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Societal Impacts Program (SIP)

Description: This is the website for the Societal Impacts Program (SIP), located within the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). The SIP's overarching goal is to help society benefit from current and emerging forecasting capabilities by integrating social science into weather research and applications through cutting-edge research and capacity building. The website includes information about the SIP's research projects and publications.
Date: 2013
Creator: National Center for Atmospheric Research (U.S.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Digital Projects Unit

Zeolite membranes for gas separations

Description: Silicalite-1, a pure silica zeolite, was deposited on a tubular, asymmetric, {gamma}-alumina support. Single gas permeation experiments with N{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and CO{sub 2} were carried out on the membrane. Separation experiments for N{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} mixtures were also conducted. Single-gas permeation of H{sub 2} and separation of H{sub 2}/SF{sub 6} mixture were also carried out with the membrane. Composite membranes of silicalite and Ni-SAPO-34 were also fabricated, but no CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2} selectivity was found. It is proposed to use these membranes for methanol synthesis and separation, and for separating H{sub 2} from gasification products for use as fuel cell fuel, etc.
Date: June 1, 1995
Creator: Falconer, J. & Noble, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Direct methane conversion to methanol. Annual report, October 1993--September 1994

Description: We proposed to demonstrate the effectiveness of a catalytic membrane reactor (a ceramic membrane combined with a catalyst) to selectively produce methanol by partial oxidation of methane. Methanol is used as a chemical feedstock, gasoline additive, and turbine fuel. Methane partial oxidation using a catalytic membrane reactor has been determined as one of the promising approaches for methanol synthesis from methane. In the original proposal, the membrane was used to selectively remove methanol from the reaction zone before carbon oxides form, thus increasing the methanol yield. Methanol synthesis and separation in one step would also make methane more valuable for producing chemicals and fuels. However, all the membranes tested in this laboratory lost their selectivity under the reaction conditions. A modified non-isothermal, non-permselective membrane reactor then was built and satisfactory results were obtained. The conversion and selectivity data obtained in this laboratory were better than that of the most published studies.
Date: January 1, 1995
Creator: Noble, R.D. & Falconer, J.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Direct methane conversion to methanol. Quarterly project status report, January 1, 1994--March 31, 1994

Description: We proposed to demonstrate the effectiveness of a catalytic membrane reactor (a ceramic membrane combined with a catalyst) to solely produce methanol by partial oxidation of methane. Methanol is used as a chemical feedstock, gasoline additive, and turbine fuel. Methane partial oxidation using a catalytic membrane reactor has been determined as one of the promising approaches for methanol synthesis from methane. In the original proposal the membrane was used to selectively remove methanol from the reaction zone before carbon oxides form, thus increasing the methanol yield. Methanol synthesis and separation in one step would also make methane more valuable for producing chemicals and fuels. The cooling tube inserted inside the membrane reactor has created a low temperature zone that rapidly quenches the product stream. Both ceramic and metal membranes were tested in this study and similar results were obtained. This membrane reactor system has proved effective for increasing methanol selectivity during CH{sub 4} oxidation. We are currently using this non-isothermal non-permselective membrane reactor, and evaluating modifications to further improve performance. Metal membrane was used to avoid the membrane breakage problem. A series of experiments were carried out in order to optimize the operation of the process. A methanol yield of 3.8% was obtained when 8% O{sub 2} was fed in a reactant mixture. The catalyst, MoO{sub 3}/SiO{sub 2}, was found not good for this methane partial oxidation process.
Date: September 1, 1994
Creator: Noble, R. D. & Falconer, J. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Chemically assisted in situ recovery of oil shale

Description: The purpose of the research project was to investigate the feasibility of the chemically assisted in situ retort method for recovering shale oil from Colorado oil shale. The chemically assisted in situ procedure uses hydrogen chloride (HCl), steam (H{sub 2}O), and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) at moderate pressure to recovery shale oil from Colorado oil shale at temperatures substantially lower than those required for the thermal decomposition of kerogen. The process had been previously examined under static, reaction-equilibrium conditions, and had been shown to achieve significant shale oil recoveries from powdered oil shale. The purpose of this research project was to determine if these results were applicable to a dynamic experiment, and achieve penetration into and recovery of shale oil from solid oil shale. Much was learned about how to perform these experiments. Corrosion, chemical stability, and temperature stability problems were discovered and overcome. Engineering and design problems were discovered and overcome. High recovery (90% of estimated Fischer Assay) was observed in one experiment. Significant recovery (30% of estimated Fischer Assay) was also observed in another experiment. Minor amounts of freed organics were observed in two more experiments. Penetration and breakthrough of solid cores was observed in six experiments.
Date: December 31, 1993
Creator: Ramierz, W. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Direct conversion of methane to methanol in a non-isothermal catalytic membrane reactor

Description: The direct partial oxidation of CH{sub 4} to CH{sub 3}OH has been studied in a non-permselective, non-isothermal catalytic membrane reactor system. A cooling tube introduced coaxially inside a tubular membrane reactor quenches the product stream rapidly so that further oxidation of CH{sub 3}OH is inhibited. Selectivity for CH{sub 3}OH formation is significantly higher with quenching than in experiments without quenching. For CH{sub 4} conversion of 4% to 7% CH{sub 3}OH selectivity is 40% to 50% with quenching and 25% to 35% without quenching.
Date: December 31, 1993
Creator: Noble, R. D. & Falconer, J. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Direct methane conversion to methanol. Annual report, October 1, 1992--September 30, 1993

Description: We proposed to demonstrate the effectiveness of a catalytic membrane reactor (a ceramic membrane combined with a catalyst) to selectively produce methanol by partial oxidation of methane. Methanol is used as a chemical feedstock, gasoline additive, and turbine fuel. Methane partial oxidation using a catalytic membrane reactor has been determined as one of the promising approaches for methanol synthesis from methane. In the original proposal, the membrane was used to selectively remove methanol from the reaction zone before carbon oxides form, thus increasing the methanol yield. Methanol synthesis and separation in one step would also make methane more valuable for producing chemicals and fuels. The cooling tube inserted inside the membrane reactor has created a low temperature zone that rapidly quenches the product stream. This system has proved effective for increasing methanol selectivity during CH{sub 4} oxidation. The membranes broke during experiments, however, apparently because of the large radial thermal gradient and axial thermal expansion difference. Our efforts concentrated on improving the membrane lifetime by modifying this non-isothermal membrane reactor.
Date: October 1, 1993
Creator: Noble, R. D. & Falconer, J. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Chemically assisted in situ recovery of oil shale. [Quarterly] report, April 1, 1993--June 30, 1993

Description: The objective of this work is to investigate, in the laboratory, the parameters associated with a chemically assisted in situ recovery procedure, using hydrogen chloride (HCI), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), and steam (H{sub 2}0), to obtain data useful to develop a process more economic than existing processes and to report all findings. The technical progress of the project is reported. The project status is that the progress is being made towards being able to run meaningful experiments.
Date: September 1, 1993
Creator: Ramirez, W. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Direct methane conversion to methanol

Description: Objective is to demonstrate the effectiveness of a catalytic membrane reactor (ceramic membrane combined with catalyst) to selectively produce methanol by partial oxidation of methane. None of the membranes tested in a high pressure system could selectively remove methanol, until a cooling tube was inserted inside the membrane reactor to quench the product stream; this effectively increased methanol selectivity 2[times] during methane oxidation. For both conditions, combined selectivity for methanol and CO is constant, 85%. The remaining product is CO[sub 2]. The membranes were broken when removed from the system; this was remedied when a cooling tube with a smaller diameter was used.
Date: December 3, 1992
Creator: Falconer, J.L. & Noble, R.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Direct methane conversion to methanol. Quarterly project status report, July 1, 1992--September 30, 1992

Description: Objective is to demonstrate the effectiveness of a catalytic membrane reactor (ceramic membrane combined with catalyst) to selectively produce methanol by partial oxidation of methane. None of the membranes tested in a high pressure system could selectively remove methanol, until a cooling tube was inserted inside the membrane reactor to quench the product stream; this effectively increased methanol selectivity 2{times} during methane oxidation. For both conditions, combined selectivity for methanol and CO is constant, 85%. The remaining product is CO{sub 2}. The membranes were broken when removed from the system; this was remedied when a cooling tube with a smaller diameter was used.
Date: December 3, 1992
Creator: Falconer, J. L. & Noble, R. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Direct methane conversion to methanol

Description: We proposed to demonstrate the effectiveness of a catalytic membrane reactor (a ceramic membrane combined with a catalyst) to selectively produce methanol by partial oxidation of methane. Methanol is used as a chemical feedstock, gasoline additive, and turbine fuel. Methane partial oxidation using a catalytic membrane reactor has been determined as one of the promising approaches for methanol synthesis from methane. In the original proposal, the membrane was used to be used to selectively remove methanol from the reaction zone before carbon oxides form, thus increasing the methanol yield. Methanol synthesis and separation in one step would also make methane more valuable for producing chemicals and fuels. The cooling tube inserted inside the membrane reactor has created a low temperature zone that rapidly quenches the product stream. This system has proved effective for increasing methanol selectivity during CH[sub 4] oxidation, and we are using and modifying this non-isothermal, non-permselective membrane reactor.
Date: February 12, 1992
Creator: Noble, R.D. & Falconer, J.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Chemically assisted in situ recovery of oil shale. [Quarterly report], October 1, 1991--December 31, 1991

Description: The objective of this work is to investigate, in the laboratory, the parameters associated with a chemically assisted in situ recovery procedure, using hydrogen chloride (HCI), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), and steam (H{sub 2}O), to obtain data useful to develop a process more economic than existing processes and to report all findings. The technical progress of the project is reported. The project status is that the solutions to the problems discussed in the third quarter status, were found to function satisfactorily. Future needs have been considered, and appropriate equipment and instrumentation changes have been designed. Only one experiment was performed this quarter, with some improvement over the previous experiments. The increase in shale oil recovery followed directly from the changes discussed last quarter, but the improvement could have been larger with wider-spread implementation of the changes. Equipment was purchased to rectify the need, and will be installed shortly. Further, a minor change in the design was necessary to account for the brittleness of high temperature electrical resistance heating tapes. The focus of the work this quarter has been on the development of computer software to enable the use of on-line parameter identification, the design of the instrumentation necessary to adequately observe the system, and the design of a continuous gas mixer to implement the experiment.
Date: December 31, 1991
Creator: Ramirez, W. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Chemically assisted in situ recovery of oil shale. Technical progress report, April 1, 1991--June 30, 1991

Description: The objective of this work is to investigate, in the laboratory, the parameters associated with a chemically assisted in situ recovery procedure, using hydrogen chloride (HCI), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), and steam (H{sub 2}O), to obtain data useful to develop a process more economic than existing processes and to report all findings. Quarter summary: all modifications previously planned where completed and a reaction experiment was run. A couple design flaws were discovered, improvements were designed, and all parts are expected in the first week of July. Experiment {number_sign}6 is expected to run the following Monday. Barring further mishap, experiments will be run one each week thereafter. The project is behind schedule, but the project is well positioned to make significant and considerable progress.
Date: December 1, 1991
Creator: Ramirez, W. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Chemically assisted in situ recovery of oil shale. [Quarterly report], April 1, 1990--June 30, 1990

Description: The objective of this work is to investigate, in the laboratory, the parameters associated with a chemically assisted in situ recovery procedure, using hydrogen chloride (HCI), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), and steam (H{sub 2}O), to obtain-data useful to develop a process more economic than existing processes and to report all findings. The technical progress of the project is reported. The progress of the project is that experiment preparations are underway. Reactor design, process design, and experiment design have been completed. The laboratory to be used has required extensive clean-up, and is nearly ready. Safety considerations are underway. Finally, an initial literature search has revealed some important aspects that need to be considered.
Date: December 31, 1990
Creator: Ramirez, W. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Shallow Ground Water in the Boulder-Fort Collins-Greeley Area, Front Range Urban Corridor, Colorado, 1975-77

Description: From introduction: This investigation was made as part of a comprehensive geohydrologic study of the Front Range Urban Corridor in Colorado conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey. The purpose of the study was to delineate the areal extent of the aquifer, the altitude and configuration of the water table, and the gradient and underflow in various parts of the area, in order to better understand the quality of water moving into and through the aquifer.
Date: 1983
Creator: Schneider, Paul A., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Numerical Calculation of the Three Dimensional Electrical Field in the Central Region of a Cyclotron

Description: To provide detailed and accurate electric fields in the ion source-puller region and at the dee dummy-dee gap for a cyclotron, a relaxation method solution of Laplace's equation has been used. A conventional difference equation with variation in mesh size and relaxation factor as well as different schemes for boundary corrections have been developed to achieve roughly 1 percent accuracy for a thre-dimensional domain with 10/sup 6/ mesh points. Although the computation requires considerable computer time, it is much less expensive than electrolytic tank analogue methods for measuring field distributions around complex electrode configurations.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Chen, M. & Lind, D. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Technical Progress Report, November 1, 1979-October 31, 1980. Report Npl-865. [Univ. Of Colorado]

Description: Work carried out at the Nuclear Physics Laboratory of the University of Colorado from November 1, 1979 through October 31, 1980 is summarized. Emphasis was on light ion reaction studies with the AVF cyclotron. The high resolution magnetic spectrometer has allowed studies of nucleon transfer, scattering, and charge exchange reactions throughout the periodic table. More experiments have been run with solid state counters this year than has been the case recently, as a broad range spectra of the light nuclei where only moderate resolution is demanded were examined. Several of these experiments were undertaken for more detailed studies of excitations seen with higher energy probes. Multiple coincidence measurements with neutron and gamma-ray counters have opened a new program in pre-equilibrium reactions and provided a new signature for the study of neutron-deficient final nuclei. The neutron time of flight program has expanded to higher excitation and to use of the (d,n) and (..cap alpha..,n) direct nucleon transfer reactions. Three important experiments were completed at the EPICS pion scattering facility at LAMPF, and other low energy pion scattering data were obtained at TRIUMF. Several (p,d) runs at high energies were accomplished, some with polarized beams at TRIUMF. High-lying structures in medium mass nuclei were studied by the (p,n) reaction at Indiana. Interest in the use of polarized beams has been prompted by the theoretical successes in this area. This interest has led to the study of one- and two-nucleon transfer reactions on a range of nuclei at the Los Alamos tandem and at IUCF.
Date: November 1, 1980
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Technical Progress Report. [Nuclear Physics Lab. , Univ. Of Colorado]

Description: This report summarizes the work carried out at the Nuclear Physics Laboratory of the University of Colorado during the period November 1, 1977 to November 1, 1978, under Contract EY-76-C-02-0535.A002 between the University of Colorado and the United States Department of Energy. The research activities of the Laboratory spanned a broad range of interests over the past year. Numerous topics in charged-particle spectroscopy and reaction studies, neutron time-of-flight measurements, and gamma-ray investigations performed at the cyclotron laboratory are covered in this report. In addition, several items in intermediate energy nuclear physics as studied at Los Alamos and Indiana University by members of the Laboratory are reported. The efforts in nuclear theory include studies in nuclear reaction mechanisms and pion scattering as related to the experimental program. Information is also included on apparatus and facility development, cyclotron operation, outside users, publications, and reports. Separate abstracts were written for thirty items in this report having significant amounts of data. (RWR)
Date: November 1, 1978
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nuclear Physics Laboratory, University of Colorado Technical Progress Report, 1976 and Proposal for Continuation of Contract

Description: This report summarizes the work carried out at the Nuclear Physics Laboratory of the University of Colorado during the period November 1, 1975 to November 1, 1976. The low energy nuclear physics section is dominated by light-ion reaction studies which span a wide range. These include both two-neutron and two-proton transfer reactions, charge exchange and inelastic scattering, as well as single nucleon transfer reactions. The nuclei studied vary widely in their mass and characteristics. These reaction studies have been aided by the multi-use scattering chamber which now allows the energy-loss-spectrometer beam preparation system (beam swinger) to shift from charged particle studies to neutron time-of-flight studies with a minimum loss of time. The intermediate energy section reflects the increase in activity accompanying the arrival of LAMPF data and the initiation of (p,d) studies at the Indiana separated-sector cyclotron. The nucleon removal results provided by the ..pi.. beam at EPICS previous to completion of the spectrometer have shown that nuclear effects dominate this process, so that the widely used free interaction picture is inadequate. The section entitled ''Other Activities'' reveals continuing activities in new applications of nuclear techniques to problems in medicine and biology. Reactions important to astrophysics continue to be investigated and our trace-element program remains at a high level of activity. The theoretical section reports new progress in understanding magnitudes of two-step reactions by inclusion of finite-range effects. A new finite-range program which is fast and economical has been completed. Intermediate energy results include calculations of ..pi..-..gamma.. angular correlations, low energy ..pi..-nucleus interactions, as well as (p,d) and nucleon scattering calculations for intermediate energies.
Date: November 1, 1976
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thermocouple Reference Tables Based on the IPTS-68

Description: From Abstract: "Revised reference data for thermocouples have been generated in a cooperative program between groups of the National Bureau of Standards in Boulder and Gaithersburg.This Monograph contains tables, analytic expressions, various approximations, and explanatory text.
Date: March 1974
Creator: Powell, Robert L.; Hall, William J.; Hyink, Clyde H., Jr.; Sparks, Larry L.; Burns, George W.; Scroger, Margaret G. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department