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Investigating the Screwdriver: 25 Years of Technology Change

Description: Article broadly discussing some of the technological changes in vocational education over the last 25 years, as well as strategies for implementation and planning in the new millennium.
Date: 1998
Creator: Allen, Jeff M. & Wircenski, Jerry L.
Partner: UNT College of Information

The Challenges of Training and Retraining Mature Learners

Description: Article discussing research on the aging process from physical, cognitive, and social and psychological perspectives, accommodations for age related changes, retraining mature learners, adaptations of the classroom environment, training technology issues, and successful corporate retraining programs to better prepare vocational educators for the workforce of the new millennium.
Date: 1998
Creator: Ennis-Cole, Demetria & Allen, Jeff M.
Partner: UNT College of Information

Mechanism of strain release in carbon nanotubes

Description: Article on the mechanism of strain release in carbon nanotubes.
Date: February 15, 1998
Creator: Buongiorno Nardelli, Marco; Yakobson, Boris I. & Bernholc, Jerry
Partner: UNT College of Arts and Sciences

Imprinted spiral structures as neutron polarizers.

Description: Neutron diffraction from magnetic spiral structures is governed by strong selection rules for the polarization of the outgoing beam. When the sample is entirely of one chirality--for instance a right handed spiral--the neutrons diffracted by some Bragg reflections are fully polarized. While the scattering theory has been formulated long ago, attempts to controllably modify the population of left handed and right handed spiral domains in natural magnetic structures (which for instance occur in some rare earth metals) have been largely unsuccessful. In contrast, we have been able to imprint helical magnetic structures in La/Fe multilayers (each layer approximately 30 {angstrom} thick) simply by rotating the growing sample in a weak external field (30e). A first estimate is given of the efficiency of these multilayers as polarizers of neutron beams.
Date: October 7, 1998
Creator: Lohstroh, W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of a high-power lithium-ion battery.

Description: Safety is a key concern for a high-power energy storage system such as will be required in a hybrid vehicle. Present lithium-ion technology, which uses a carbon/graphite negative electrode, lacks inherent safety for two main reasons: (1) carbon/graphite intercalates lithium at near lithium potential, and (2) there is no end-of-charge indicator in the voltage profile that can signal the onset of catastrophic oxygen evolution from the cathode (LiCoO{sub 2}). Our approach to solving these safety/life problems is to replace the graphite/carbon negative electrode with an electrode that exhibits stronger two-phase behavior further away from lithium potential, such as Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}. Cycle-life and pulse-power capability data are presented in accordance with the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) test procedures, as well as a full-scale design based on a spreadsheet model.
Date: September 2, 1998
Creator: Jansen, A. N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thermodynamic and nonstoichiometric behavior of the GdBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} system.

Description: Electromotive force (EMF) measurements of oxygen fugacities as a function of stoichiometry have been made on the GdBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} system in the temperature range {approximately}400-600 C by means of an oxygen titration technique with an yttria-stabilized zirconia electrolyte. Equations for the variation of oxygen partial pressure with composition and temperature have been derived from our EMF measurements. The shape of the 400 C isotherms as a function of oxygen stoichiometry for the Gd and Nd cuprate systems suggests the presence of miscibility gaps at values of x that are higher than those in the YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} system. For a given oxygen stoichiometry, oxygen partial pressures above Gd-123 and Nd-123 cuprate systems are higher (above x = 6.5) than that for the Y-123 system. A thermodynamic assessment and intercomparison of our partial pressure measurements with the results of related measurements will be presented.
Date: September 29, 1998
Creator: Tetenbaum, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

BWR drywell behavior under steam blowdown.

Description: Historically, thermal hydraulics analyses on Large Break Loss of Coolant Accidents (LOCA) have been focused on the transients within the reactor or steam generator. Few have studied the effects of steam blowdown on the containment building. This paper discusses some theoretical issues as well as presenting numerical and experimental results of the blowdown tests performed at the Purdue University Multi-Dimensional Integrated Test Assembly (PUMA).
Date: May 8, 1998
Creator: NguyenLe, Q.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Techniques for inelastic x-ray scattering with {mu}eV resolution.

Description: We introduce a novel type of spectrometer that provides a {micro}eV bandpass together with a tunability over a few meV. The technique relies on nuclear resonant scattering (Moessbauer effect) of synchrotrons radiation at the 14.4-keV resonance of {sup 57}Fe. Energy tuning is achieved by the Doppler effect in high speed rotary motion. The resonantly scattered monochromatic radiation is extracted by a polarization filtering technique or by spatial separation due to the ''nuclear lighthouse effect''.
Date: October 23, 1998
Creator: Rohlsberger, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Lithium-endohedral C{sub 60} complexes.

Description: High capacity, reversible, lithium intercalated carbon anodes have been prepared, 855 m.Ah/g, which exceed the capacity for stage 1 lithium intercalated carbon anodes, 372 mAh/g. Since there is very little hydrogen content in the high capacity anode, the fullerene C{sub 60} lattice is used to investigate the nature of lithium ion bonding and spacing between lithiums in endohedral lithium complexes of C{sub 60}. Three lithium-endohedral complexes have been investigated using ab initio molecular orbital calculations involving 2,3 and 5 lithium. The calculated results suggest that lithium cluster formation may be important for achieving the high capacity lithium carbon anodes.
Date: May 4, 1998
Creator: Scanlon, L. G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of practical damage-mapping and inspection systems

Description: We have developed and are continuing to refine semi-automated technology for the detection and inspection of surface and bulk defects and damage in large laser optics Different manifestations of the DAMOCLES system (Damage and Artifact Mapping Of Coherent-Laser-Exposed Substrates) provide an effective and economical means of being able to detect, map and characterize surface and bulk defects which may become precursors of massive damage in optics when subjected to high-fluence laser irradiation Subsequent morphology and evolution of damage due to laser irradiation can be tracked efficiently The strength of the Damocles system is that it allows for immediate visual observation of defects in an entire optic, which can range up to l-meter dimensions, while also being able to provide digital map and magnified images of the defects with resolutions better than 5 ┬Ám.
Date: August 19, 1998
Creator: Rainer, F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Using the DOE Knowledge Base for Special Event Analysis

Description: The DOE Knowledge Base is a library of detailed information whose purpose is to support the United States National Data Center (USNDC) in its mission to monitor compliance with the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). One of the important tasks which the USNDC must accomplish is to periodically perform detailed analysis of events of high interest, so-called "Special Events", to provide the national authority with information needed to make policy decisions. In this paper we investigate some possible uses of the Knowledge Base for Special Event Analysis (SEA), and make recommendations for improving Knowledge Base support for SEA. To analyze an event in detail, there are two basic types of data which must be used sensor-derived data (wave- forms, arrivals, events, etc.) and regiohalized contextual data (known sources, geological characteristics, etc.). Cur- rently there is no single package which can provide full access to both types of data, so for our study we use a separate package for each MatSeis, the Sandia Labs-developed MATLAB-based seismic analysis package, for wave- form data analysis, and ArcView, an ESRI product, for contextual data analysis. Both packages are well-suited to pro- totyping because they provide a rich set of currently available functionality and yet are also flexible and easily extensible, . Using these tools and Phase I Knowledge Base data sets, we show how the Knowledge Base can improve both the speed and the quality of SEA. Empirically-derived interpolated correction information can be accessed to improve both location estimates and associated error estimates. This information can in turn be used to identi~ any known nearby sources (e.g. mines, volcanos), which may then trigger specialized processing of the sensor data. Based on the location estimate, preferred magnitude formulas and discriminants can be retrieved, and any known blockages can be identified to prevent miscalculations. Relevant historic ...
Date: October 20, 1998
Creator: Armstrong, H.M.; Harris, J.M. & Young, C.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Methodology to Validate 3-D Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian Codes with Applications to Alegra

Description: In this study we provided an experimental test bed for validating features of the Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian Grid for Research Applications (ALEGRA) code over a broad range of strain rates with overlapping diagnostics that encompass the multiple responses. A unique feature of the ALEGRA code is that it allows simultaneous computational treatment, within one code, of a wide range of strain-rates varying from hydrodynamic to structural conditions. This range encompasses strain rates characteristic of shock-wave propagation (107/s) and those characteristics of structural response (102/s). Most previous code validation experimental &udies, however, have been restricted to simulating or investigating a single strain-rate regime. What is new and different in this investigation is that we have performed well-controlled and well-instrumented experiments, which capture features relevant to both hydrodynamic and structural response in a single experiment. Aluminum was chosen for use in this study because it is a well-characterized material. The current experiments span strain rate regimes of over 107/s to less than 102/s in a single experiment. The input conditions were extremely well defined. Velocity interferometers were used to record the high' strain-rate response, while low strain rate data were collected using strain gauges. Although the current tests were conducted at a nominal velocity of - 1.5 km/s, it is the test methodology that is being emphasized herein. Results of a three-dimensional experiment are also presented.
Date: November 4, 1998
Creator: Chhabildas, L.C.; Duggins, B.D.; Konrad, C.H.; Mosher, D.A.; Perry, J.S.; Reinhart, W.D. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Calibration of an Advanced Photon Source linac beam position monitor used for positron position measurement of a beam containing both positrons and electrons.

Description: The Advanced Photon Source (APS) linac beam position monitors can be used to monitor the position of a positron beam also containing electrons. To accomplish this task, both the signal at the bunching frequency of 2856 MHz and the signal at 2 x 2856 MHz are acquired and processed for each stripline. The positron beam position is obtained by forming a linear combination of both 2856- and 5712-MHz signals for each stripline and then performing the standard difference over sum computation. The required linear combination of the 2856- and 5712-MHz signals depends on the electrical calibration of each stripline/cable combination. In this paper, the calibration constants for both 2856-MHz and 5712-MHz signals for each stripline are determined using a pure beam of electrons. The calibration constants are obtained by measuring the 2856- and 5712-MHz stripline signals at various electron beam currents and positions. Finally, the calibration constants measured using electrons are used to determine positron beam position for the mixed beam case.
Date: May 19, 1998
Creator: Sereno, N. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Status report on the long-term stability of the Advanced Photon Source.

Description: Table 1 summarizes the average elevation changes and standard deviations as well as the points with the largest changes for each year. On average, hardly any settlements can be detected; however, local changes of +2.90 mm to {minus}2.31 mm have been measured. Looking at the low and high points, the settlement process is slowing down over time. Overall, the settlements observed match the expectations for this type of construction. To date no major realignment of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring has been necessary. The particle beam tracks with the settlements of the floor as long as these changes occur in a smooth fashion and not as sudden discontinuities [5]. From Figures 6 through 8 it is also apparent that settlements affect larger areas in the storage ring and experiment hall that impact the location of the source point as well as the location of the beamline user equipment. The limiting apertures of the insertion device chambers will make realignment of the APS storage ring a necessity at some point in the future. Currently simulations and machine studies we underway to provide an estimate of tolerable settlement limits before a realignment of certain sections of the storage ring would be required. In conclusion, the APS has been constructed on solid ground with an excellent foundation. Only small settlement changes are being observed; so far they are not impacting the operation of the accelerator. We are continuing to monitor deformations of the APS floor in anticipation of a future realignment of the accelerator components.
Date: September 21, 1998
Creator: Friedsam, H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

RESULTS FROM BETATRON PHASE MEASUREMENTS IN RHIC DURING THE SEXTANT TEST.

Description: The Sextant Test of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) was an important step towards its completion. One sixth of the two RHIC accelerators was fully commissioned. Gold ion beam was injected and transported through one sextant of one of the two rings. The betatron phase advance per cell was measured by recording differences in the horizontal and vertical positions of the beam at the end of the sextant due to a sequence of correction dipole kicks along the beam line. Measurement results show excellent agreement with predicted values, confirming that production measurements of the integral functions of the quadrupoles were very accurate, and that the polarity of all elements (correction dipoles, quadrupoles, dipoles etc.) was correct.
Date: June 26, 1998
Creator: TRBOJEVIC, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Small-angle and surface scattering from porous and fractal materials.

Description: We review the basic theoretical methods used to treat small-angle scattering from porous materials, treated as general two-phase systems, and also the basic experimental techniques for carrying out such experiments. We discuss the special forms of the scattering when the materials exhibit mass or surface fractal behavior, and review the results of recent experiments on several types of porous media and also SANS experiments probing the phase behavior of binary fluid mixtures or polymer solutions confined in porous materials. Finally, we discuss the analogous technique of off-specular scattering from surfaces and interfaces which is used to study surface roughness of various kinds.
Date: September 18, 1998
Creator: Sinha, S. K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Superconducting nanostructured materials.

Description: Within the last year it has been realized that the remarkable properties of superconducting thin films containing a periodic array of defects (such as sub-micron sized holes) offer a new route for developing a novel superconducting materials based on precise control of microstructure by modern photolithography. A superconductor is a material which, when cooled below a certain temperature, loses all resistance to electricity. This means that superconducting materials can carry large electrical currents without any energy loss--but there are limits to how much current can flow before superconductivity is destroyed. The current at which superconductivity breaks down is called the critical current. The value of the critical current is determined by the balance of Lorentz forces and pinning forces acting on the flux lines in the superconductor. Lorentz forces proportional to the current flow tend to drive the flux lines into motion, which dissipates energy and destroys zero resistance. Pinning forces created by isolated defects in the microstructure oppose flux line motion and increase the critical current. Many kinds of artificial pinning centers have been proposed and developed to increase critical current performance, ranging from dispersal of small non-superconducting second phases to creation of defects by proton, neutron or heavy ion irradiation. In all of these methods, the pinning centers are randomly distributed over the superconducting material, causing them to operate well below their maximum efficiency. We are overcome this drawback by creating pinning centers in aperiodic lattice (see Fig 1) so that each pin site interacts strongly with only one or a few flux lines.
Date: July 13, 1998
Creator: Metlushko, V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of mixed-conducting ceramics for gas separation applications.

Description: Mixed-conducting oxides are used in many applications, including fuel cells, gas separation membranes, sensors, and electrocatalysis. This paper describes mixed-conducting ceramic membranes that are being developed to selectively remove oxygen and hydrogen from gas streams in a nongalvanic mode of operation (i.e., with no electrodes or external power supply). Because of its high combined electronic/ionic conductivity and significant oxygen permeability, the mixed-conducting Sr-Fe-Co oxide (SFC) has been developed for high-purity oxygen separation and/or partial oxidation of methane to synthesis gas, i.e., syngas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The electronic and ionic conductivities of SFC were found to be comparable in magnitude and are presented as a function of temperature. The oxygen flux through dense SFC tubes during separation of oxygen from air is compared with the oxygen flux during methane conversion. Unlike SFC, in which the ionic and electronic conductivities are nearly equivalent, BaCe{sub 0.80}Y{sub 0.20}O{sub 3} (BCY) exhibits protonic conductivity that is significantly higher than its electronic conductivity. To enhance the electronic conductivity and increase hydrogen permeation, metal powder was combined with the BCY to form a cermet membrane. Nongalvanic permeation of hydrogen through the cermet membrane was demonstrated and characterized as a function of membrane thickness. A sintering aid was developed to avoid interconnected porosity in and improve the mechanical properties of the cermet membrane.
Date: December 2, 1998
Creator: Balachandran, U.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department