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Determination of Cesium (CS+) Adsorption Kinetics and Equilibrium Isotherms from Hanford Waste Simulants Using Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (RF) Resins

Description: This report describes the results of cesium sorption kinetics and equilibrium isotherm tests with resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) resin using Tank AN-105 simulated waste. These tests were conducted at the Savannah River Technology Center in support of the Hanford River Protection Project - Waste Treatment Plant (RPP-WTP). A crucial part of the current treatment process involves the removal of cesium from waste tank supernate solutions using columns containing SuperLig 644 resin. Due to concerns about the chemical and hydraulic performance of SuperLig 644 resin in large-scale operations, RF resin was evaluated as a potential alternative to the baseline material. Extensive testing was conducted at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory on various RF samples (both granular and spherical) obtained from different vendors. Three RF samples (two spherical and one granular) were subsequently delivered to SRTC based on initial screening results at PNNL, which indicated good performance for these materials. A small number of tests were then conducted at SRTC on the RF resin using non-radioactive simulant solutions to support development of a preliminary column performance model.
Date: March 1, 2004
Creator: DUFFEY, CHERYL
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

WTP Pilot-Scale Evaporation Tests

Description: This report documents the design, assembly, and operation of a Pilot-Scale Evaporator built and operated by SRTC in support of Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) Project at the DOE's Hanford Site. The WTP employs three identical evaporators, two for the Waste Feed and one for the Treated LAW. The Pilot-Scale Evaporator was designed to test simulants for both of these waste streams. The Pilot-Scale Evaporator is 1/76th scale in terms of evaporation rates. The basic configuration of forced circulation vacuum evaporator was employed. A detailed scaling analysis was performed to preserve key operating parameters such as basic loop configuration, system vacuum, boiling temperature, recirculation rates, vertical distances between important hardware pieces, reboiler heat transfer characteristics, vapor flux, configuration of demisters and water spray rings. Three evaporation test campaigns were completed. The first evaporation run used water in order to shake down the system. The water runs were important in identifying a design flaw that inhibited mixing in the evaporator vessel, thus resulting in unstable boiling operation. As a result the loop configuration was modified and the remaining runs were completed successfully. Two simulant runs followed the water runs. Test 1: Simulated Ultrafiltration Recycles with HLW SBS, and Test 2: Treated AN102 with Envelop C LAW. Several liquid and offgas samples were drawn from the evaporator facility for regulatory and non-regulatory analyses. During Test 2, the feed and the concentrate were spiked with organics to determine organic partitioning. The decontamination factor (DF) for Test 1 was measured to be 110,000 (more than the expected value of 100,000). Dow Corning Q2-3183A antifoam agent was tested during both Tests 1 and 2. It was determined that 500 ppm of this antifoam agent was sufficient to control the foaminess to less than 5 per cent of the liquid height. The long-term testing (around 100 hours ...
Date: March 1, 2004
Creator: QURESHI, ZAFAR
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Supporting Fernald Site Closure with Integrated Health and Safety Plans as Documented Safety Analyses

Description: At the Fernald Closure Project (FCP) near Cincinnati, Ohio, environmental restoration activities are supported by Documented Safety Analyses (DSAs) that combine the required project-specific Health and Safety Plans, Safety Basis Requirements (SBRs), and Process Requirements (PRs) into single Integrated Health and Safety Plans (I-HASPs). These integrated DSAs employ Integrated Safety Management methodology in support of simplified restoration and remediation activities that, so far, have resulted in the decontamination and demolition (D&D) of over 200 structures, including eight major nuclear production plants. There is one of twelve nuclear facilities still remaining (Silos containing uranium ore residues) with its own safety basis documentation. This paper presents the status of the FCP's safety basis documentation program, illustrating that all of the former nuclear facilities and activities have now replaced. Basis of Interim Operations (BIOs) with I-HASPs as their safety basis during the closure process.
Date: March 1, 2004
Creator: Kohler, S.; Brown, T.; Fisk, P.; Krach, F. & Klein, B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evolution of Safety Basis Documentation for the Fernald Site

Description: The objective of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Fernald Closure Project (FCP), in suburban Cincinnati, Ohio, is to safely complete the environmental restoration of the Fernald site by 2006. Over 200 out of 220 total structures, at this DOE plant site which processed uranium ore concentrates into high-purity uranium metal products, have been safely demolished, including eight of the nine major production plants. Documented Safety Analyses (DSAs) for these facilities have gone through a process of simplification, from individual operating Safety Analysis Reports (SARs) to a single site-wide Authorization Basis containing nuclear facility Bases for Interim Operations (BIOs) to individual project Auditable Safety Records (ASRs). The final stage in DSA simplification consists of project-specific Integrated Health and Safety Plans (I-HASPs) and Nuclear Health and Safety Plans (N-HASPs) that address all aspects of safety, from the worker in the field to the safety basis requirements preserving the facility/activity hazard categorization. This paper addresses the evolution of Safety Basis Documentation (SBD), as DSAs, from production through site closure.
Date: March 1, 2004
Creator: Brown, T.; Kohler, S.; Fisk, P.; Krach, F. & Klein, B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Structure, Stoichiometry and Stability in Magnetoplumbite and {beta}-Alumina Structured Type Ceramics. Final Report

Description: Work has been completed on the atomistic simulation of hexa-aluminate ceramics with the magnetoplumbite and beta-alumina type structures. In this report, three aspects of the work are highlighted. One is the simulation of surface structures. The second concerns details of the interstitially mechanisms observed in molecular dynamics simulations. The novel result here is the observation that the lattice ion always leaves its Beevers-Ross site before the aBR interstitial begins to move towards the lattice site. It is also found that, as expected, the interstitial mechanism is the most common mechanism in the heavily disordered nonstoichiometric structure, as well as in the stoichiometric material. Finally, the disposition of trivalent europium in the phosphor material BAM has been elucidated.
Date: March 1, 2004
Creator: Cormack, A. N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Non Invasive estimation of aluminum concentration in Hall-Heroult reduction cells

Description: The present best practice for the preparation of primary aluminum is by electrolysis of alumina in the traditional Hall-Heroult reduction cell. The process conditions in the electrolyte of this cell required for the reduction to proceed are sufficiently harsh to have precluded the implementation of in situ sensing of the electrolyte composition, specifically the concentration of the ionized alumina. This report reveals the theoretical basis for a non-invasive method for estimation of the ionized alumina concentration which does not require the use of any sensor in direct contact with the cell electrolyte. The proposed method can in principle be applied with equal efficacy to the so-called drained cathode cell designs and to cells having any anode composition, because only knowledge of the electrolyte conduction behavior is required a priori. For an operating cell, the proposed method requires only readily available electrical measurements and the facilities to process the acquired signals. The proposed method rests on the ability to identify certain characteristics of the transients in the reduction cell terminal voltages caused by the quasiperiodic introduction of alumina. It will be shown that these voltage transients manifest measurable properties, in a statistical sense, that should permit estimation of the ionized alumina concentration with a delay of one alumina feed cycle. The next logical step following the present work, consistent with the Aluminum Technology Roadmap [1], is to experimentally verify the predictions made here; no doubt practical refinements to the proposed approach will evolve during the course of experimentation. Successful verification of the proposed estimation method will permit the design of reduction cell control algorithms based directly on the mass balance of alumina in the electrolyte. This report assumes that the reader understands certain basic concepts important to the operation of electrolytic cells, and the Hall-Heroult cell in particular. References [2,3] provide ...
Date: March 1, 2004
Creator: Bell, David
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

COST-EFFECTIVE TARGET FABRICATION FOR INERTIAL FUSION ENERGY

Description: A central feature of an Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) power plant is a target that has been compressed and heated to fusion conditions by the energy input of the driver. The IFE target fabrication programs are focusing on methods that will scale to mass production, and working closely with target designers to make material selections that will satisfy a wide range of required and desirable characteristics. Targets produced for current inertial confinement fusion experiments are estimated to cost about $2500 each. Design studies of cost-effective power production from laser and heavy-ion driven IFE have found a cost requirement of about $0.25-0.30 each. While four orders of magnitude cost reduction may seem at first to be nearly impossible, there are many factors that suggest this is achievable. This paper summarizes the paradigm shifts in target fabrication methodologies that will be needed to economically supply targets and presents the results of ''nth-of-a-kind'' plant layouts and concepts for IFE power plant fueling. Our engineering studies estimate the cost of the target supply in a fusion economy, and show that costs are within the range of commercial feasibility for laser-driven and for heavy ion driven IFE.
Date: March 1, 2004
Creator: GOODIN,D.T; NOBILE,A; SCHROEN,D.G; MAXWELL,J.L & RICKMAN,W.S
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy Efficiency Project Development

Description: The International Utility Efficiency Partnerships, Inc. (IUEP) has been a leader among the industry groups that have supported voluntary initiatives to promote international energy efficiency projects and address global climate change. The IUEP maintains its leadership by both supporting international greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction projects under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and by partnering with U.S. and international organizations to develop and implement strategies and specific energy efficiency projects. The goals of the IUEP program are to (1) provide a way for U.S. industry to maintain a leadership role in international energy efficiency infrastructure projects; (2) identify international energy project development opportunities to continue its leadership in supporting voluntary market-based mechanisms to reduce GHG emissions; and (3) demonstrate private sector commitment to voluntary approaches to global climate issues. The IUEP is dedicated to identifying, promoting, managing, and assisting in the registration of international energy efficiency projects that result in demonstrated voluntary reductions of GHG emissions. This Final Technical Report summarizes the IUEP's work in identifying, promoting, managing, and assisting in development of these projects and IUEP's effort in creating international cooperative partnerships to support project development activities that develop and deploy technologies that (1) increase efficiency in the production, delivery and use of energy; (2) increase the use of cleaner, low-carbon fuels in processing products; and (3) capture/sequester carbon gases from energy systems. Through international cooperative efforts, the IUEP intends to strengthen partnerships for energy technology innovation and demonstration projects capable of providing cleaner energy in a cost-effective manner. As detailed in this report, the IUEP met program objectives and goals during the reporting period January 1, 2001 through December 31, 2002. At the request of the DOE, we have also included in this report additional activities during the reporting period January, 1999 through January, 2001. ...
Date: March 1, 2004
Creator: IUEP
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Summary of Rheology Data For SB3 and SB2/3 Blend Simulant Savannah River Site Wastes

Description: The purpose of this study was to document the rheological measurements made for Sludge Batch 3 (SB3) and the blend of SB3 with Sludge Batch 2 (SB2). These measurements were primarily made on Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) products, i.e. melter feeds. Some measurements were made on SB2/3 blend Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) products. Measurements on radioactive SB3 and SB2/3 samples have been limited to sludge characterization. SB2/3 measurements studied the impact of changing the SRAT acid addition strategy on the SRAT and SME product rheology. SB2/3 measurements also studied the impact of changing the waste loading target (sludge oxides content in glass) of the SME product. SB3 measurements studied the impact of changes in the wash end point and acid addition strategy on the SME product (melter feed) rheology. A summary of the significant findings is given below: SB3 radioactive sludge and blended SB2/3 radioactive sludge were less viscous than SB2 radioactive sludge. SB2/3 b lend sludge is more viscous than SB3 sludge. SB3 simulant SME product rheology was strongly impacted by changing the noble metal concentrations to more closely match those of the qualification sample. This reduction in noble metals produced a lower pH product that was also considerably less viscous. Increased acid addition in the SB2/3 SRAT generally led to less viscous simulant SRAT products. This trend did not persist in the SME products. SME products became more viscous when increased acid was used in the SRAT cycle from 135 per cent up to 170 per cent of stoichiometry, then became less viscous as total acid was increased further to 185 per cent. A significant increase in hydrogen generation occurred between 170 per cent and 185 per cent. The impact of acid addition on SB3 SME products was also variable. The impact of waste loading changes ...
Date: March 1, 2004
Creator: KOOPMAN, DAVIDC.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Health Physics Enrollments and Degrees Survey, 2003 Data

Description: The survey includes degrees granted between September 1, 2002 and August 31, 2003. Enrollment information refers to the fall term 2003. Thirty-four academic programs at 33 different institutions were included in the survey universe with all responding (100% response rate). Several of the programs did not have any degrees awarded during the time period. Two programs included in the 2002 survey were either discontinued or out-of-scope and not included in 2003 survey.
Date: March 1, 2004
Creator: Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

TCAP Aluminium Dissolution Flowsheet Basis

Description: The Actinide Technology Section has proposed the use of an nitric acid HNO3 and potassium fluoride KF flowsheet for stripping palladium Pd from palladium-coated kieselguhr Pd/K and removing aluminum (Al) metal foam from the TCAP coils. The basis for the HNO3-KF flowsheet is drawn from many sources. A brief review of the sources will be presented. The basic flowsheet involves three process steps, each with its own chemistry.
Date: March 1, 2004
Creator: PIERCE, ROBERTA.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nuclear Engineering Academic Programs Survey, 2003

Description: The survey includes degrees granted between September 1, 2002 and August 31, 2003. Thirty-three academic programs reported having nuclear engineering programs during the survey time period and all responded (100% response rate). Three of the programs included in last year's report were discontinued or out-of-scope in 2003. One new program has been added to the list. This year the survey data include U.S. citizenship, gender, and race/ethnicity by degree level.
Date: March 1, 2004
Creator: Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Influence of Methylmercury from Tributary Streams on Mercury Levels in Savannah River Asiatic Clams

Description: Average methylmercury levels in five Savannah River tributary streams sampled 11 times over two years were nearly twice as high as in the Savannah River. Total mercury levels in the tributaries did not differ significantly from the river. All of the tributaries drained extensive wetlands that would be expected to support comparatively high rates of methylation. Mercury concentrations in Asiatic clams (Corbicula fluminea) collected from the discharge plumes of Savannah River tributaries were significantly higher than in Asiatic clams collected from the Savannah River upstream from the tributary mouths . These results indicate that streams draining wetlands into coastal plain rivers can create localized areas of elevated methylmercury with resulting increases in the mercury levels of river biota.
Date: March 1, 2004
Creator: Paller, M.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Kinetic analysis of 18F-fluorodihydrorotenone as a deposited myocardial flow tracer: Comparison to thallium-201.

Description: The goal of this investigation was to assess the accuracy of 18F-fluorodihydrorotenone (18F-FDHR) as a new deposited myocardial flow tracer and compare the results to those for 201Tl. Methods. The kinetics of these flow tracers were evaluated in 22 isolated, erythrocyte- and albumin-perfused rabbit hearts over a flow range encountered in patients. The two flow tracers plus a vascular reference tracer (131I-albumin) were introduced as a bolus through a port just above the aortic cannula. Myocardial extraction, retention, washout, and uptake parameters were computed from the venous outflow curves using the multiple indicator dilution technique and spectral analysis. Results. The mean initial extraction fractions of 18F-FDHR (0.85 +- 0.07) and 201Tl (0.87 +- 0.05) were not significantly different, although the initial extraction fraction for 18F-FDHR declined with flow (P < 0.0001), whereas the initial extraction fraction of 201Tl did not. Washout of 201Tl was faster (P < 0.001) and more affected by flow (P < 0.05) than 18F-FDHR washout. Except for initial extraction fraction, 18F-FDHR retention was greater (P < 0.001) and less affected by flow (P < 0.05) than 201Tl retention. Reflecting its superior retention, net uptake of 18F-FDHR was better correlated with flow than 201Tl uptake at both one and fifteen minutes after tracer introduction (P < 0.0001 for both comparisons). Conclusion. The superior correlation of 18F-FDHR uptake with flow indicates that it is a better flow tracer than 201Tl in the isolated rabbit heart. Compared to the other currently available positron-emitting flow tracers (82Rb, 13N-ammonia, and 15O-water), 18F-FDHR has the potential of providing excellent image resolution without the need for an on-site cyclotron.
Date: March 1, 2004
Creator: Marshall, Robert C.; Powers-Risius, Patricia; Reutter, Bryan W.; O'Neil, James P.; La Belle, Michael; Huesman, Ronald H. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of Hanford Tank 241-AZ-102 Glass

Description: A proof-of-technology demonstration for the River Protection Project (RPP) Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) was performed by SRS. As part of this demonstration, samples from a low-activity AZ-102 glass waste form were characterized. The sample handling, preparation, and analyses were performed according to standard United States of America Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) protocol to facilitate use of these results for regulatory applications.
Date: March 1, 2004
Creator: Ferrara, D
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electrochemical and structural characterization of titanium-substituted manganese oxides based on Na0.44MnO2

Description: A series of titanium-substituted manganese oxides, Li{sub x}Ti{sub y}Mn{sub 1-y}O{sub 2} (y = 0.11, 0.22, 0.33, 0.44, and 0.55) with the Na{sub 0.44}MnO{sub 2} structure were prepared from Na{sub x}Ti{sub y}Mn{sub 1-y}O{sub 2} (x {approx} 0.44) precursors. The electrochemical characteristics of these compounds, which retain the unique double-tunnel structure during ion exchange, were examined in lithium/polymer electrolyte cells operating at 85 C. All of the substituted cathode materials intercalated lithium reversibly, with Li{sub x}Ti{sub 0.22}Mn{sub 0.78}O{sub 2} exhibiting the highest capacity in polymer cells, about 10-20% greater than that of unsubstituted Li{sub x}MnO{sub 2} made from Na{sub 0.44}MnO{sub 2}. In common with Li{sub x}MnO{sub 2}, the Ti-substituted materials exhibited good capacity retention over one hundred or more cycles, with some compositions exhibiting a fade rate of less than 0.03% per cycle.
Date: March 1, 2004
Creator: Doeff, Marca M.; Richardson, Thomas J. & Hwang, Kwang-Taek
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Materials Reliability Program Resistance to Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking of Alloys 690, 52, and 152 in Pressurized Water Reactors (MRP-111)

Description: Over the last thirty years, stress corrosion cracking in PWR primary water (PWSCC) has been observed in numerous Alloy 600 component items and associated welds, sometimes after relatively long incubation times. Repairs and replacements have generally utilized wrought Alloy 690 material and its compatible weld metals (Alloy 152 and Alloy 52), which have been shown to be very highly resistant to PWSCC in laboratory experiments and have been free from cracking in operating reactors over periods already up to nearly 15 years. It is nevertheless prudent for the PWR industry to attempt to quantify the longevity of these materials with respect to aging degradation by corrosion in order to provide a sound technical basis for the development of future inspection requirements for repaired or replaced component items. This document first reviews numerous laboratory tests, conducted over the last two decades, that were performed with wrought Alloy 690 and Alloy 52 or Alloy 152 weld materials under various test conditions pertinent to corrosion resistance in PWR environments. The main focus of the present review is on PWSCC, but secondary-side conditions are also briefly considered.
Date: March 1, 2004
Creator: H.Xu, S.Fyfitch, P.Scott, M.Foucault, R.Kilian, and M.Winters
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Use of bark-derived pyrolysis oils ass a phenol substitute in structural panel adhesives

Description: The main objective of this program was to pilot the world's first commercial-scale production of an acceptable phenol formaldehyde (PF) resin containing natural resin (NR) ingredients, for use as an adhesive in Oriented-Strand Board (OSB) and plywood panel products. Natural Resin products, specifically MNRP are not lignin ''fillers''. They are chemically active, natural phenolics that effectively displace significant amounts of phenol in PF resins, and which are extracted from bark-derived and wood-derived bio-oils. Other objectives included the enhancement of the economics of NR (MNRP) production by optimizing the production of certain Rapid Thermal Processing (RTP{trademark}) byproducts, particularly char and activated carbon. The options were to activate the char for use in waste-water and/or stack gas purification. The preliminary results indicate that RTP{trademark} carbon may ultimately serve as a feedstock for activated carbon synthesis, as a fuel to be used within the wood product mill, or a fuel for an electrical power generating facility. Incorporation of the char as an industrial heat source for use in mill operations was L-P's initial intention for the carbon, and was also of interest to Weyerhaeuser as they stepped into in the project.
Date: March 1, 2004
Creator: Corp, Louisiana Pacific
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Particle deposition in ventilation ducts: Connectors, bends anddeveloping flow

Description: In ventilation duct flow the turbulent flow profile is commonly disturbed or not fully developed and these conditions are likely to influence particle deposition to duct surfaces. Particle deposition rates at eight S-connectors, in two 90{sup o} duct bends and in two ducts where the turbulent flow profile was not fully developed were measured in a laboratory duct system with both galvanized steel and internally insulated ducts with hydraulic diameters of 15.2 cm. In the steel duct system, experiments with nominal particle diameters of 1, 3, 5, 9 and 16 {micro}m were conducted at each of three nominal air speeds: 2.2, 5.3 and 9.0 m/s. In the insulated duct system, deposition of particles with nominal diameters of 1, 3, 5, 8 and 13 {micro}m was measured at nominal air speeds of 2.2, 5.3 and 8.8 m/s. Fluorescent techniques were used to directly measure the deposition velocities of monodisperse fluorescent particles to duct surfaces. Deposition at S-connectors, in bends and in straight ducts with developing turbulence was often greater than deposition in straight ducts with fully developed turbulence for equal particle sizes, air speeds and duct surface orientations. Deposition rates at all locations were found to increase with an increase in particle size or air speed. High deposition rates at S-connectors resulted from impaction and these rates were nearly independent of the orientation of the S-connector. Deposition rates in the two 90{sup o} bends differed by more than an order of magnitude in some cases, probably because of the difference in turbulence conditions at the bend inlets. In straight steel ducts where the turbulent flow profile was developing, the deposition enhancement relative to fully developed turbulence generally increased with air speed and decreased with downstream distance from the duct inlet. This enhancement was greater at the duct ceiling and wall than ...
Date: March 1, 2004
Creator: Sippola, Mark R. & Nazaroff, William W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaporation of Pretreated Hanford Tank AW-101 Sample Mixed with Recycle

Description: This task was undertaken to provide validation data for the Treated Feed Evaporator flowsheet and operating conditions using Hanford Tank 241-AW-101 pretreated waste blended with simulated River Protection Project Waste Treatment Plant(RPP-WTP) waste recycles. This task provided the first opportunity to compare performance of blended actual treated waste to the performance of blended treated waste simulants and recycle simulants. Specific objectives were: (1) determining the effect of plant recycles; (2) developing solubility data, as well as chemical and physical property data; and (3) evaluating antifoam effectiveness. The treated AW-101 sample was produced from the composite effluent of Ion Exchange testing carried out at Savannah River Technical Center. The design basis operating conditions were validated. Blended solutions of pretreated Hanford Tank 241-AW-101 and simulated SBS A2 recycle boiled at expected RPP-WTP flowsheet conditions: 60 mm Hg and 50 degrees Celsius. As expected, boiling point increased with concentration. Specifically, the 35:65 blend of AW-101 to SBS A2 at 7.5 M sodium had boiling points of 53 degrees Celsius at 60 mm Hg and 59 degrees Celsius at 80 mm Hg. These were 6 to 7 degrees Celsius higher than those estimated by an OLI model. Precipitation of solids in the AW-101/SBS A2 matrix began between 8.7 M and 10.4 Msodium. No problematic or excessive solids were observed. Therefore, SBS recycles are not expected to have any adverse effect on the evaporation process in the RPP-WTP.
Date: March 1, 2004
Creator: Crowder, M.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Filtration of A Hanford AN-104 Sample

Description: The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) conducted ultrafiltration tests with samples from the Hanford Site's AN-104 tank. The test objectives were to measure filter flux during dewatering and the removal of soluble species during washing. The filtration tests were conducted with the Cells Unit Filter (CUF) currently installed in Cell 16 of the SRTC High Activity Caves. Following filtration, personnel performed inhibited water washing to remove soluble species. Because of the limited volume of concentrated slurry, the washing was performed with a volumetric flask rather than a crossflow filter.Following the washing, personnel chemically cleaned the filter with 1 M nitric acid and periodically measured the clean water flux.
Date: March 1, 2004
Creator: Poirier, MichaelR
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DOE Final Technical Report for Grant Number DE-FG03-90ER14148

Description: OAK-B135 Thermal convection was studied in a horizontal layer of a binary fluid mixture of ethanol and water confined in a variety of cell geometries. In these mixtures, convection takes the form of traveling waves, thus providing a model for studying traveling-wave (TW) phenomena in non-equilibrium systems. A number of questions were addressed, including the evolution of initially chaotic states, the role of TW domains textures and convection-cell geometry in determining patterns, and the competition of TW and hexagonal patterns when non-Boussinesq effects are important.
Date: March 1, 2004
Creator: Surko, Clifford M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Modeling to Support Groundwater Contaminant Boundaries for the Shoal Underground Nuclear Test

Description: Groundwater flow and radionuclide transport at the Shoal underground nuclear test are characterized using three-dimensional numerical models, based on site-specific hydrologic data. The objective of this modeling is to provide the flow and transport models needed to develop a contaminant boundary defining the extent of radionuclide-contaminated groundwater at the site throughout 1,000 years at a prescribed level of confidence. This boundary will then be used to manage the Project Shoal Area for the protection of the public and the environment.
Date: March 1, 2004
Creator: Pohlmann, K.; Pohll, G.; Chapman, J.; Hassan, A.; Carroll, R. & Shirley, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Coevolution of gene expression among interacting proteins

Description: Physically interacting proteins or parts of proteins are expected to evolve in a coordinated manner that preserves proper interactions. Such coevolution at the amino acid-sequence level is well documented and has been used to predict interacting proteins, domains, and amino acids. Interacting proteins are also often precisely coexpressed with one another, presumably to maintain proper stoichiometry among interacting components. Here, we show that the expression levels of physically interacting proteins coevolve. We estimate average expression levels of genes from four closely related fungi of the genus Saccharomyces using the codon adaptation index and show that expression levels of interacting proteins exhibit coordinated changes in these different species. We find that this coevolution of expression is a more powerful predictor of physical interaction than is coevolution of amino acid sequence. These results demonstrate previously uncharacterized coevolution of gene expression, adding a different dimension to the study of the coevolution of interacting proteins and underscoring the importance of maintaining coexpression of interacting proteins over evolutionary time. Our results also suggest that expression coevolution can be used for computational prediction of protein protein interactions.
Date: March 1, 2004
Creator: Fraser, Hunter B.; Hirsh, Aaron E.; Wall, Dennis P. & Eisen,Michael B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department