6,127 Matching Results

Search Results

Maximum likelihood borehole corrections for dual-detector density logs

Description: This report discusses Dual-detector density logs which have been used in the petroleum industry for years. The tool was designed with a second detector to allow compensation for the effect of a layer of mudcake between the tool and the formation being measured. The compensation algorithm commonly used calculates the correction to apply to the density measured by the long-spaced detector as proportional to the difference in the densities measured by the two detectors. The coefficient of proportionality is determined from experimental data taken with the tool in a fluid-filled hole of 15 to 40 cm diameter, with uniform thickness sheets of various materials simulating the mudcake. In applying this technology for the Containment program at the Department of Energy Nevada Test Site (NTS) we have discovered two problems. First, we frequently log in air-filled holes much larger than 40 cm. Second, the gap, or layer, is rarely uniform with depth or vertical position on the face of the tool. We have developed a method to determine the proper amount of correction dynamically. No experimental data on the gap effect are needed as long as the two detectors are calibrated to read the proper density when the gap is zero. The method assumes that the form of the equation used in the standard algorithm is correct, but uses the variation of the two density signals with depth to determine the appropriate value of the coefficient, assuming true density varies more slowly than the gap effects. This new, maximum likelihood, method appears to work better than the standard method in both fluid and air-filled holes where the borehole wall is rough and no mudcake is present. It cannot, however, correct for a uniform mudcake or air gap, and so complements but does not replace the standard method.
Date: October 1, 1993
Creator: Carlson, R.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Policy gridlock in waste management: Balancing federal and state concerns

Description: Current federal hazardous and low-level radioactive waste management policies fail to balance national concerns for policy consistency with state concerns for equity, discretion, and adequate resources. Failure to balance these competing values has resulted in {open_quotes}policy gridlock{close_quotes} - exemplified by conflicts over the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Acts. Both conflicts have resulted in recent U.S. Supreme Court litigation. After reviewing federal-state conflict in hazardous and low-level radioactive waste management, we propose that the solution to gridlock lies in modifying conjoint federalism. Conjoint federalism allows for joint responsibility for waste policy between federal and state governments, with state programs meeting minimum standards set by federal programs. However, conjoint federalism does not currently allow for sufficient state discretion, which is paramount for successful waste management programs. Specifically, Congress should expand conjoint federalism, to allow states to charge differential fees on imported hazardous waste as is done for low-level radioactive waste. This expansion would encourage waste minimization and better interstate planning.
Date: December 31, 1993
Creator: Feldman, D.L.; Peretz, J.H. & Jendrucko, B.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Filters and wavefront dividing beamsplitters for the near and mid infrared produced by micromachining techniques

Description: Band pass filters for the far infrared have been produced by etching crosses into metal films on Mylar substrates. Unsupported thin cross shaped filters for the far infrared have been produced by etching crosses into 4 microns thick nickel foils. These authors studied the dependence of the wavelength of peak transmission, bandwidth, and percentage of peak transmission on the shape of the crosses. Very accurately shaped crosses in thick metals for the mid infrared have been produced using LIGA. These filters showed a strong side peak and transmission in the 70% to 80% range. Theoretical calculations by Compton et al for thin filters predict such a side peak, depending on the shape of the cross, and 100% transmission. To obtain maximum transmission for band pass filters, a tripod shape was used instead of the cross. These filters showed 100% transmission and the side peak for a thickness of 10.5 microns. The side peak is getting smaller for thinner filters.
Date: December 31, 1993
Creator: Warren, J.; Heaney, J.B. & Moeller, K.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Influence of meteorology in assessing energy externalities: application of the damage function approach

Description: This paper describes a methodology for estimating energy externalities. These externalities are environmental, health, and other damages and benefits that traditionally have not been considered as part of the cost of producing and consuming goods and services. An example of externalities is the effect on human health from exposure to ozone formed by NO{sub x} and other emissions from electric power plants. These damages are valued adversely by individuals (and by society) but are not reflected in the price of electricity. The damage function approach is a methodology which is used for developing quantitative estimates of externalities. This paper describes the five major steps in the damage function approach, focuses on the use of ozone models in that framework, and points out the effects of meteorological variables on estimates of ozone concentrations.
Date: September 14, 1993
Creator: Lee, R.; Miller, R.L. & McIlvaine, C.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A method for measuring dark current electron beams in an rf linac

Description: X-ray fluorescence from thin foils inserted into the NPS linac has been used to measure the integrated electron beam intensity when the accelerator is operating with dark current. The measured x-ray flux, the known inner shell ionization cross sections and radiative transition probabilities are used to obtain measurements of dark currents of the order of 10{sup -14} amperes. The same arrangement allows continuous, in-situ energy calibration of our SiLi detector in the electromagnetic noise environment of the linac. This technique was orginally developed to perform absolute production efficiency measurements of parametric x-ray generation in the 5-50 keV range.
Date: December 31, 1993
Creator: Maruyama, X. K.; Fasanello, T.; Rietdyk, H.; Piestrup, M. A.; Rule, D. W. & Fiorito, R. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of the impact of energy crops on water quality. Final report

Description: This report consists of two separate papers. The first, ``The potential use of agricultural simulation models in predicting the fate of nitrogen and pesticides applied to switchgrass and poplars,`` describes three models (CREAMS, GLEAMS, and EPIC) for the evaluation of the relationships which determine water quality in the agroecosystem. Case studies are presented which demonstrate the utility of these models in evaluating the potential impact of alternative crop management practices. The second paper, ``Energy crops as part of a sustainable landscape,`` discusses concepts of landscape management and the linkage among agricultural practices and environmental quality.
Date: April 16, 1993
Creator: Hatfield, J. L. & Gale, W. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Applications of the ARGUS code in accelerator physics

Description: ARGUS is a three-dimensional, electromagnetic, particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation code that is being distributed to U.S. accelerator laboratories in collaboration between SAIC and the Los Alamos Accelerator Code Group. It uses a modular architecture that allows multiple physics modules to share common utilities for grid and structure input., memory management, disk I/O, and diagnostics, Physics modules are in place for electrostatic and electromagnetic field solutions., frequency-domain (eigenvalue) solutions, time- dependent PIC, and steady-state PIC simulations. All of the modules are implemented with a domain-decomposition architecture that allows large problems to be broken up into pieces that fit in core and that facilitates the adaptation of ARGUS for parallel processing ARGUS operates on either Cray or workstation platforms, and MOTIF-based user interface is available for X-windows terminals. Applications of ARGUS in accelerator physics and design are described in this paper.
Date: December 31, 1993
Creator: Petillo, J. J.; Mankofsky, A.; Krueger, W. A.; Kostas, C.; Mondelli, A. A. & Drobot, A. T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Heat leak performance of SSC collider dipole magnets

Description: The large number of superconducting dipoles in the SSC results in a stringent heat leak budget for each dipole. Ensuring that the dipoles meet this budget is vital to the successful operation or the collider. This work surveys heat leak measurements taken during 4 different magnet string tests. These tests involved both 40 mm and SO mm aperture dipoles. In these experiments the heat leak to the 80 K shield, 20 K shield and cold mass are measured. The results are compared to predictions from a computational thermal model of the dipole cryostat. Discrepancies are seen between the predicted and measured values. Possible explanations for these discrepancies are given.
Date: September 1, 1993
Creator: Weisend, J.G. II; Levin, M.; Franks, D.; Pletzer, R.; Augustynowicz, S.; McInturff, A.D. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hydrogen Contamination of Niobium Surfaces

Description: The presence of hydrogen is blamed for dramatic reductions in cavity Q's. Hydrogen concentration is difficult to measure, so there is a great deal of Fear, Uncertainty, and Doubt (FUD) associated with the problem. This paper presents measurements of hydrogen concentration depth profiles, commenting on the pitfalls of the methods used and exploring how material handling can change the amount of hydrogen in pieces of niobium. Hydrogen analysis was performed by a forward scattering experiment with Helium used as the primary beam. This technique is variously known as FRES (Forward Recoil Elastic Scattering), FRS, HFS (Hydrogen Forward Scattering), and HRA (Hydrogen Recoil Analysis). Some measurements were also made using SIMS (Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry). Both HFS and SIMS are capable of measuring a depth profile of Hydrogen. The primary difficulty in interpreting the results from these techniques is the presence of a surface peak which is due (at least in part) to contamination with either water or hydrocarbons. With HFS, the depth resolution is about 30 nm, and the maximum depth profiled is about 300 nm. (This 10-1 ratio is unusually low for ion beam techniques, and is a consequence of the compromises that must be made in the geometry of the experiment, surface roughness, and energy straggling in the absorber foil that must be used to filter out the forward scattered helium.) All the observed HFS spectra include a surface peak which includes both surface contamination and any real hydrogen uptake by the niobium surface. Some contamination occurs during the analysis. The vacuum in the analysis chamber is typically a few times 10{sup -6} torr, and some of the contamination is in the form of hydrocarbons from the pumping system. Hydrocarbons normally form a very thin (less than a monolayer) film which is in equilibrium between arrival rate and ...
Date: October 1993
Creator: Nguyen-Tuong, Viet & Doolittle, Lawrence
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Status of superconducting magnets for the Superconducting Super Collider

Description: The arc sections of the High Energy Booster and the two Collider Rings will need more than 10,000, very large, superconducting dipole and quadrupole magnets. Development work on these magnets was carried out at US/DOE laboratories in a program that began in the mid 1980`s. In 1991-1992, the technology was transferred to industry and twenty, full-length, Collider dipoles were successfully fabricated and tested. This program, along with HERA and Tevatron experience, has provided industry a data base to use in formulating detailed designs for the prototypes of the accelerator magnets, with an eye to reducing cost and enhancing producibility. Several model magnets from this latest phase of the industrial program have already been tested. The excessive ramp-rate sensitivity of the magnets is understood and solutions are under investigation.
Date: September 1, 1993
Creator: Schermer, R.I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Proposed particle-beam characterizations for the APS undulator test line

Description: A research and development effort is underway at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) to use an rf gun as a low-emittance electron source for injection into the 100- to 650-MeV linac subsystem and subsequently to an undulator test area. This configuration would combine the acceleration capability of the 200-MeV S-band electron linac and the in-line 450-MeV positron linac that normally provide positrons to the positron accumulator ring (PAR). A transport line that bypasses the PAR will bring the electrons to the undulator test area. Characterization techniques will be discussed for the electron beam with a normalized, rms emittance of <10 {pi} mm mrad (1{sigma}) at micropulse charges of up to 350 pC and micropulse durations of {approximately}5 ps (FWHM). Tests proposed include measurement of particle beam transport effects (at one-tenth the storage ring beam rigidity) caused by small undulator field errors as well as operations intended to produce coherent, short wavelength radiation (<200 nm).
Date: September 1, 1993
Creator: Lumpkin, A.H.; Borland, M. & Milton, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Studies of non-isothermal flow in saturated and partially saturated porous media

Description: Physical and numerical experiments have been performed to investigate the behavior of nonisothermal flow in two-dimensional saturated and partially saturated porous media. The physical experiments were performed to identify non-isothermal flow fields and temperature distributions in fully saturated, half-saturated, and residually saturated two-dimensional porous media with bottom heating and top cooling. Two counter-rotating liquid-phase convective cells were observed to develop in the saturated regions of all three cases. Gas-phase convection was also evidenced in the unsaturated regions of the partially saturated experiments. TOUGH2 numerical simulations of the saturated case were found to be strongly dependent on the assumed boundary conditions of the physical system. Models including heat losses through the boundaries of the test cell produced temperature and flow fields that were in better agreement with the observed temperature and flow fields than models that assumed insulated boundary conditions. A sensitivity analysis also showed that a reduction of the bulk permeability of the porous media in the numerical simulations depressed the effects of convection, flattening the temperature profiles across the test cell.
Date: December 31, 1993
Creator: Ho, C.K.; Maki, K.S. & Glass, R.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Peer review of RELAP5/MOD3 documentation

Description: A peer review was performed on a portion of the documentation of the RELAP5/MOD3 computer code. The review was performed in two phases. The first phase was a review of Volume 3, Developmental Assessment problems, and Volume 4, Models and Correlations. The reviewers for this phase were Dr. Peter Griffith, Dr. Yassin Hassan, Dr. Gerald S. Lellouche, Dr. Marino di Marzo and Mr. Mark Wendel. The reviewers recommended a number of improvements, including using a frozen version of the code for assessment guided by a validation plan, better justification for flow regime maps and extension of models beyond their data base. The second phase was a review of Volume 6, Quality Assurance of Numerical Techniques in RELAP5/MOD3. The reviewers for the second phase were Mr. Mark Wendel and Dr. Paul T. Williams. Recommendations included correction of numerous grammatical and typographical errors and better justification for the use of Lax`s Equivalence Theorem.
Date: December 31, 1993
Creator: Craddick, W.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Composite heat damage assessment

Description: The effects of heat damage were determined on the residual mechanical, physical, and chemical properties of IM6/3501-6 laminates, and potential nondestructive techniques to detect and assess material heat damage were evaluated. About one thousand preconditioned specimens were exposed to elevated temperatures, then cooled to room temperature and tested in compression, flexure, interlaminar shear, shore-D hardness, weight loss, and change in thickness. Specimens experienced significant and irreversible reduction in their residual properties when exposed to temperatures exceeding the material upper service temperature of this material (350{degrees}F). The Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform and Laser-Pumped Fluorescence techniques were found to be capable of rapid, in-service, nondestructive detection and quantitation of heat damage in IM6/3501- 6. These techniques also have the potential applicability to detect and assess heat damage effects in other polymer matrix composites.
Date: December 31, 1993
Creator: Janke, C.J.; Wachter, E.A.; Philpot, H.E. & Powell, G.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Workshop on measurement quality assurance for ionizing radiation: Proceedings

Description: This workshop was held to review the status of secondary level calibration accreditation programs, review related measurement accreditation programs, document lessons learned, and to present changes in programs due to new national priorities involving radioactivity measurements. Contents include: fundamentals of measurement quality assurance (MQA), standards for MQA programs; perspectives and policies; complete MQA programs; future MQA programs; QA/QC programs--radioactivity; QA/QC programs--dosimetry; laboratory procedures for QA/QC; in-house control of reference dosimetry laboratories; in-house controls of radioactivity laboratories; and poster session. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.
Date: December 31, 1993
Creator: Heath, J.A. & Swinth, K.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tribological Characteristics of sputtered Au/Cr films on alumina substrates at elevated temperatures

Description: This paper describes research to evaluate the tribological properties of alumina pins sliding against thin sputtered gold films deposited on alumina disk substrates. A 250 {angstrom} thick chromium interlayer was first deposited onto the alumina test disks to enhance adhesion and high temperature wetting of the gold films. The Au/Cr films were tribotested in pure sliding in a pin-on-disk tribometer under a 4.9 N load at 1 m/s. The test atmosphere was room air at temperatures of 25, 500, and 800 C and the test duration varied from 60 to 540 min. The use of the Au/Cr films reduced friction by about a factor of two compared to the unlubricated alumina sliding couple. The coating prevented wear of the alumina substrate disks and reduced pin wear by one to two orders of magnitude. In addition, wear lives in excess of 200 000 sliding passes (9 hr) were observed during sliding at 800 C. Results suggest that these films show promise for the practical lubrication of many high temperature sliding components.
Date: December 31, 1993
Creator: Benoy, P.A. & DellaCorte, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Monolithic front-end preamplifiers for a broad range of calorimetry applications

Description: The present paper summarizes the salient results of a research and development activity in the area of low noise preamplifiers for different applications in calorimetry. Design target for all circuits considered here are low noise, ability to cope with broad energy ranges and radiation hardness.
Date: December 31, 1993
Creator: Radeka, V.; Rescia, S.; Manfredi, P.F. & Speziali, V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

1993 Department of Energy Records Management Conference

Description: This document consists of viewgraphs from the presentations at the conference. Topics included are: DOE records management overview, NIRMA and ARMA resources, NARA records management training, potential quality assurance records, filing systems, organizing and indexing technical records, DOE-HQ initiatives, IRM reviews, status of epidemiologic inventory, disposition of records and personal papers, inactive records storage, establishing administrative records, managing records at Hanford, electronic mail -- legal and records issues, NARA-GAO reports status, consultive selling, automated indexing, decentralized approach to scheduling at a DOE office, developing specific records management programs, storage and retrieval at Savannah River Plant, an optical disk case study, and special interest group reports.
Date: December 31, 1993
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Morphological stability of thin films

Description: The boundary element method for elastostatics is applied to a thin stability problem arising in solid state surface science. An aim of this work is to determine the morphology of Ge deposited on a Si substrate. Nonstandard boundary conditions at the material interface are used to model the epitaxially grown film. In addition to determining the deformed geometry, it is also necessary to compute the surface stress tensor. Although the surface displacement at the junction between the interface and the Si free surface is not differentiable, the hypersingular integral equation for surface stress can still be used. These techniques are described along with results from 2-D calculations.
Date: December 31, 1993
Creator: Gray, L.J.; Chisholm, M.F. & Kaplan, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Magnetic performance of a fast excitation wiggler for inverse free-electron lasers

Description: With the objective of performing an inverse free-electron laser accelerator experiment, an iron dominated (Vanadium Permendur), fast excitation, high K planar wiggler has been guilt and measured. We present in this report an analysis of a constant period wiggler and several tapering configurations (gap=4 mm; 3.0 cm < {lambda}{sub {omega}} < 5.0 cm) when we drive it to a peak field of B{sub max} {approx} 1.4T.
Date: December 31, 1993
Creator: Gallardo, J.C.; Romano, T. & van Steenbergen, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department