micro}m, 350 {micro}g/cm{sup 2}) was achieved by a combination of substrate surface scratching and seeding. A variety of diamond foils have been tested using the BNL 750 keV Radio Frequency Quadrupole H{sup -} beam to simulate energy loss in the SNS. Those include flat, corrugated, microcrystalline, and nanocrystalline foils. Foil lifetimes are reported.
Date: March 10, 2004
Creator: SHAW,R. W. HERR,A. D. FEIGERLE,C. S. CUTLER,R. J. LIAW,C. J. LEE,Y. Y.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department