Search Results

Hydraulic and thermal properties of soil samples from the buried waste test facility

Description: In shallow land burial, the most common disposal method for low-level waste, waste containers are placed in shallow trenches and covered with natural sediment material. To design such a facility requires an in-depth understanding of the infiltration and evaporation processes taking place at the soil surface and the effect these processes have on the amount of water cycling through a burial zone. At the DOE Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, a field installation called the Buried Waste Test Facility (BWTF) has been constructed to study unsaturated soil water and contaminant transport. PNL is collecting data at the BWTF to help explain soil water movement at shallow depths, and specifically evaporation from bare sols. The data presented here represent the initial phase of a cooperative effort between PNL and Washington State University to use data collected at the BWFT.
Date: October 1, 1981
Creator: Cass, A.; Campbell, G.S. & Jones, T.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Multiplicity Distributions in νμp Interactions

Description: Multiplicity distributions of the hadrons produced in antineutrino proton interactions are presented. The data sample, which consists of 2025 charged-current events with antineutrino energy greater than 5 GeV, comes from exposures of the 15-foot hydrogen bubble chamber to the broad-band antineutrino beam at Fermilab. The distribution in hadronic mass W has an average value of 3.7 GeV but extends up to 10 GeV. The mean multiplicity of charged hadrons depends on the hadronic mass W and varies as <n/sub ch/> = (-0.44 +- 0.13) + (1.48 +- 0.06) 1n W/sup 2/ for W/sup 2/ > 4 GeV/sup 2/. The mean multiplicities for events with three or more charged tracks averaged over the total data sample are <n/sub -/> = 1.68 +-0.03 and <n/sub 0/> = 1.11 +- 0.07 for ..pi../sup -/ and ..pi../sup 0/ production, respectively. The mean ..pi../sup 0/ multiplicity is found to increase slowly with n/sub -/. The integrated correlation coefficient f/sub 2//sup - -/ and the dispersion D/sup -/ are given as a function of n/sub -/. When compared to the distributions characteristic of other leptonic and hadronic reactions, a similarity is found between the anti ..nu..- data and results from hadronic reactions that have no diffractive component. Multiplicity data for the heavier particles K/sup 0/, rho and ..lambda.. are also summarized. The pion multiplicities in the current fragmentation region exceed those for the target fragmentation at all W values. They also satisfy the isospin relation 2<n/sub 0/> = <n/sub +/> + <n/sub -/> required for the fragmentation of an I = 1/2 quark when a W > 4 GeV selection is imposed.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Derrick, M.; Gregory, P. & LoPinto, F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Brayton-Cycle Heat Recovery System Characterization Program. Glass-furnace facility test plan

Description: The test plan for development of a system to recover waste heat and produce electricity and preheated combustion air from the exhaust gases of an industrial glass furnace is described. The approach is to use a subatmospheric turbocompressor in a Brayton-cycle system. The operational furnace test requirements, the operational furnace environment, and the facility design approach are discussed. (MCW)
Date: August 29, 1980
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Technology assessment of geothermal energy resource development

Description: Geothermal state-of-the-art is described including geothermal resources, technology, and institutional, legal, and environmental considerations. The way geothermal energy may evolve in the United States is described; a series of plausible scenarios and the factors and policies which control the rate of growth of the resource are presented. The potential primary and higher order impacts of geothermal energy are explored, including effects on the economy and society, cities and dwellings, environmental, and on institutions affected by it. Numerical and methodological detail is included in appendices. (MHR)
Date: April 15, 1975
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mixing angles in SU(2)/sub L/ x U(1) gauge model

Description: Exact expressions for the mixing parameters are obtained in terms of mass ratios in the standard Weinberg-Salam model with permutation symmetry S/sub 3/ for six quarks. The CP-violating phase is ignored, and there are no arbitrary parameters except for the quark masses. In the lowest order, the angles defined by Kobayashi-Maskawa are sin theta/sub 1/ = sin theta/sub c/ = (m/sub d//m/sub d/ + m/sub s/)/sup 1/2/, sin theta/sub 3/ = -sin theta/sub 3/ = -m/sup 2//sub s//m/sup 2//sub b/, and m/sub t/m/sub s/ greater than or equal to m/sub c/m/sub b/ = 7.2 GeV/sup 2/ or m/sub t/ greater than or equal to 24 GeV for m/sub s/ = 0.3 GeV.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Nandi, S. & Tanaka, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Projections of automobile, light truck, and bus stocks and sales, to the year 2000

Description: Future stocks and sales of automobiles, light trucks, and buses are projected in this document. Automobile projections are developed for fleet and non-fleet sectors. Total auto stock is projected as a function of the number of households and of personal income, with adjustment for present and anticipated shifts from automobiles to light trucks. Automobile stocks and sales are projected to increase steadily through the year 2000 with a slightly larger growth rate associated with fleet autos. Projections of light-truck stocks and sales are developed for personal, service/utility, agriculture, manufacturing, government, wholesale/retail, and other uses based on anticipated employment and output for each of the use sectors. Projections anticipate the largest growth area to be that of personal light trucks. Bus stocks and sales are projected as a function of user populations, existing fleet characteristics, and anticipated usage patterns. School, intercity, and transit buses are included in the study. School buses are projected to have the largest percentage of growth in this sector.
Date: November 1, 1979
Creator: Knorr, R. & Millar, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mild coal pretreatment to improve liquefaction reactivity

Description: This report describes work completed during the fifth quarter of a three year project to study the effects of mild chemical pretreatment on coal dissolution reactivity during low severity liquefaction or coal/oil coprocessing. The overall objective of this research is to elucidate changes in the chemical and physical structure of coal by pretreating with methanol or other simple organic solvent and a trace amount of hydrochloric acid and measure the influence of these changes on coal dissolution reactivity. Work this quarter focused on analytical characterization of untreated and treated Wyodak subbituminous coal and Illinois {number sign}6 bituminous coal. Mossbauer spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction techniques were used to study the effect of methanol/HCl pretreatment on the composition of each coal's inorganic phase. Results from these studies indicated that calcite is largely removed during pretreatment, but that other mineral species such as pyrite are unaffected. This finding is significant, since calcite removal appears to directly correlate with low severity liquefaction enhancement. Further work will be performed to study this phenomenon in more detail.
Date: 1991-12~
Creator: Miller, R. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Theoretical and empirical study of single-substance, upward two-phase flow in a constant-diameter adiabatic pipe

Description: A Scheme is developed to describe the upward flow of a two-phase mixture of a single substance in a vertical adiabatic constant area pipe. The scheme is based on dividing the mixture into a homogeneous core surrounded by a liquid film. This core may be a mixture of bubbles in a contiguous liquid phase, or a mixture of droplets in a contiguous vapor phase. Emphasis is placed upon the latter case since the range of experimental measurements of pressure, temperature, and void fraction collected in this study fall in the slug-churn''- annular'' flow regimes. The core is turbulent, whereas the liquid film may be laminar or turbulent. Turbulent stresses are modeled by using Prandtl's mixing-length theory. The working fluid is Dichlorotetrafluoroethane CCIF{sub 2}-CCIF{sub 2} known as refrigerant 114 (R-114); the two-phase mixture is generated from the single phase substance by the process of flashing. In this study, the effect of the Froude and Reynolds numbers on the liquid film characteristics is examined. The compressibility is accounted for through the acceleration pressure gradient of the core and not directly through the Mach number. An expression for an interfacial friction coefficient between the turbulent core and the liquid film is developed; it is similar to Darcy's friction coefficient for a single phase flow in a rough pipe. Finally, an actual steam-water geothermal well is simulated; it is based on actual field data from New Zealand. A similarity theory is used to predict the steam-water mixture pressure and temperature starting with laboratory measurements on the flow of R-114.
Date: May 1, 1987
Creator: Laoulache, R.N.; Maeder, P.F. & DiPippo, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Computer simulation models relevant to ground water contamination from EOR or other fluids - state-of-the-art

Description: Ground water contamination is a serious national problem. The use of computers to simulate the behavior of fluids in the subsurface has proliferated extensively over the last decade. Numerical models are being used to solve water supply problems, various kinds of enertgy production problems, and ground water contamination problems. Modeling techniques have progressed to the point that their accuracy is only limited by the modeller's ability to describe the reservoir in question and the heterogeneities therein. Pursuant to the Task and Milestone Update of Project BE3A, this report summarizes the state of the art of computer simulation models relevant to contamination of ground water by enhanced oil recovery (EOR) chemicals and/or waste fluids. 150 refs., 6 tabs.
Date: March 1, 1986
Creator: Kayser, M.B. & Collins, A.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The application of the symmetry properties of optical second harmonic generation to studies of interfaces and gases

Description: Optical second harmonic generation has proven to be a powerful tool for studying interfaces. The symmetry properties of the process allow for surface sensitivity not available with other optical methods. In this thesis, we take advantage of these symmetry properties SHG to study a variety of interesting systems not previously studied with this technique. We show that optical second harmonic generation is an effective surface probe with a submonolayer sensitivity for media without inversion symmetry. We demonstrate the technique at a gallium arsenide surface, exploiting the different symmetry properties of the bulk and surface of the crystal to isolate the surface contribution. We also demonstrate that optical second harmonic generation can be used to determine the anisotropic orientational distribution of a surface monolayer of molecules. We apply the technique to study homogeneously aligned liquid crystal cells. To further explore the LC-polymer interface, we used SHG to study the surface memory effect. The surface memory effect is the rendering of an isotropic interface anisotropic by putting it in contact with an anisotropic bulk. Last, we describe some preliminary measurements of a time-resolved spectroscopic study of the phenomenon of second harmonic generation in a gas. The construction of a 500 microjoule pulsed, tunable laser source is described.
Date: November 1, 1991
Creator: Feller, M.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Optical techniques for measurement of high temperatures

Description: The availability of instrumentation to measure the high outlet gas temperature of a particle bed reactor is a topic of some concern. There are a number of possible techniques with advantages and disadvantages. In order to provide some baseline choice of instrumentation, a review has been conducted of these various technologies. This report summarizes the results of this review for a group of technologies loosely defined as optical techniques (excluding optical pyrometry). The review has concentrated on a number of questions for each technology investigated. These are: (1) Description of the technology, (2) Anticipated sensitivity and accuracy, (3) Requirements for implementation, (4) Necessary development time and costs, (5) Advantages and disadvantages of the technology. Each of these areas was considered for a technology and a large number of technologies were considered in a review of the literature. Based upon this review it was found that a large number of methods exist to measure temperatures in excess of 2000 K. None of the methods found were ideal. Four methods, however, appeared to warrant further consideration: opto-mechanical expansion thermometry, surface Raman spectroscopy, gas-phase Raman spectroscopy and coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS). These techniques will be discussed further in this document.
Date: October 25, 1991
Creator: Veligdan, J.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Physical-chemical NO/sub x/ mechanisms in fluidized bed combustion

Description: Fluidized bed combustors operate in the large-particle (&gt; 1 mm) high-velocity (&gt; 1 m/s) fluidization regime which differs from most previous applications. These characteristics foster a distinctive volatiles evolution structure in the vicinity of the coal injectors of bottom-fed atmospheric fluidized beds (AFBC). The evolution of coal volatiles associated with bottom-fed AFBC was defined as the focal point. The major effort of the work was concerned with a group combustion model of dense gas/solids mixtures of devolatilizing coal being injected into the bottom of an AFBC. Critical development needs were defined in the area of solids circulation and injector design which impact both basic FBC design and NO/sub x/ emissions. Results of model calculations identified important new physical-chemical mechanisms influencing NO/sub x/ emissions.
Date: November 3, 1980
Creator: Bywater, R. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nuclear Medicine Program progress report for quarter ending September 30, 1991

Description: Rat tissue distribution properties of IQNP,'' a new radioiodinated cholinergic-muscarinic receptor antagonist, are described. IQNP is the acronym for 1-azabicyclo(2.2.2)oct-3-yl {alpha}-hydroxy-{alpha}-phenyl-{alpha}(1-iodo-1-propen-3-yl) acetate, which is an analogue of the QNB muscarinic antagonist in which the p-iodophenyl moiety has been replaced with the 1-iodo-1-propen-3-yl moiety. The radioiodinated IQNP analogue is easier to prepare in much higher yields than QNB and is thus a candidate for the evaluation of muscarinic receptors by external imaging techniques. Studies in rats demonstrated that IQNP shows high uptake in those cerebral regions rich in muscarinic receptors QNB-treatment of rats either 1 h before (pre) or 2 h after (post) administration of radioiodinated IQNP resulted in significant displacement or blocking of cerebral specific IQNP uptake (% dose/gm) in the cortex and striatum. These studies demonstrate that IQNP has specificity for the cholinergic-muscarinic receptor and is a good candidate for further studies. Also during this period, several agents developed in the ORNL Nuclear Medicine Program were supplied to Medical Cooperative Programs for collaborative studies including the iodine-125-labeled BMIPP and DMIPP fatty acid analogues and the IPM antibody labeling agent. Tin-117m and gold-199 were produced in the ORNL High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and supplied to the OHER-supported program in the Medical Department at Brookhaven National Laboratory to aid in their research until the re-start of the High Flux Brookhaven Reactor.
Date: February 1, 1992
Creator: Knapp, F. F., Jr.; Ambrose, K. R.; Callahan, A. P.; McPherson, D. W.; Mirzadeh, S.; Srivastava, P. C. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Attorney General's Memorandum on Federal Marijuana Enforcement: Possible Impacts

Description: This report discusses Attorney General Jeff Sessions' memorandum on federal marijuana enforcement policy sent to all U.S. Attorneys that immediately rescinds guidance documents specific to marijuana enforcement. It provides background on the memorandum, the relevant regulations, and implications of withdrawing previous guidance.
Date: January 10, 2018
Creator: Garvey, Todd & Yeh, Brian T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Policy Options to Increase Physician Training Education in Proper Opioid Prescribing

Description: This report discusses the recommendations of the President's Commission on Combating Drug Addiction and the Opioid Crisis regarding mandating "medical education and prescriber education initiatives in proper opioid prescribing and risks of developing an SUD [Substance Use Disorder]." It provides an overview on various policy options to encourage further training for physicians and other prescription empowered providers while in school and training as well as on the job.
Date: December 22, 2017
Creator: Heisler, Elayne J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Navy Ford (CVN-78) Class Aircraft Carrier Program: Background and Issues for Congress

Description: This report provides background information and potential oversight issues for Congress on the Gerald R. Ford (CVN-78) class aircraft carrier program. The Navy's proposed FY2018 budget requested a total of $4,461.8 million in procurement funding for the program.
Date: November 28, 2017
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Changes to "Too Big to Fail" Treasury Recommends Revisions to Dodd-Frank SIFI Designation Process for Non-Banks (Part 2)

Description: Second part of a report discussing the Treasury Department's recent report recommending revisions to the Financial Stability Oversight Council's (FSOC's) process for designating non-bank financial institutions as "systematically important financial institutions (SIFI's) also known as "Too Big to Fail" institutions. This part discusses the legal debate over the designation process, the Treasury Department's recommended changes for the process, and how those changes may affect the Senate's consideration of the Financial CHOICE Act of 2017 (which would repeal FSOC's authority to designate non-banks as SIFIs altogether).
Date: December 1, 2017
Creator: Sykes, Jay B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

What Happens if the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) Lapses

Description: This report provides a short overview of what would happen if the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) were not to be reauthorized by December 8, 2017, and was allowed to lapse.
Date: December 5, 2017
Creator: Horn, Diane P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

What Happens if the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) Lapses?

Description: This report provides a short overview of what would happen if the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) were not to be reauthorized by January 19, 2018, and was allowed to lapse.
Date: January 3, 2018
Creator: Horn, Diane P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Military Service Records, Awards, and Unit Histories: A Guide to Locating Sources

Description: This report provides information on locating military unit histories and individual service records of discharged, retired, and deceased military personnel. It also provides information on locating and replacing military awards and medals as well as contact information for military history centers, websites for additional sources of research, and a bibliography of other publications, including related CRS reports.
Date: January 2, 2018
Creator: DeBruyne, Nese F. & Torreon, Barbara Salazar
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Budget Enforcement Procedures: The Senate Pay-As-You-Go (PayGO) Rule

Description: This report discusses the Senate pay-as-you-go (PAYGO) rule, which generally requires that any legislation projected to increase direct spending or reduce revenues must also include equivalent amounts of direct spending cuts, revenue increases, or a combination, so that the legislation does not increase the on-budget deficit in the current fiscal year, the budget year, a six-year period, or an 11-year period (the latter two periods beginning with the current fiscal year). This update includes the most recent changes to the rule, and adds information on points of order raised under the rule since 2015.
Date: January 9, 2018
Creator: Heniff, Bill, Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Public Sector Union Dues: Grappling with Fixed Stars and Stare Decisis (Part 2)

Description: Second part of a report discussing the upcoming Supreme Court case of "Janus v. American Federation of State, County, and Municipal Employees Council," concerning whether requiring non-union member employees is constitutional. It begins with a brief summary of the parties' arguments, highlights some key statements from the prior decisions of Justice Gorsuch (who is likely to be a critical voice), and finally explores the potential implications of the decision.
Date: December 4, 2017
Creator: Killion, Victoria L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department