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Status of evaluation of tuff in southern Nevada for geologic disposal of high level nuclear wastes

Description: Siliceous tuff in southern Nevada occurs in a complex and locally active geological environment. Regional thrust faulting, Basin and Range faulting, and present-day seismicity complicate exploration and site characterization activities. The inherent variability of tuff and the complexity of caldera complexes also complicate siting efforts, but may serve to enhance long-term containment. Time--space trends of silicic volcanism are moderately well-established, while those of recent basaltic volcanism are not. At present, the final consequences for repository siting of the geologic complexities described in this paper are not known. Evidence from laboratory cation exchange measurements indicate that tuff and tuffaceous alluvium can serve as effective natural barriers to migration of radionuclides. This fact, coupled with multiple hydrologic barriers and long flow paths, as in the vicinity of the Nevada Test Site, might well result in tuff being a suitable medium for the safe long-term geologic disposal of nuclear wastes. Preliminary thermal modeling indicates the strong influence of varying assumptions regarding in situ fluid pressures and geothermal heat flux on acceptable initial areal power loadings.
Date: December 31, 1979
Creator: Lappin, A. R. & Crowe, B. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Parameters affecting radionuclide migration in geologic media

Description: Adsorption of several nuclides (Sr, Tc, Cs, Ba, Ce, Eu) on tuff, monzonite, and argillite was studied experimentally. 3 tables. (DLC)
Date: December 31, 1979
Creator: Erdal, B.R.; Bayhurst, B.P. & Daniels, W.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sensitivity study on the parameters of the regional hydrology model for the Nevada nuclear waste storage investigations

Description: Statistical methodology has been applied to the investigation of the regional hydrologic systems of a large area encompassing the Nevada Test Site (NTS) as a part of the overall evaluation of the NTS for deep geologic disposal of nuclear waste. Statistical techniques including Latin hypercube sampling were used to perform a sensitivity analysis on a two-dimensional finite-element code of 16 geohydrologic zones used to model the regional ground-water flow system. The Latin hypercube sample has been modified to include correlations between corresponding variables from zone to zone. From the results of sensitivity analysis it was found that: (1) the ranking of the relative importance of input variables between locations within the same geohydrologic zone were similar, but not identical; and (2) inclusion of a correlation structure for input variables had a significant effect on the ranking of their relative importance. The significance of these results is discussed with respect to the hydrology of the region.
Date: December 31, 1979
Creator: Iman, R. L.; Davenport, J. M.; Waddell, R. K.; Stephens, H. P. & Leap, D. I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Conversion of associated natural gas to liquid hydrocarbons

Description: Energy International is a leader in catalyst and process development as it relates to Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology. Through this activity, a concept evolved for a new technique for capturing the fuel value in the associated natural gas contained in crude oil. In the new concept, the dissolved natural gas would be processed via F-T technology to produce light hydrocarbons that would then, in one manifestation of this concept, be redissolved in the crude oil to produce a lighter crude than the original, containing all of the natural gas, but with the vapor pressure of the crude lowered to an acceptable level via the conversion process. This technique would be of particular interest in those instances where the alternative methods of collections and utilizing the associated natural gas were expensive. A study of the application of this technology was undertaken by EI with support from the DOE.
Date: December 31, 1979
Creator: Singleton, A.H., Cooper, P.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Projectile-charge-state dependence of target L-shell ionization by 1.86-MeV/amu fluorine and silicon ions and 1.8-MeV/amu chlorine ions

Description: This article discusses projectile-charge-state dependence of target L-shell ionization by 1.86-MeV/amu and silicon ions and 1.8-MeV/amu chlorine ions.
Date: April 1979
Creator: McDaniel, Floyd Del. (Floyd Delbert), 1942-; Toten, R. S.; Peterson, J. L.; Duggan, Jerome L.; Wilson, Scott R.; Gressett, J. D. et al.
Partner: UNT College of Arts and Sciences

Inelastic behavior of a dissimilar-metal-welded pipe transition joint: comparison of experimental measurements and analytical prediction

Description: The subject study involved the prediction and observed behavior of a dissimilar metal pipe joint made from 2 1/4 Cr-1Mo steel welded to Type 316 austenitic stainless steel using a nickel-base filler metal, ERNiCr-3. A two-dimensional axi-symmetric finite element model was employed in the analysis, with certain assumptions made relative to the initial stress state of the joint. Internal pressure and thermal loadings which simulated the test conditions experienced by the joint, were used as inputs. Uni-axial stress-strain relationships and creep equations were applied to the multi-axial stress state through the concept of effective stress and equivalent strain. The analysis indicated that the loading history during the preparatory period (before acutal service) has a significant effect on the behavior of the transition joint in its early service life. The magnitudes of the stresses created at the vicinity of the dissimilar metal interfaces, mainly due to the differences in thermal expansions of the metals, are sufficient to yield the metals, and fast thermal down transients during service will induce more yielding of the metals before shakedown occurs. Calculated plastic ratchetting and creep responses of the joint metals were compared with ORNL strain measurements of the test joint. Very good agreement was shown to exist between the predictions and measurements.
Date: June 1, 1979
Creator: Yang, T.M. & Dalcher, A.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Kinetics for the reaction of hydrogen with uranium powder

Description: The reaction of hydrogen with uranium powder was investigated at 13.3 and 26.6 kPa between 50 and 250/sup 0/C. The reaction order was independent of temperature but varied from 2/3-order at 13.3 kPa to 1st-order at 26.6 kPa. Increasing temperatures resulted in decreasing reaction rates over the temperature range studied. A reaction mechanism with adsorption as the rate controlling step is proposed to explain the temperature behavior. Decomposition of the hydride was found to follow a zero-order rate process.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Stakebake, J.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DEALS: a maintainable superconducting magnet system for tokamak fusion reactors

Description: The feasibility of demountable superconducting magnet systems has been examined in a design study of a DEALS (Demountable Externally Anchored Low Stress) TF magnet for an HFITR (High Field Ignition Test Reactor) Tokamak device. All parts of the system appear feasible, including the demountable superconducting joints. Measurements on small scale prototype joints indicate that movable pressure contact joints exhibit acceptable electrical, mechanical, and cryogenic performance. Such joints permit a relatively simple support structure and are readily demountable. Assembly and disassembly sequences are described whereby any failed portion of the magnet, or any part of the reactor inside the TF coils can be removed and replaced if necessary.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Hseih, S.Y.; Danby, G. & Powell, J.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Applications of the thermit code to 3D thermal hydraulic analysis of LWR cores

Description: The THERMIT code calculates the three-dimensional transient thermal hydraulic behavior of light water reactor cores. Its two-fluid dynamics equations for two-phase flow offer improved physical modelling capability needed in the context of calculation coupled to neutron kinetics for feedback. The numerical fluid dynamics method was chosen for reliability over a wider range of transients. An improved heat transfer numerical method is presented which gives better numerical stability and accuracy. A number of example calculations are discussed which give an idea of the power and flexibility of the code.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Reed, W.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Influence of core-assembly refueling requirements on LMFBR core-system design

Description: Liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) core assemblies are exposed to an operational environment which induces permanent distortions in their main structural members. These distortions have a substantial impact on core assembly refueling since the distortions are large compared to the available spaces. Core assembly refueling requirements demand that refueling be accomplished without damage to the adjacent core components or to the refueling equipment. This paper describes the core assembly refueling requirements and the design procedures used to demonstrate compliance with the requirements. This paper also provides an assessment relative to the influence of these requirements on LMFBR core system design.
Date: March 1, 1979
Creator: Fox, J.N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Heat transfer and pressure drop in gas-cooled fluidized-bed combustors for gas turbine systems: analysis and application to design

Description: Information is presented concerning the effects of design parameters for fluidized bed air heaters for gas turbines on the cost-related characteristics of the inbed heat exchanger. An analysis of the pressure drop/heat transfer relations is described and the results and implications for design are presented. According to these results, the cost of the heater for a pressurized, closed-cycle turbine system is likely to exceed that of an open-cycle system in which the compressor discharge pressure is lower. Higher air pressure and higher allowable pressure drop are shown to be effective in lowering the operating temperature of the heat exchanger tubes.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Graves, R L
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sediment-seawater exchanges of nutrients and transition metals in an Alaskan fjord

Description: Resurrection Bay is a single silled fjord-estuary having a basin depth of 290 m and a sill at approximately 185 m. The inner basin waters are renewed annually during May-October, but during the oceanograph winter period the basin waters remain relatively isolated from a downwelling flushing of bottom waters that occurs in the outer fjord as a result of a coastal convergence. This report describes the fluxes of nitrate, ammonia, silicate, phosphate, alkalinity, Fe, Mn, and Cu across the sediment-water interface of the fjord inner basin. (ACR)
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Heggie, D.T. & Burrell, D.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DOE/solar export opportunities workshop

Description: The workshop was conducted to bring together persons from government agencies and the US solar industry to initiate dialogue needed to create and implement programs facilitating the export of US solar technology, hardware, and services. A separate abstract was prepared for 23 individual presentations, all of which will appear in Energy Research abstracts (ERA) and Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA).
Date: April 1, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Retrofit '79

Description: In addition to a compilation of the talks presented, summaries are given of panel discussions on the commercialization of air gasifiers and on the research needs in this area. Suggestions made in response to a letter asking what government actions were needed to promote commercialization of air gasification are summarized. A directory is given of air biomass gasifiers in the US and Canada and their status (research, pilot scale, commercial, etc.). Separate abstracts were prepared for eight papers. (JSR)
Date: January 1, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Summary and recommendations for research on tritium toxicity

Description: Lengthy presentations on many aspects of /sup 3/H and its toxicity were given: /sup 3/H Decay - Anticipated Q, J. Booz; Influence of Dose and Dose Rate on RBE, L. Feinendegen; /sup 3/H Effects on Stem Cells and Dominant Lethals, A. Carsten; /sup 3/H Incorporation into Murine Molecular Species, S. Commerford; /sup 3/H and Hemopoietic Effects, T. Fliedner; Evidence for Site-Specific Genetic Transmutation Effects, M. Bender; /sup 3/H and Effect on Testes, A. Lambert; /sup 3/H and Oocytes, L. Dobson; and /sup 2/H Incorporation into Oocytes as a Stable Isotope Tracer for /sup 3/H, D. Slatkin.
Date: January 1, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Biomass energy conversion workshop for industrial executives

Description: The rising costs of energy and the risks of uncertain energy supplies are increasingly familiar problems in industry. Bottom line profits and even the simple ability to operate can be affected by spiralling energy costs. An often overlooked alternative is the potential to turn industrial waste or residue into an energy source. On April 9 and 10, 1979, in Claremont, California, the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI), the California Energy Commission (CEC), and the Western Solar Utilization Network (WSUN) held a workshop which provided industrial managers with current information on using residues and wastes as industrial energy sources. Successful industrial experiences were described by managers from the food processing and forest product industries, and direct combustion and low-Btu gasification equipment was described in detail. These speakers' presentations are contained in this document. Some major conclusions of the conference were: numerous current industrial applications of wastes and residues as fuels are economic and reliable; off-the-shelf technologies exist for converting biomass wastes and residues to energy; a variety of financial (tax credits) and institutional (PUC rate structures) incentives can help make these waste-to-energy projects more attractive to industry. However, many of these incentives are still being developed and their precise impact must be evaluated on a case-by-case basis.
Date: January 1, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Photovoltaic material and device measurements workshop: focus on polycrystalline thin film cells

Description: The general purpose of the workshop was to accelerate the development of thin film solar cells by improving the versatility and reliability of material and device measurement techniques. Papers were presented under the following sessions: structural/chemical session; optical/electro-optical session; charge transport session; and poster session. Each paper was processed for EDB.
Date: January 1, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Conservation: energy management by design

Description: Separate abstracts are prepared for 17 papers presented at the conference. One paper had appeared previously in the appropriate DOE data base. (MCW)
Date: January 1, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Correlation of acoustic emission and dislocation damping in beryllium

Description: In a study of the acoustic emission generated in beryllium during tensile deformation, there is substantial evidence showing that the burst rate peak at yield is due to the generation of new dislocations and the burst rate peak at higher strains is due to the breakaway of dislocation line segments from deformation produce pins. (FS)
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Heiple, C.R. & Carpenter, S.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High-temperature enthalpies of plutonium monocarbide and plutonium sesquicarbide

Description: The high-temperature enthalpies of plutonium monocarbide and plutonium sesquicarbide have been determined with a copper-block calorimeter of the isoperibol type. The experimental enthalpy data, which was measured relative to 298 K, covered the temperature range from 400 to 1500 K. The calculation of the temperature rise of the calorimeter takes into account the added heat evolution from the radioactive decay of the plutonium samples. These enthalpy results, combined with the heat capacity and entropy of the respective carbide at 298 K available from the literature, has made it possible to generate tables of thermodynamic functions for the plutonium carbides. The behavior of the heat capacity of both of the plutonium carbides, i.e., a relatively steep increase in the heat capacity as the temperature increases, may be attributed to a premelting effect with the formation of vacancies within the crystal lattice although a theoretical treatment of this phenomenon is not given.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Oetting, F.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Direct imaging of grain boundaries

Description: There are currently two types of microscopes which, in principle, are capable of imaging atom positions at grain boundaries. One, the field ion microscope (FIM), yields a projection of the specimen surface (approximately stereographic) by field ionization of an imaging gas at protruding atom sites, and provides topographic information in high-index pole regions which may be interpreted atom-by-atom. The other, a transmission electron microscope (TEM), yields a projection (approximately linear) of the entire specimen thickness by electron optical imaging, and provides atomic resolution detail throughout the illuminated area. In this paper, both methods are described and compared, using examples from practical materials systems.
Date: September 1, 1979
Creator: Gronsky, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department