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1?10 kW Stationary Combined Heat and Power Systems Status and Technical Potential: Independent Review

Description: This independent review examines the status and technical potential of 1-10 kW stationary combined heat and power fuel cell systems and analyzes the achievability of the DOE cost, efficiency, and durability targets for 2012, 2015, and 2020.
Date: November 1, 2010
Creator: Maru, H. C.; Singhal, S. C.; Stone, C. & Wheeler, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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1-Dimensional simulation of thermal annealing in a commercial nuclear power plant reactor pressure vessel wall section

Description: The objective of this work was to provide experimental heat transfer boundary condition and reactor pressure vessel (RPV) section thermal response data that can be used to benchmark computer codes that simulate thermal annealing of RPVS. This specific protect was designed to provide the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) with experimental data that could be used to support the development of a thermal annealing model. A secondary benefit is to provide additional experimental data (e.g., thermal response of concrete reactor cavity wall) that could be of use in an annealing demonstration project. The setup comprised a heater assembly, a 1.2 in {times} 1.2 m {times} 17.1 cm thick [4 ft {times} 4 ft {times} 6.75 in] section of an RPV (A533B ferritic steel with stainless steel cladding), a mockup of the {open_quotes}mirror{close_quotes} insulation between the RPV and the concrete reactor cavity wall, and a 25.4 cm [10 in] thick concrete wall, 2.1 in {times} 2.1 in [10 ft {times} 10 ft] square. Experiments were performed at temperature heat-up/cooldown rates of 7, 14, and 28{degrees}C/hr [12.5, 25, and 50{degrees}F/hr] as measured on the heated face. A peak temperature of 454{degrees}C [850{degrees}F] was maintained on the heated face until the concrete wall temperature reached equilibrium. Results are most representative of those RPV locations where the heat transfer would be 1-dimensional. Temperature was measured at multiple locations on the heated and unheated faces of the RPV section and the concrete wall. Incident heat flux was measured on the heated face, and absorbed heat flux estimates were generated from temperature measurements and an inverse heat conduction code. Through-wall temperature differences, concrete wall temperature response, heat flux absorbed into the RPV surface and incident on the surface are presented. All of these data are useful to modelers developing codes to simulate RPV annealing.
Date: November 1, 1994
Creator: Nakos, J. T.; Rosinski, S. T. & Acton, R. U.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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1: Redox chemistry of bimetallic fulvalene complexes; 2: Oligocyclopentadienyl complexes

Description: The electrochemistry of the heterobimetallic complexes (fulvalene)WFe(CO){sub 5} (30) and (fulvalene)WRu(CO){sub 5} (31) has been investigated. Compound 30 is reduced in two one-electron processes, and this behavior was exploited synthetically to prepare a tetranuclear dimer by selective metal reduction. Complex 31 displayed a distinction between the metals upon reoxidation of the dianion, allowing the formation of a dimer by selective metal anion oxidation. The redox behavior of 30 led to an investigation of the use of electrocatalysis to effect metal-specific ligand substitution. It was found that reduction of 30 with a catalytic amount of CpFe(C{sub 6}Me{sub 6}) (97) in the presence of excess P(OMe){sub 3} or PMe{sub 3} led to the formation of the zwitterions (fulvalene)[W(CO){sub 3}{sup {minus}}][Fe(CO)PR{sub 3}{sup +}] (107, R = P(OMe){sub 3}; 108, R = PMe{sub 3}). Compound 31 also displayed unique behavior with different reducing agents, as the monosubstituted zwitterion (fulvalene)[W(CO){sub 3}{sup {minus}}][Ru(CO){sub 2}(PMe{sub 3}){sup +}] was obtained when 97 was used while the disubstituted complex (fulvalene) [W(CO){sub 3}{sup {minus}}] [Ru(CO)(PMe{sub 3}){sub 2}{sup +}] was produced when Cp*Fe(C{sub 6}Me{sub 6}) was the catalyst. Potential synthetic routes to quatercyclopentadienyl complexes were also explored. Various attempts to couple heterobimetallic fulvalene compounds proved to be unsuccessful. 138 refs.
Date: November 1, 1993
Creator: Brown, D. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

2-D linear motion system. Innovative technology summary report

Description: The US Department of Energy's (DOE's) nuclear facility decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) program requires buildings to be decontaminated, decommissioned, and surveyed for radiological contamination in an expeditious and cost-effective manner. Simultaneously, the health and safety of personnel involved in the D and D activities is of primary concern. D and D workers must perform duties high off the ground, requiring the use of manlifts or scaffolding, often, in radiologically or chemically contaminated areas or in areas with limited access. Survey and decontamination instruments that are used are sometimes heavy or awkward to use, particularly when the worker is operating from a manlift or scaffolding. Finding alternative methods of performing such work on manlifts or scaffolding is important. The 2-D Linear Motion System (2-D LMS), also known as the Wall Walker{trademark}, is designed to remotely position tools and instruments on walls for use in such activities as radiation surveys, decontamination, and painting. Traditional (baseline) methods for operating equipment for these tasks require workers to perform duties on elevated platforms, sometimes several meters above the ground surface and near potential sources of contamination. The Wall Walker 2-D LMS significantly improves health and safety conditions by facilitating remote operation of equipment. The Wall Walker 2-D LMS performed well in a demonstration of its precision, accuracy, maneuverability, payload capacity, and ease of use. Thus, this innovative technology is demonstrated to be a viable alternative to standard methods of performing work on large, high walls, especially those that have potential contamination concerns. The Wall Walker was used to perform a final release radiological survey on over 167 m{sup 2} of walls. In this application, surveying using a traditional (baseline) method that employs an aerial lift for manual access was 64% of the total cost of the improved technology. However, for areas over approximately …
Date: November 1, 1998
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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2 meg-ampere prototype levitated coil for multipole fusion

Description: The coils major diameter is 1.0 meter and it occupies a cross-section which is about 0.2 meter minor in diameter. The prototype coil will carry four times the current of the largest such magnet built to date. As a result, the peak induction in the coil is about 8 T and the stored magnetic energy will be around 3 MJ. The paper describes the proposed Nb/sub 3/SN superconductor, the quench protection system which is based on the LBL shorted secondary concept, the isochroic refrigeration storage system which stores about 5 kJ of refrigeration between 4.5/sup 0/K and 7/sup 0/K, and the persistent switch.
Date: November 1, 1979
Creator: Green, M. A. & Glueck, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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3-D UNSTRUCTURED HEXAHEDRAL-MESH Sn TRANSPORT METHODS

Description: This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). We have developed a method for solving the neutral-particle transport equation on 3-D unstructured hexahedral meshes using a S{sub n} discretization in angle in conjunction with a discontinuous finite-element discretization in space and a multigroup discretization in energy. Previous methods for solving this equation in 3-D have been limited to rectangular meshes. The unstructured-mesh method that we have developed is far more efficient for solving problems with complex 3-D geometric features than rectangular-mesh methods. In spite of having to make several compromises in our spatial discretization technique and our iterative solution technique, our method has been found to be both accurate and efficient for a broad class of problems.
Date: November 1, 2000
Creator: Morel, J. & McGhee, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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3 Dimensional radiation transport in dispersive media

Description: In plasmas the collective motion of free electrons affects the propagation of radiation by bending the light ray trajectory. The closer the light wave frequency is to the electron plasma frequency in value, the more pronounced the effect. We will present the results of radiation transport calculations in 3 spatial dimensions in the refractive plasma environment and compare the calculation to one done where the ray bending has been neglected (straight line ray paths). We also present the numerical method used for the refractive transport. 4 refs., 5 figs.
Date: November 1, 1990
Creator: Mayle, R.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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3 mm Anisotropy Measurement: On the Quadrupole Component in theCosmic Background Radiation

Description: We have mapped the large-scale anisotropy in the cosmic background radiation at 3 mm wavelength using a liquid-helium-cooled balloon-borne radiometer sensitive enough to detect the dipole in one gondola rotation (1 minute). Statistical errors on the dipole and quadrupole components are below 0.1 mK with less than 0.1 m K galactic contribution. We find a dipole consistent with previous measurements but disagree with recent quadrupole reports. The measurement is also useful in searching for spectral distortions.
Date: November 1, 1982
Creator: Lubin, Philip M.; Epstein, Gerald L. & Smoot, George F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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5 MeV Mott polarimeter for rapid precise electron beam polarization measurements

Description: Low energy (E{sub k} = 100 keV) Mott scattering polarimeters are ill-suited to support operations foreseen for the polarized electron injector at Jefferson Lab. One solution is to measure the polarization at 5 MeV where multiple and plural scattering are unimportant and precision beam monitoring is straightforward. The higher injector beam current offsets the lower cross-sections; measured rates scale to 1 kHz/{mu}A with a 1 {mu}m thick gold target foil.
Date: November 1, 1997
Creator: Price, J. S.; Poelker, B. M. & Sinclair, C. K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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The 8 O'Clock Arc: A Serendipitous Discovery of a Strongly Lensed Lyman Break Galaxy in the SDSS DR4 Imaging Data

Description: We report on the serendipitous discovery of the brightest Lyman Break Galaxy (LBG) currently known, a galaxy at z = 2.73 that is being strongly lensed by the z = 0.38 Luminous Red Galaxy (LRG) SDSS J002240.91+143110.4. The arc of this gravitational lens system, which we have dubbed the ''8 o'clock arc'' due to its time of discovery, was initially identified in the imaging data of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 4 (SDSS DR4); followup observations on the Astrophysical Research Consortium (ARC) 3.5m telescope at Apache Point Observatory confirmed the lensing nature of this system and led to the identification of the arc's spectrum as that of an LBG. The arc has a spectrum and a redshift remarkably similar to those of the previous record-holder for brightest LBG (MS 1512-cB58, a.k.a ''cB58''), but, with an estimated total magnitude of (g,r,i) = (20.0,19.2,19.0) and surface brightness of ({mu}{sub g}, {mu}{sub r}, {mu}{sub i}) = (23.3, 22.5, 22.3) mag arcsec{sup -2}, the 8 o'clock arc is thrice as bright. The 8 o'clock arc, which consists of three lensed images of the LBG, is 162{sup o}(9.6'') long and has a length-to-width ratio of 6:1. A fourth image of the LBG--a counter-image--can also be identified in the ARC 3.5m g-band images. A simple lens model for the system assuming a singular isothermal ellipsoid potential yields an Einstein radius of {theta}{sub Ein} = 2.91'' {+-} 0.14'', a total mass for the lensing LRG (within the 10.6 {+-} 0.5 h{sup -1} kpc enclosed by the lensed images) of 1.04 x 10{sup 12} h{sup -1} M{sub {circle_dot}}, and a magnification factor for the LBG of 12.3{sub -3.6}{sup +15}. The LBG itself is intrinsically quite luminous ({approx} 6 x L{sub *}) and shows indications of massive recent star formation, perhaps as high as 160 h{sup -1} …
Date: November 1, 2006
Creator: Allam, Sahar S.; Tucker, Douglas L.; Lin, Huan; Diehl, H. Thomas; Annis, James; Buckley-Geer, Elizabeth J. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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A 12-MW-scale pilot study of in-duct scrubbing (IDS) using a rotary atomizer

Description: A low-cost, moderate-removal efficiency, flue gas desulfurization (FGD) technology was selected by the US Department of Energy for pilot demonstration in its Acid Rain Precursor Control Technology Initiative. The process, identified as In-Duct Scrubbing (IDS), applies rotary atomizer techniques developed for lime-based spray dryer FGD while utilizing existing flue gas ductwork and particulate collectors. IDS technology is anticipated to result in a dry desulfurization process with a moderate removal efficiency (50% or greater) for high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. The critical elements for successful application are: (1) adequate mixing of sorbent droplets with flue gas for efficient reaction contact, (2) sufficient residence time to produce a non-wetting product, and (3) appropriate ductwork cross-sectional area to prevent deposition of wet reaction products before particle drying is comple. The ductwork in many older plants, previously modified to meet 1970 Clean Air Act requirements for particulate control, usually meet these criteria. A 12 MW-scale IDS pilot plant was constructed at the Muskingum River Plant of the American Electric Power System. The pilot plant, which operates from a slipstrem attached to the air-preheater outlet duct from the Unit 5 boiler at the Muskingum River Plant (which burns about 4% sulfur coal), is equipped with three atomizer stations to test the IDS concept in vertical and horizontal configurations. In addition, the pilot plant is equipped to test the effect of injecting IDS off- product upstream of the atomizer, on SO{sub 2}and NO{sub x} removals.
Date: November 1, 1989
Creator: Samuel, E. A.; Murphy, K. R. & Demian, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

A 12-MW-scale pilot study of in-duct scrubbing (IDS) using a rotary atomizer

Description: A low-cost, moderate-removal efficiency, flue gas desulfurization (FGD) technology was selected by the US Department of Energy for pilot demonstration in its Acid Rain Precursor Control Technology Initiative. The process, identified as In-Duct Scrubbing (IDS), applies rotary atomizer techniques developed for lime-based spray dryer FGD while utilizing existing flue gas ductwork and particulate collectors. IDS technology is anticipated to result in a dry desulfurization process with a moderate removal efficiency (50% or greater) for high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. The critical elements for successful application are: (1) adequate mixing of sorbent droplets with flue gas for efficient reaction contact, (2) sufficient residence time to produce a non-wetting product, and (3) appropriate ductwork cross-sectional area to prevent deposition of wet reaction products before particle drying is comple. The ductwork in many older plants, previously modified to meet 1970 Clean Air Act requirements for particulate control, usually meet these criteria. A 12 MW-scale IDS pilot plant was constructed at the Muskingum River Plant of the American Electric Power System. The pilot plant, which operates from a slipstrem attached to the air-preheater outlet duct from the Unit 5 boiler at the Muskingum River Plant (which burns about 4% sulfur coal), is equipped with three atomizer stations to test the IDS concept in vertical and horizontal configurations. In addition, the pilot plant is equipped to test the effect of injecting IDS off- product upstream of the atomizer, on SO{sub 2}and NO{sub x} removals.
Date: November 1, 1989
Creator: Samuel, E. A.; Murphy, K. R. & Demian, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

The 16 August 1997 Novaya Zemlya seismic event as viewed from GSN stations KEV and KBS

Description: Using current and historic seismic records from Global Seismic Network stations KEV and KBS, the authors find that S minus P arrival time comparisons between nuclear explosions and the 16 August 1997 seismic event (m{sub b} {approx} 3.6) from near Novaya Zemlya clearly indicate that (relative to KEV) the 16 August event occurred at least 80 km east of the Russian test site. Including S minus P arrival times from KBS constrains the location to beneath the Kara Sea and in good agreement with previously reported locations, over 100 km southeast of the test site. From an analysis of P{sub n}/S{sub n} waveform ratios at frequencies above 4 Hz, they find that the 16 August event falls within the population of regional earthquakes and is distinctly separated from Novaya Zemlya and other northern Eurasian nuclear explosion populations. Thus, given its location and waveform characteristics, they conclude the 16 August event was an earthquake. The 16 August event was not detected at teleseismic distances, and thus, this event provides a good example of the regional detection, location, and identification efforts that will be required to monitor the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty below m{sub b} {approx} 4.
Date: November 1, 1997
Creator: Hartse, H.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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17.5% p-Type Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells with HWCVD a-Si:H as the Emitter and Back Contact

Description: Thin hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) layers deposited by hot-wire chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD) are used as both emitters and back contacts in silicon heterojunction solar cells. Low interface recombination velocity and high open-circuit voltage are achieved by a low substrate temperature (<150 deg C) intrinsic a-Si:H deposition which ensures immediate amorphous silicon deposition. This is followed by deposition of doped a-Si:H at a higher temperature (>200 deg C) which appears to improve dopant activation. With an i/n a-Si:H emitter, we obtain a confirmed efficiency of 17.1% on textured p-type float-zone (FZ) silicon with a screen-printed aluminum back-surface-field (Al-BSF) contact. Employing a-Si:H as both the front emitter and the back contact, we achieve a confirmed efficiency of 17.5%, the highest reported efficiency for a p-type c-Si based heterojunction solar cell.
Date: November 1, 2005
Creator: Wang, T. H.; Page, M. R.; Iwaniczko, E.; Wang, Q.; Xu,Y.; Yan, Y. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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24-MW neutral-beam injector of 400-keV H/sup 0/

Description: The negative and positive ion systems have both common goals and common problems. In fact, we have identified five items that must be developed before any large, neutral-beam injector, operating continuously or almost so, can be engineered. The five items are: (1) a continuous or almost continuous ion source, with 1A designating a source of positive ions and 1B a direct extraction source of negatives, (2) a recirculating metal-vapor cell, (3) a computer code with which to calculate beam trajectories in three dimensions, (4) a resistive coating to bleed stray charges from the surface of high-voltage vacuum insulators, and (5) an arc suppression technique for large systems. These items are discussed and it is shown how their development is prerequisite to the design of a 24-MW, 400-keV neutral hydrogen injector such as might be required for a fusion power reactor.
Date: November 1, 1979
Creator: Fink, J.H.; Hamilton, G.W. & Erickson, J.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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30-60 MHz FWCD system on DIII-D: Power division, phase control and tuning for a four-element antenna array

Description: The 2 MW Fast Wave Current Drive system on DIII-D is intended to provide a near-term demonstration of up to 0.3 MA of current driven by the fast wave. The system used to drive the four element phased antenna array which produces the required directional spectrum is presented. This system must be able to cope with strong coupling between antenna elements and the time-varying plasma load seen by the antennas. Computer modelling shows that this system should be able to maintain a directional spectrum at full power under most anticipated load conditions. 5 refs., 1 fig.
Date: November 1, 1991
Creator: Pinsker, R. I.; Mayberry, M. J.; Petty, C. C.; Cary, W. P.; Pusl, J.; Remsen, D. (General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)) et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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30-60 MHz FWCD system on DIII-D: Power division, phase control and tuning for a four-element antenna array

Description: The 2 MW Fast Wave Current Drive system on DIII-D is intended to provide a near-term demonstration of up to 0.3 MA of current driven by the fast wave. The system used to drive the four element phased antenna array which produces the required directional spectrum is presented. This system must be able to cope with strong coupling between antenna elements and the time-varying plasma load seen by the antennas. Computer modelling shows that this system should be able to maintain a directional spectrum at full power under most anticipated load conditions. 5 refs., 1 fig.
Date: November 1, 1991
Creator: Pinsker, R. I.; Mayberry, M. J.; Petty, C. C.; Cary, W. P.; Pusl, J.; Remsen, D. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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100/300 Area Aquifer Tube Task: Annual Sampling for Fiscal Year 2006, Hanford Site, Washington

Description: This letter report has been prepared to provide the U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington State Department of Ecology, and Hanford Site contractors with logistical information pertaining to the use of certain environmental monitoring sites. Although the distribution is not limited, It is not intended for general distribution beyond that audience.
Date: November 1, 2005
Creator: Peterson, Robert E.; Hartman, Mary J.; Raidl, Robert F. & Borghese, Jane V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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A 100 MVA generator utilizing high temperature superconducting windings -- design assessment & component development. Final report

Description: The operation of a high temperature superconducting generator rotor using closed-cycle refrigeration to indirectly cool the field windings was considered to be the best choice for an HTS application. The SPI program proposed to achieve the following goals: In Task 1 a 100 MVA generator with a HTS rotor field winding would be designed. An energy and economic benefits analysis was to be a key part of the program. In addition, the generator/grid interactions were to be modeled. Concurrently, Task 2 was to include further development of Bi-2223 silver-clad tape as well as an alternate Tl-1223 conductor, manufacture of 3,000 meters of tape, and development and fabrication of a prototype field coil. Details of progress have been reported in the quarterly status reports and summarized in the final reports on the tasks. Therefore this report will give a review of the original goals of each task and summary of results for each.
Date: November 1, 1996
Creator: Lay, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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110 GHz ECH on DIII-D: System overview and initial operation

Description: A new high power electron cyclotron heating (ECH) system has been introduced on D3-D. This system is designed to operate at 110 GHz with a total output power of 2 MW. The system consists of four Varian VGT-8011 gyrotrons, (output power of 500 kW), and their associated support equipment. All components have been designed for up to a 10 second pulse duration. The 110 GHz system is intended to further progress in rf current drive experiments on D3-D when used in conjunction with the existing 60 GHz ECH (1.6 MW), and the 30--60 MHz ICH (2 MW) systems. H-mode physics, plasma stabilization experiments and transport studies are also to be conducted at 110 GHz. The present system design philosophy was based on experience gained from the existing 60 GHz ECH system. The consequences of these design decisions will be addressed as will the actual performance of various 110 GHz components.
Date: November 1, 1991
Creator: Cary, W. P.; Allen, J. C.; Callis, R. W.; Doane, J. L.; Harris, T. E.; Moeller, C. P. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

110 GHz ECH on DIII-D: System overview and initial operation

Description: A new high power electron cyclotron heating (ECH) system has been introduced on D3-D. This system is designed to operate at 110 GHz with a total output power of 2 MW. The system consists of four Varian VGT-8011 gyrotrons, (output power of 500 kW), and their associated support equipment. All components have been designed for up to a 10 second pulse duration. The 110 GHz system is intended to further progress in rf current drive experiments on D3-D when used in conjunction with the existing 60 GHz ECH (1.6 MW), and the 30--60 MHz ICH (2 MW) systems. H-mode physics, plasma stabilization experiments and transport studies are also to be conducted at 110 GHz. The present system design philosophy was based on experience gained from the existing 60 GHz ECH system. The consequences of these design decisions will be addressed as will the actual performance of various 110 GHz components.
Date: November 1, 1991
Creator: Cary, W. P.; Allen, J. C.; Callis, R. W.; Doane, J. L.; Harris, T. E.; Moeller, C. P. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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