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Neutral-particle-beam production and injection

Description: This paper is divided into two sections: the first is a discussion of the interactions of neutral beams with confined plasmas, the second is concerned with the production and diagnosis of the neutral beams. In general we are dealing with atoms, molecules, and ions of the isotopes of hydrogen, but some heavier elements (for example, oxygen) will be mentioned. The emphasis will be on single-particle collisions; selected atomic processes on surfaces will be included.
Date: July 1, 1982
Creator: Post, D. & Pyle, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Calibration of a photometer for measurement of the cosmic microwave background

Description: In this paper we describe the calibration of a photometer designed to measure the cosmic microwave background radiation in the frequency range from 3 to 10 cm/sup -1/. The general problem of absolute calibration for such measurements is discussed. The design of a new experiment which is different in most important respects from the Woody-Richards experimentis then presented. A mathematical model of the calibration procedure is developed which includes an analysis of ways in which the procedure can fail to give accurate results.
Date: July 1, 1982
Creator: Bonomo, J.L.; Peterson, J.B.; Richards, P.L. & Timusk, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy recovery by water injection

Description: Several analytical and numerical studies that address injection and thermal breakthrough in fractured geothermal reservoirs are described. The results show that excellent thermal sweeps can be achieved in fractured reservoirs, and that premature cold water breakthrough can be avoided if the injection wells are appropriately located.
Date: July 1, 1982
Creator: Witherspoon, P.A.; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Pruess, K. & Tsang, C.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Collision of fast highly charged ions in gas targets: ionization, recoil-ion production, and charge transfer

Description: Electron-capture, ionization, and recoil-ion-production cross sections are measured and calculated for fast highly charged projectiles in hydrogen and rare-gas targets. Recoil-ion-production cross sections are found to be large; the low energy and high charge states of the recoil ions make them useful for subsequent collision studies.
Date: July 1, 1982
Creator: Schalchter, A.S.; Berkner, K.H. & Beyer, H.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Future engineering needs of mirror fusion reactors

Description: Fusion research has matured during the last decade and significant insight into the future program needs has emerged. While some will properly note that the crystal ball is cloudy, it is equally important to note that the shape and outline of our course is discernable. In this short summary paper, I will draw upon the National Mirror Program Plan for mirror projects and on available design studies of these projects to put the specific needs of the mirror program in perspective.
Date: July 30, 1982
Creator: Thomassen, K.I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory laser-fusion program

Description: The goals of the Laser-Fusion Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory are to produce well-diagnosed, high-gain, laser-driven fusion explosions in the laboratory and to exploit this capability for both military applications and for civilian energy production. In the past year we have made significant progress both theoretically and experimentally in our understanding of the laser interaction with both directly coupled and radiation-driven implosion targets and their implosion dynamics. We have made significant developments in fabricating the target structures. Data from the target experiments are producing important near-term physics results. We have also continued to develop attractive reactor concepts which illustrate ICF's potential as an energy producer.
Date: July 12, 1982
Creator: Ahlstrom, H.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Workshop on environmental assessment. [Regulation of applications of nuclear energy and related ancillary systems]

Description: Objectives of the workshop were: to review and evaluate the state-of-the-art of environmental impact assessments as applied to the regulation of applications of nuclear energy and related ancillary systems; to identify areas where existing technology allows establishing acceptable methods or standard practices that will meet the requirements of the NRC regulations, standards and guides for both normal operations and off-standard conditions including accident considerations; to illuminate topics where existing models or analytical methods are deficient because of unverified assumptions, a paucity of empirical data, conflicting results reported in the literature or a need for observation of operation systems; to compile, analyze and synthesize a prioritized set of research needs to advance the state-of-the-art to the level which will meet all of the requirements of the Commission's regulations, standards and guides; and to develop bases for maintaining the core of regulatory guidance at the optimum level balancing technical capabilities with practical considerations of cost and value to the regulatory process. The discussion held in small group sessions on aquatic, atmospheric, and terrestrial pathways are presented. The following research needs were identified as common to all three groups: validation of models; characterization of source terms; development of screening techniques; basis for de minimis levels of contamination; and updating of objectives for environmental monitoring programs.
Date: July 1, 1982
Creator: Watson, E.C. (comp.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Theory and simulation of laser plasma coupling-II

Description: In previous lectures at the 1979 Scottish Universities' Summer School in Physics, we presented an introduction to the theory and simulation of laser plasma interactions. A representative mix of coupling processes was discussed. In this update lecture for the 1982 school, we will emphasize two specific topics which have received increased attention in the last few years: stimulated Raman scatter and the wavelength scaling of laser plasma coupling.
Date: July 29, 1982
Creator: Kruer, W.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Behavior of nuclei at high angular momentum

Description: The present report begins with a brief overview of nuclear shapes and level structures at high-spin values. The new spectroscopy associated with angular-momentum alignments is described, and some of the exciting possibilities of this spectroscopy are explored. Nuclear moments of inertia are discussed and a somewhat different one is defined, together with a method for measuring it and some early results. Finally a few comments on the future prospects for high-spin physics are offered.
Date: July 1, 1982
Creator: Stephens, F.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

QCD diffraction: a critical phenomenon reflecting both confinement and chiral-symmetry breaking

Description: Arguments are presented for studying soft diffractive physics at anti p-p colliders in terms of Critical Pomeron Reggeon Field Theory. It is emphasized that both confinement and chiral-symmetry breaking play a vital role in the occurrence of the Critical Pomeron in QCD. SU(3) is the unique strong-interaction gauge group giving the Critical Pomeron and the maximum number of quarks allowed by asymptotic freedom is required for criticality.
Date: July 1, 1982
Creator: White, A.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Studies of injection into naturally fractured reservoirs

Description: A semi-analytical model for studies of cold water injectioninto naturally fractured reservoirs has been developed. The model can beused to design the flow rates and location of injection wells in suchsystems. The results obtained using the model show that initially thecold water will move very rapidly through the fracture system away fromthe well. Later on, conductive heat transfer from the rock matrix blockswill retard the advancement of the cold water front, and eventuallyuniform energy sweep conditions will prevail. Where uniform energy sweepconditions are reached the cold waer movement away from the injectionwell will be identical to that in a porous medium; consequently maximumenergy recovery from the rock matrix will be attained. The time ofuniform energy sweep and the radial distance from the injection wellwhere it occurs are greatly dependent upon the fracture spacing, butindependent of the fracture aperture.
Date: July 1, 1982
Creator: Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S. & Lai, Cheng Hsien
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Studies of injection into naturally fractured reservoirs

Description: A semi-analytical model for studies of cold water injectioninto naturally fractured reservoirs has been developed. The model can beused to design the flow rates and location of injection wells in suchsystems. The results obtained using the model show that initially thecold water will move very rapidly through the fracture system away fromthe well. Later on, conductive heat transfer from the rock matrix blockswill retard the advancement of the cold water front, and eventuallyuniform energy sweep conditions will prevail. Where uniform energy sweepconditions are reached the cold waer movement away from the injectionwell will be identical to that in a porous medium; consequently maximumenergy recovery from the rock matrix will be attained. The time ofuniform energy sweep and the radial distance from the injection wellwhere it occurs are greatly dependent upon the fracture spacing, butindependent of the fracture aperture.
Date: July 1, 1982
Creator: Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S. & Lai, Cheng Hsien
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An evaluation of the hydrothermal resources of North Dakota, the final phase

Description: Data relative to aquifer locations, temperature, and water quality for Pleistocene aquifers has been collected and preliminary interpretations of this data are presented here.
Date: July 1, 1982
Creator: Harris, Kenneth L.; Howell, Francis L. & Wartman, Brad L., Anderson, Sidney B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Resource investigation of low- and moderate-temperature geothermal areas in San Bernardino, California

Description: The California Division of Mines and Geology (CDMG) selected the San Bernardino area for detailed geothermal resource investigation because the area was known to contain promising geothermal resource sites, the area contained a large population center, and the City of San Bernardino had expressed serious interest in developing the area's geothermal resource. Ninety-seven geothermal wells and springs were identified and plotted on a compiled geologic map of the 40-square-mile study area. These wells and springs were concentrated in three distinguishable resource areas: Arrowhead Hot Springs, South San Bernardino, and Harlem Hot Springs--in each of which detailed geophysical, geochemical, and geological surveys were conducted. The Arrowhead Hot Springs geothermal area lies just north of the City of San Bernardino in the San Bernardino Mountains astride a shear zone (offshoot of the San Andreas fault) in pre-Cambrian gneiss and schist. The Harlem Hot Springs geothermal area, on the east side of the City, and the South San Bernardino geothermal area, on the south side, have geothermal reservoirs in Quaternary alluvial material which overlies a moderately deep sedimentary basin bound on the southwest by the San Jacinto fault (a ground water barrier). Geothermometry calculations suggest that the Arrowhead Hot Springs geothermal area, with a maximum reservoir temperature of 142 C, may have the highest maximum reservoir temperature of the three geothermal areas. The maximum temperature recorded by CDMG in the South San Bernardino geothermal area was 56 C from an artesian well, while the maximum temperature recorded in the Harlem Hot Springs geothermal areas was 49.5 C at 174 meters (570 feet) in an abandoned water well.
Date: July 1, 1982
Creator: Youngs, Leslie G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Component Leakage Testing in Residential Buildings

Description: The common approach to leakage area measurements in residential housing through pressurization of an entire structure with a blower door. However, this technique does not provide quantitative measurements of the leakiness of individual building components. By pressurizing individual components, it is possible to determine the distribution of leakage within a structure. The studies described in this paper involved measurement of the leakage areas of fireplaces, bathroom and kitchen exhaust vents, electrical outlets and leakage in the ducts of forced air distribution systems. Component leakage measurements were made in a total of thirty-four houses in Atlanta, Georgia, Reno, Nevada and the San Francisco Bay area. Damperless fireplaces and ductwork were found to be the most significant sources of leakage in the western houses. In the Atlanta houses, where cooling loads dominate, the significant leakage area was in the ductwork of the distribution system for central air conditioning that passes through the unconditioned space in the attic and crawlspace.
Date: July 1, 1982
Creator: Dickerhoff, D.J.; Grimsrud, D.T. & Lipschutz, R.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Statistics at work in heavy-ion reactions

Description: In the first part special aspects of the compound nucleus decay are considered. The evaporation of particles intermediate between nucleons and fission fragments is explored both theoretically and experimentally. The limitations of the fission decay width expression obtained with the transition state method are discussed, and a more general approach is proposed. In the second part the process of angular momentum transfer in deep inelastic reactions is considered. The limit of statistical equilibrium is studied and specifically applied to the estimation of the degree of alignment of the fragment spins. The magnitude and alignment of the transferred angular momentum is experimentally determined from sequentially emitted alpha, gamma, and fission fragments.
Date: July 1, 1982
Creator: Moretto, L.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Study of charged particles associated with high-p/sub T/ photons and pions

Description: We report on the distributions of charged particles produced in association with high p/sub T/ prompt photons and neutral pions in pp collisions at ..sqrt.. s = 63 GeV and theta = 90/sup 0/ in the centre of mass. We find photons to be relatively unaccompained by other particles at small angles with respect to the photon, and thereby extract a measurement of the fraction of prompt photons due to bremsstrahlung production. The relative density of positive to negative particles in the system recoiling from the photon has been measured and compared with QCD motivated calculations.
Date: July 1, 1982
Creator: Akesson, T.; Albrow, M.G. & Almehed, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Kalman-filter model for determining block and trickle SNM losses

Description: This paper describes an integrated decision procedure for deciding whether a diversion of SNM has occurred. Two possible types of diversion are considered: a block loss during a single time period and a cumulative trickle loss over several time periods. The methodology used is based on a compound Kalman filter model. Numerical examples illustrate our approach.
Date: July 1, 1982
Creator: Barlow, R.E.; Durst, M.J. & Smiriga, N.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geothermal reconnaissance of a portion of the Escalante Valley, Utah

Description: The exploration techniques employed during the study included: (1) Temperature survey of selected wells and springs; (2) Chemical analysis of fluids from selected wells and springs; and (3) Temperature-depth measurements of selected holes of opportunity.
Date: July 1, 1982
Creator: Klauk, R.H.; Foreman, M.B. & Gourley, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Application of fast infrared detectors to detonation science

Description: Infrared radiometers have been used to make time-resolved emission measurements of shocked explosives. Instruments of moderate time resolution were used to estimate temperatures in shocked but not detonated explosives. The heterogeneity of the shock-induced heating was discovered in pressed explosives by two-band techniques, and the time-resolved emittance or extent of hot spot coverage indicated a great dependence on shock pressures. Temperatures in moderately shocked organic liquids were also measured. Faster response radiometers with 5 ns rise times based on InSb and HgCdTe photovoltaic detectors were constructed and tested. Preliminary data on reactive shocks and detonations reveal a resolution of the heating in the shock wave and the following reaction.
Date: July 28, 1982
Creator: Von Holle, W.G. & McWilliams, R.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Stability of full-amplitude solutions for RR Lyrae variables

Description: Since the discovery of numerous double-mode RR Lyrae variables in the globular cluster M15 by Cox, Hodson, and Clancy (1981a and 1983, CHC), double-mode behavior in these Population II variables has made it possible to theoretically determine their masses, composition, and maybe even their evolution direction. The most unusual characteristic of these new double-mode pulsators is that they are found in a narrow range of first overtone periods (P/sub 1/=0./sup d/38-0./sup d/43) and period ratios (P/sub 1//P/sub 0/=0.746+-0.001), where P/sub 0/ is the fundamental mode period. This compares with P/sub 1/=0./sup d/41 and P/sub 1//P/sub 0/=0.746 for AQ Leonis, the only known field double-mode RR Lyrae star. Recent linear studies by CHC (1981a and 1983) suggest that double-mode behavior in this class of stars results from mode switching between the fundamental (F) and first overtone (1H) radial pulsation modes at the transition line just to the red of the F-mode blue edge.
Date: July 30, 1982
Creator: Hodson, S.W. & Cox, A.N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mechanical-engineering aspects of mirror-fusion technology

Description: The mirror approach to magnetic fusion has evolved from the original simple mirror cell to today's mainline effort: the tandem-mirror machine with thermal barriers. Physics and engineering research is being conducted throughout the world, with major efforts in Japan, the USSR, and the US. At least one facility under construction (MFTF-B) will approach equivalent energy breakeven in physics performance. Significant mechanical engineering development is needed, however, before a demonstration reactor can be constructed. The principal areas crucial to mirror reactor development include large high-field superconducting magnets, high-speed continuous vacuum-pumping systems, long-pulse high-power neutral-beam and rf-plasma heating systems, and efficient high-voltage high-power direct converters. Other areas common to all fusion systems include tritium handling technology, first-wall materials development, and fusion blanket design.
Date: July 15, 1982
Creator: Fisher, D.K. & Doggett, J.N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

HTGR structural-materials efforts in the US

Description: The status of ongoing structural materials programs being conducted in the US to support development and deployment of the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) is described. While the total US program includes work in support of all variants of this reactor system, the emphasis of this paper is on the work aimed at support of the steam cycle/cogeneration (SC/C) version of the HTGR. Work described includes activities to develop design and performance prediction data on metals, ceramics, and graphite.
Date: July 1, 1982
Creator: Rittenhouse, P.L. & Roberts, D.I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department