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Performance criteria testing

Description: Savannah River Plant (SRP) has initiated an aggressive program aimed at improving their shipper/receiver (S/R) posture. The site is routinely involved in 800 nuclear material transfers/year. This many transactions between facilities provides many opportunities for resolving S/R differences. Resolution of S/R differences requires considerable effort from both DOE offices and contractors, presents legitimate safeguards concerns if the receiving quantity is less than the quantity shipped, and must be resolved for shipments to continue. This paper will discuss the programs in place at SRP to improve their position versus shipments and receipts of nuclear materials including: S/R agreements, which provide a method of communicating between the shipping and receiving facility and protects both facilities by eliminating misunderstandings; nondestructive assay (NDA) instrumentation, which allows the facility to obtain an accountability quality value for receipt before the material is processed; more accurate and precise analytical techniques in use wherever SRP does not have the capability to measure a shipment or receipt by NDA; S/R values are graphed to identify trends and/or biases that may not have exceeded any error limits; and the central Material Control and Accountability (MC and A) division has become more involved in analyzing the data from shipments and receipts including the calculation of limits of error (LOE`s), instrument biases, and analyzing trends.
Date: 1988-06~
Creator: Davis, F. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Data acquisition with Masscomp

Description: Applications and products for data acquisition and control are abundant. Systems and boards for Apple or IBM products collect, store, and manipulate data up to rates in the 10`s of thousands. These systems may suit your application; if so, it would be good for you to obtain one of these systems. However, if you need speed in the hundreds of thousands of samples per second and you want to store, process, and display data in real time, data acquisition becomes much more complex. Operating system code has to be sufficient to handle the load. A company known as Massachusetts Computer Corporation has modified UNIX operating system code to allow real time data acquisition and control. They call this operating system Real Time Unix, or RTU. They have built a family of computer systems around this operating system with specialized hardware to handle multiple processes and quick communications, which a real time operating system needs to function. This paper covers the basics of an application using a Masscomp 5520 computer. The application is for the KYLE Project Cold Tests in SRL. KYLE is a classified weapons program. The data flow from source to Masscomp, the generic features of Masscomp systems, and the specifics of the Masscomp computer related to this application will be presented.
Date: October 1988
Creator: Collins, A. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of automated emergency response systems

Description: Automated Emergency Response (ER) systems are playing a greater role in providing prompt and reliable predictions of the impact of inadvertent releases of hazardous materials to the environment. Observed and forecast environmental and accident source term data are input into environmental transport and dispersion models to provide dosimetry estimates used as decision making aids for responding to emergencies. Several automated ER systems have been developed for US Federal Government facilities and many are available commercially. For such systems to be useful, they must reliably and consistently deliver a timely product to the decision makers. Evaluation of the entire ER system is essential to determine the performance that can be expected from the system during an emergency. Unfortunately, seldom are ER systems evaluated as a whole. Usually Quality Assurance programs evaluate the performance of individual components of the system. Most atmospheric pollution model evaluation methods usually involve an evaluation of the predictive performance of the transport and dispersion model when compared either with experimental tracer results or results from other models. Rarely, however, is the ability of the ER system to provide timely, reliable and consistent information evaluated. Such an evaluation is vital to determine the system performance during an emergency and to provide valuable information to aid in improving the system.
Date: 1988-09~
Creator: Addis, R. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Automated dimensional analysis using a light-sectioning microscope

Description: A computer vision system has been integrated with a modified light-sectioning microscope for quality control and inspection of a machined part whose critical dimensions are 30 to 300 {mu}m. Height measurements were determined by analysis of the projected light-section line. Transverse measurements were made using the microscope in a traditional configuration with illumination from selected elements of an external LED ring array. The light section irradiance was under computer control to accommodate the spatial variations in surface reflectance whose dynamic range exceeded that of the vision system. Part features are located by the vision system. Edges and line centers are then measured to sub-pixel resolution with a gray-level analysis algorithm. This paper describes the design and operation of this system. Details of the measurement process and analysis algorithms are provided.
Date: December 31, 1988
Creator: Loomis, J.; Lightman, A.; Poe, A. & Caldwell, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Calibration of data acquisition system measurement of weld parameters

Description: The purpose of this talk was to outline the calibration and use of the MacSym Data Acquisition System to measure welding parameters in the Tritium Facility`s pinch welders. The point was stressed at the outset of the presentation that these parameters measured are not in any way the final criteria for accepting or rejecting a weld. Rather, the physical dimensions of the weld are the basis for accepting a weld, namely the thickness and closure length. So these welding parameters serve as ranges and boundaries to stay within in order to give the highest level of repeatable success. The seven weld parameters measured are: piston pressure, line pressure, motion, current, energy, line voltage, and force. Each of these measurements are made with installed equipment that is calibrated with standards that are traceable to NBS (National Bureau of Standards). In turn, the DAS is calibrated by adjusting the software to match the installed equipment in its measurements. Also, the DAS provides continual monitoring and display of the weld parameters before and after the weld has been made. A printout is also given of parameters during the weld to give further record of weld data to back up installed measurement instruments not connected to the DAS.
Date: 1988-10~
Creator: Roberts, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Application of rock melting to construction of storage holes for nuclear waste

Description: Rock melting technology can provide in-situ glass liners in nuclear waste package emplacement holes to reduce permeability and increase borehole stability. Reduction of permeability would reduce the time and probability of groundwater contacting the waste packages. Increasing the stability of the storage boreholes would enhance the retrievability of the nuclear waste packages. The rock melting hole forming technology has already been tested in volcanic tuff similar to the geology at the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. 6 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.
Date: December 31, 1988
Creator: Neudecker, J.W. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Uranium transport in Topopah Spring tuff: An ion-microscope investigation

Description: We investigated the effect of different methods of surface preparation on ion-microscope profiles of uranium concentration (added to the sample by diffusion from an aqueous solution) vs depth in a welded, devitrified, tuffaceous rock from Yucca Mountain. The concentration profiles were used to study transport of uranium in the tuff. Four wafers of rock were prepared from primary drill core material and finished by polishing with increasingly finer abrasive material. Final polishes were made with 400 grit SiC, 600 grit SiC, 0.3 um alumina, and 0.05 um alumina. The polished tuff wafers were exposed for eight hours to a solution of groundwater doped with 2 ppM 235-U. The wafers were then examined by SEM and the ion microscope was used to measure the lateral and depth distributions of 235-U and other isotopes in the wafer. No systematic correlation of the measured 235-U concentration- vs-depth profiles with the degree of surface finish was observed, indicating that the polishing does not affect the measurable transport of U in the tuff. A zone of enhanced 235-U concentration was observed in the upper few microns, which we attribute to sorption onto surfaces of exposed pores. Concentrations of 235-U were elevated above background to depths >15 um, indicating that rapid transport paths exist. When the uranium distribution near the surface of the wafer was modelled by an error function, an upper limit for a slower transport path was defined by an apparent diffusion coefficient of approximately 10{sup {minus}13} cm{sup 2}/s. 5 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.
Date: October 1, 1988
Creator: McKeegan, K.D.; Phinney, D.; Oversby, V.M.; Buchholtz-ten Brink, M. & Smith, D.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Control and Diagnostics System for the CEBAF Injector

Description: We present the first experience with the CEBAF injector control and diagnostics system. The computer architecture of the control system has been described elsewhere. The injector system is a model for the CEBAF controls. A computer system controls the gun, the steering magnets, and the focusing elements, and in the near future also the injector rf system. The beam parameters such as current, position, and emittance are measured by various monitors and are automatically analyzed by the computer.
Date: October 1, 1988
Creator: Adderley, P.; Barry, W.; Bork, R.; Cucinotta, R.; Grubb, C.; Heefner, J. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Betatron Function Parameterization of Beam Optics including Acceleration

Description: Betatron function parameterization of symplectic matrices is of recognized utility in beam optical computations. The traditional ''beta functions'' beta, alpha, gamma,(=(1+alpha{sup 2})/beta) and psi (the betratron phase advance) provide an emittance-independent representation of the properties of a beam transport system. They thereby decouple the problem of ''matching'' injected beam envelope properties to the acceptance of a particular transport system from the details of producing a beam of a specific emittance. The definition and interpretation of these parameters becomes, however, more subtle when acceleration effects, especially adiabatic damping (with associated nonsymplecticity of the transfer matrix), are included. We present algorithms relating symplectic representations of beam optics to the more commonly encountered nonsymplectic (x, x', y, y') representation which exhibits adiabatic damping. Betatron function parameterizations are made in both representations. Self-consistent physical interpretations of the betatron functions are given and applications to a standard beam transport program are made.
Date: October 1, 1988
Creator: Douglas, D.R.; Kewisch, J. & York, R.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Assessment of seismic hazards at Yucca Mountain

Description: During the preclosure time period (approximately 100 yr), the prospective geologic repository at Yucca Mountain must provide for public and worker radiological safety and retrievability of emplaced waste. During the postclosure period (10,000 yr), the repository must ensure that cumulative radionulclide releases to the accessible environment comply with EPA release limits. Substantially complete containment must be provided by the waste packages for 300-1000 yr. All of these functions must be maintained should a severe seismic event occur and must be achieved with reasonably available technology. The seismic phenomena of interest for the preclosure period are vibratory ground motion from a nearby earthquake or underground nuclear explosion (UNE), faulting beneath surface facilities that are important to safety, and faulting in underground areas of emplaced waste. For the postclosure period, earthquake ground motion, underground faulting, and seismically induced adverse changes in hydrologic conditions have been identified as the most important seismic phenomena to be characterized. The NNWSI Project Site Charcterization Plan describes a number of seismic parameters that are needed for repository design or performance assessment, along with tentative goals for each parameter. Key parameters, goals and current assessments, all subject to change as site characterization progresses, are summarized in this report. 4 refs.
Date: December 31, 1988
Creator: King, J.L.; Frazier, G.A. & Grant, T.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The search for high level parallelism for the iterative solution of large sparse linear systems

Description: In this paper the author is concerned with the numerical solution, based on iterative methods, of large sparse systems of linear algebraic equations of the type which arise in the numerical solution of elliptic and parabolic partial differential equations by finite difference or finite element methods. He considers linear systems of the form Au = b where A is a given N x N matrix which is large and sparse and where b is a given N x 1 column vector. He will assumes that A is symmetric and positive definite (SPD). He considers iterative algorithms which consist of a basic iterative method, such as the Richardson, Jacobi, SSOR or incomplete Cholesky method, combined with an acceleration procedure such as Chebyshev acceleration or conjugate gradient acceleration. The object of this paper is, however, to examine some high-level methods for achieving parallelism. Such techniques involve only matrix/vector operations and do not involve working with blocks of the matrix, subdividing the region, or using different meshes. It is expected that if effective high-level methods could be developed, they could be combined with block and domain decomposition methods, and related methods, to obtain even greater speedups. It is also expected that by working at a higher level it will eventually be possible to develop general purpose software for parallel machines similar to the ITPACK software packages which have already been developed for sequential and vector machines. The discussion here is primarily devoted to describing various techniques which the author and others have considered for obtaining high-level parallelism. The author plans to continue research on these techniques and eventually to develop algorithms and programs for multiprocessors based on them.
Date: July 1, 1988
Creator: Young, D.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mass transfer and transport in geologic repositories: Analytical studies and applications

Description: Assessing the long-term performance of geologic repositories for radioactive waste requires reliable quantitative predictions of rates of release of radionuclides from the waste into the rock, transport through the geologic media, cumulative release to the accessible environment, and maximum concentrations in ground water and surface water. Here we review theoretical approaches to making these predictions and issues that require resolution. 27 refs.
Date: January 1, 1988
Creator: Pigford, T.H.; Chambre, P.L. & Lee, W.W.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The EQ3/6 software package for geochemical modeling: Current status

Description: EQ3/6 is a software package for modeling chemical and mineralogic interactions in aqueous geochemical systems. The major components of the package are EQ3NR (a speciation-solubility code), EQ6 (a reaction path code), EQLIB (a supporting library), and a supporting thermodynamic data base. EQ3NR calculates aqueous speciation and saturation indices from analytical data. It can also be used to calculate compositions of buffer solutions for use in laboratory experiments. EQ6 computes reaction path models of both equilibrium step processes and kinetic reaction processes. These models can be computed for closed systems and relatively simple open systems. EQ3/6 is useful in making purely theoretical calculations, in designing, interpreting, and extrapolating laboratory experiments, and in testing and developing submodels and supporting data used in these codes. The thermodynamic data base supports calculations over the range 0-300{degree}C. 60 refs., 2 figs.
Date: July 1, 1988
Creator: Wolery, T.J.; Jackson, K.J.; Bourcier, W.L.; Bruton, C.J.; Viani, B.E.; Knauss, K.G. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Report of the workshop on Siberian snakes for the SSC collider ring

Description: This workshop on Siberian snakes for the SSC was held to discuss the technical feasibility of polarized beams at the SSC. Only the 20-TeV collider ring was discussed with the prospect that the polarized beam source, the linac, and the boosters have fewer technical problems. More specifically, the major issue of the miniworkshop was to give an answer to the questions (1) how many Siberian snakes are needed and (2) what alignment tolerances are required, given the snakes. No attempt was made to address the issues of whether polarized beams will benefit the SSC high energy physics program or what the cost will be. As for the two questions above, workshop participants concluded that the required number of snake pairs is around 10 and the alignment tolerance is less than 100 microns. This tight tolerance is of great concern and has to be confirmed by other means such as computer simulation. One of the conclusions was that they should have a realistic lattice of the SSC which enables them to study it in more detail and to try computer simulations.
Date: September 1, 1988
Creator: Yokoya, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Uncertainty in site inspection and tracking database estimates of savings

Description: The authors systematically analyze impact evaluation results of three commercial lighting rebate DSM programs. The research includes (1) analysis of ex ante and ex post estimates of program performance, broken down into critical program parameters: hours of operation, watts saved per measure, and measures installed per site; (2) construction of probability distributions of program performance, both in the aggregate and for these critical program parameters; and (3) use of these analyses and distributions to draw conclusions about the accuracy of savings estimates from a variety of evaluation methods. The analysis suggests that realization rates (a ratio of metered savings estimates to tracking database savings estimates) for the sample of participants they examine are subject to tremendous variability, calling into question the usefulness of a point estimate of the realization rate. Discrepancies in estimates of hours of operation are responsible for most of the uncertainty in the realization rate. Finally, the impact of shorter measure lifetimes on savings estimates suggest that persistence studies should be an evaluation priority.
Date: December 31, 1988
Creator: Sonnenblick, R. & Eto, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thirteenth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

Description: PREFACE The Thirteenth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at Stanford University on January 19-21, 1988. Although 1987 continued to be difficult for the domestic geothermal industry, world-wide activities continued to expand. Two invited presentations on mature geothermal systems were a keynote of the meeting. Malcolm Grant presented a detailed review of Wairakei, New Zealand and highlighted plans for new development. G. Neri summarized experience on flow rate decline and well test analysis in Larderello, Italy. Attendance continued to be high with 128 registered participants. Eight foreign countries were represented: England, France, Iceland, Italy, New Zealand, Japan, Mexico and The Philippines. A discussion of future workshops produced a strong recommendation that the Stanford Workshop program continue for the future. There were forty-one technical presentations at the Workshop. All of these are published as papers in this Proceedings volume. Four technical papers not presented at the Workshop are also published. In addition to these forty five technical presentations or papers, the introductory address was given by Henry J. Ramey, Jr. from the Stanford Geothermal Program. The Workshop Banquet speaker was Gustavo Calderon from the Inter-American Development Bank. We thank him for sharing with the Workshop participants a description of the Bank???s operations in Costa Rica developing alternative energy resources, specifically Geothermal, to improve the country???s economic basis. His talk appears as a paper in the back of this volume. The chairmen of the technical sessions made an important contribution to the workshop. Other than Stanford faculty members they included: J. Combs, G. T. Cole, J. Counsil, A. Drenick, H. Dykstra, K. Goyal, P. Muffler, K. Pruess, and S. K. Sanyal. The Workshop was organized by the Stanford Geothermal Program faculty, staff and students. We would like to thank Marilyn King, Pat Oto, Terri Ramey, Bronwyn Jones, Yasmin Gulamani, and Rosalee ...
Date: January 21, 1988
Creator: Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Kruger, P.; Horne, R.N.; Brigham, W.E.; Miller, F.G. & Cook, J.W. (Stanford Geothermal Program)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Helping at the Edges of Life: Perspectives of a Psychedelic Therapist

Description: Article presenting a case history of a 70 year old man treated with psychedelic psychotherapy for depression, anxiety, and pain associated with terminal cancer. Interpersonal and intrapersonal aspects of treatment following a single 90 mg dose of dipropyltryptamine (DPT) are described. Comparisons are made between transpersonal, mystical, and religious elements in psychedelic drug experiences and near-death experiences.
Date: Spring 1988
Creator: Yensen, Richard
Partner: UNT Libraries

Thanatoperience

Description: Abstract: Near-death experiences (NDEs) can be seen as special cases of psychological transition. They often involve a deep transformation in the sense of self. I examine the NDE as such, according to my phase theory of transition, and I analyze an NDE with the help of that theory. I conclude that the study of NDEs may provide insight into the general psychology of transition.
Date: Autumn 1988
Creator: Tien, Stephen Slade
Partner: UNT Libraries