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Sorption and migration of radionuclides in geologic media

Description: The interactions of a quartz monzonite, an argillite, an alluvium, and several tuffs with various radionuclides in selected phreatic waters have been studied. The sorption--desorption hehavior of Sr, Tc(VII), Cs, Ba, Ce, Eu, U(VI), Pu, and Am under ambient and 70{sup 0}C temperature conditions has been measured.
Date: December 31, 1978
Creator: Erdal, B.R.; Daniels, W.R.; Hoffman, D.C.; Lawrence, F.O. & Wolfsberg, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Proceedings of the Task 4 Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program second contractor information meeting

Description: Volume 1 contains the following papers: Solution Species of {sup 239}Pu in Oxidizing Environments; Solution Species of {sup 239}Pu in the Environment; Theoretical and Experimental Evaluation of Waste Transport in Selected Rocks; Studies of Radionuclide Availability and Migration at the Nevada Test Site Relevant to Radioactive Waste Disposal; Systematic Study of Metal Ion Sorption on Selected Geologic Media; Chromatographic K/sub d/ values of Radionuclides; Effects of Redox Potentials on Sorption of Radionuclides by Geologic Media; and Transport Properties of Nuclear Waste in Geologic Media. Individual papers were processed.
Date: January 1978
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Handling of UF/sub 6/ in U. S. gaseous diffusion plants

Description: A comprehensive systems analysis of UF/sub 6/ handling has been made in the three U.S. gaseous diffusion plants and has resulted in a significant impact on the equipment design and the operating procedures of these facilities. The equipment, facilities, and industrial practices in UF/sub 6/ handling operations as they existed in the early 1970's are reviewed with particular emphasis placed on the changes which have been implemented. The changes were applied to the systems and operating methods which evolved from the design, startup, and operation of the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant in 1945.
Date: January 1, 1978
Creator: Legeay, A.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Developmental toxicology of energy-related pollutants

Description: Separate abstracts were prepared for the 46 papers presented at the conference. (HLW)
Date: January 1, 1978
Creator: Mahlum, D.D. Sikov, M.R.; Hackett, P.L. & Andrew, F.D. (eds.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of nickel-free austenitic stainless steels for ambient and cryogenic applications

Description: A series of alloys have been developed as possible replacements for some austenitic stainless steels. These alloys utilized a Mn substitution for Ni and a reduced Cr concentration from the 18% ordinarily found in the AISI 300 series stainless steels to a concentration of 13%. The base system studied was an alloy containing Fe-16%Mn-13%Cr while other elements added included small additions of N, Si and Mo. A range of microstructures was produced from the alloying additions. The base composition had a triplex (fcc, hcp, bcc) structure while the most highly modified compositions were fully austenitic. Mechanical testing included tensile testing and Charpy V-notch testing conducted at various temperatures between -196/sup 0/C to 23/sup 0/C. Excellent combinations of strength and ductility were obtained (40--65 ksi yield strength, 100--125 ksi ultimate strength, 45--75% elongation and 60--80% reduction of area) at room temperature. Upper shelf energies in Charpy V-notch testing were as high as 185 ft-lbs with a ductile-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) of -160/sup 0/C. Analysis of fracture surfaces determined that alloys without interstitials had no transition in the mode of failure between room temperature and liquid nitrogen temperature. Results of an ASTM sensitization corrosion test, where the experimental alloys were compared to 347 stainless steel, indicated that the alloys were not susceptible to intergranular attack.
Date: February 1, 1978
Creator: Haddick, G.T.; Thompson, L.D.; Parker, E.R. & Zackay, V.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hadron-nucleus inclusive data from Fermilab. [Conference summary]

Description: The results are summarized from papers submitted to this conference pertaining to the inclusive production of particles in hadron-nucleus collisions as studied at Fermilab. 15 references.
Date: January 1, 1978
Creator: Ferbel, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparison of precipitation chemistry data at a central Illinois site in 1954 and in 1977

Description: In 1954 detailed precipitation chemistry measurements on samples from a manually operated wet-only collector provided data for the concentrations of the major ions for precipitation events. A comparison with data for the same location for 1977, collected with an automatic wet-only collector, showed that the median sulfate and nitrate concentrations were somewhat larger than in 1954 while the median calcium plus magnesium concentration was much lower. The precipitation event median pH was also much lower in 1977. Possible explanations for the present lower calcium plus magnesium concentrations and the correspondingly lower pH values are given.
Date: January 1, 1978
Creator: Stensland, G.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Consistent creep and rupture properties for creep-fatigue evaluation

Description: The currently accepted practice of using inconsistent representations of creep and rupture behaviors in the prediction of creep-fatigue life is shown to introduce a factor of safety beyond that specified in current ASME Code design rules for 304 stainless steel Class 1 nuclear components. Accurate predictions of creep-fatigue life for uniaxial tests on a given heat of material are obtained by using creep and rupture properties for that same heat of material. The use of a consistent representation of creep and rupture properties for a mininum strength heat is also shown to provide adequate predictions. The viability of using consistent properties (either actual or those of a minimum heat) to predict creep-fatigue life thus identifies significant design uses for the results of characterization tests and improved creep and rupture correlations.
Date: January 1, 1978
Creator: Schultz, C.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of sodium environment on breeder reactor components

Description: This paper reviews the interaction phenomena between sodium and reactor materials, and the application to reactor design and operation. Both corrosion and deposition are considered. Sodium removal and decontamination is briefly mentioned, together with some recent developments that are still in the experimental stage. No new theories of sodium-material interaction behavior are offered. 56 references.
Date: January 1, 1978
Creator: Eichelberger, R.L. & Brehm, W.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electrical characteristics of ion-implanted laser-annealed silicon

Description: The results of electrical measurements on Si implanted with n-type dopants such as P and As and laser annealed are presented. (GHT)
Date: August 1, 1978
Creator: Young, R.T.; Narayan, J.; White, C.W.; Wood, R.F.; Cleland, J.W.; Westbrook, R.D. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of laser annealing on the redistribution of boron in ion implanted and boron deposited silicon

Description: Secondary ion mass analysis (SIMS) is used to investigate the effect of laser annealing on the distribution of boron in the surface region of (100) silicon. Pulsed laser annealing was carried out using the Q-switched output of a ruby laser (20 x 10/sup -9/ sec pulse duration time). Above a pulse threshold energy of approx. 1/J cm/sup -2/, substantial alteration of the as-implanted profile of B occurred. The as-implanted profile was very nearly Gaussian, but after annealing the profile was almost uniform from the surface down to a depth of approximately twice the projected range. Redistribution of B was found to be both pulse energy and pulse number dependent. The effect of laser annealing on a thin evaporation deposited layer of B on (100) silicon was also studied. In this case a monotomically decreasing profile which resembled a Gaussian peaked at the surface resulted. A possible explanation for the redistribution of B in the surface region of (100) silicon involves melting of the near surface region during laser irradiation.
Date: January 1, 1978
Creator: Christie, W.H. & White, C.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electrical resistivity of TiH/sub x/KClO/sub 4/

Description: Various factors affecting the electrical resistivity of the pyrotechnic pressed powder TiH/sub x//KClO/sub 4/, which is sensitive to hot wire ignition yet quite spark insensitive, were evaluated. The electrical resistivity of the TiH/sub x/ (x = 0.19-1.9, pressing pressure 10 to 160 kpsi) and TiH/sub x//KClO/sub 4/ (x = 0.19-1.9, pressing pressure 10 and 20 kpsi) were correlated with their pressing pressure, stoichiometry, and powder surface area. The resistivity increases with x and with surface area, and it decreases nonlinearly with pressing pressure. In addition, the effect of electrostatic discharge pulsing on resistivity was tested for various samples of TiH/sub x/ and TiH/sub x//KClO/sub 4/ pressed pellets. For the higher resistivity pellets (rho greater than 1 ..cap omega.. x cm), a decrease in resistivity was observed. For low resistivity pellets (rho less than or equal to 1 ..cap omega.. x cm), no change in resistivity was observed, yet an increase in current flowing through the pellets occurred. The effect of temperature on resistivity for TiH/sub x/ pressed pellets from below liquid nitrogen temperature to 500 K was also studied.
Date: January 1, 1978
Creator: White, K.; Reed, J.W.; Love, C.M.; Holy, J.A. & Glaub, J.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electric power from laser fusion: the HYLIFE concept

Description: A high yield lithium injection fusion energy chamber is described which can conceptually be operated with pulsed yields of several thousand megajoules a few times a second, using less than one percent of the gross thermal power to circulate the lithium. Because a one meter thick blanket of lithium protects the structure, no first wall replacement is envisioned for the life of the power plant. The induced radioactivity is reduced by an order of magnitude over solid blanket concepts. The design calls for the use of common ferritic steels and a power density approaching that of a LWR, promising shortened development times over other fusion concepts and reactor vessel costs comparable to a LMFBR.
Date: June 1, 1978
Creator: Monsler, M.; Blink, J.; Hovingh, J.; Meier, W.; Walker, P. & Maniscalco, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reprocessing and fuel fabrication systems. [Nonproliferation Alternative systems assessment]

Description: The study of alternative fuel cycles was initiated to identify a fuel cycle with inherent technical resistance to proliferation; however, other key features such as resource use, cost, and development status are major elements in a sound fuel cycle strategy if there is no significant difference in proliferation resistance. Special fuel reprocessing techniques such as coprocessing or spiking provide limited resistance to diversion. The nuclear fuel cycle system that will be most effective may be more dependent on the institutional agreements that can be implemented to supplement the technical controls of fuel cycle materials.
Date: January 1, 1978
Creator: Field, F.R. & Tooper, F.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Impact-melt origin for the Simondium, Pinnaroo, and Hainholz mesosiderites: implicatiions for impact processes beyond the Earth--Moon system

Description: The Simondium, Pinnaroo, and Hainholz mesosiderites are interpreted to be clast-laden impact melts that crystallized from immiscible silicate, metallic (Fe-FeS) liquids. The existence of silicate melts is shown by intergranular basaltic textures. Metallic melts are inferred on the basis of smooth boundaries between metal and troilite and the occurrence of troilite as anastomosing areas that radiate outward into the silicate fractions. These relations suggest that troilite crystallized after silicates, concentrating as a late-stage residuum. Evidence for impact melting includes: diversity and abundance of clast types (mineral, metal, lithic) in various stages of recrystallization and assimilation; differences in mineral chemistries between clasts and igneous-textured matrix silicates; unusual metal plus silicate bulk composition. Silicate clasts consist primarily of orthopyroxene and minor olivine with a range of Fe/Fe + Mg ratios, anorthitic plagioclase, and rare orthopyroxenite (diogenite) fragments. Substantial amounts of Fe-Ni metal were melted during the impact events and minor amounts were incorporated into the melts as clasts. The clast populations suggest that at least four rock types were melted and mixed: (a) diogenite, (b) a plagioclase-rich source, possibly cumulate eucrite, (c) dunite, and (d) metal. Most orthopyroxene appears to have been derived from fragmentation of diogenites. Orthopyroxene (En/sub 82-61/) and olivine (Fo/sub 86-67/) clasts include much material unsampled as individual meteorites and probably represent a variety of source rocks.
Date: May 1, 1978
Creator: Floran, R.J.; Caulfield, J.B.D.; Harlow, G.E. & Prinz, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Shipping container for tritiated water

Description: A reusable shipping container for Type B and large quantities of tritiated water has been designed and tested at Mound Facility. An inner and an outer container are used for shipping up to 100,000 Ci of tritium in water absorbed on molecular sieve, silica gel or commercial clay absorbent. The package is commonly called configuration-5 of the model AL-M1 shipping containers. It is the newest member of the AL-M1 family which currently also includes configurations 1 and 3. These other configurations are both for plutonium-239 and uranium-235. The common feature uniting the AL-M1 family is the 55-gal outer drum assembly which is the same for all configurations. The inner containers are quite dissimilar. A ''Safety Analysis Report for Packaging'' or SARP was prepared to qualify the new shipping container for DOT/DOE approval. That document is a formal safety analysis of all three AL-M1 insulated drum shipping container configurations. Together these are officially identified as USA/9507/BLF (ERDA-AL). The Certificate of Compliance has been issued and the SARP has been submitted to NRC for review. A description of the configuration-5 inner container is presented. In addition to the prototype used in testing, thirteen of these containers have been fabricated. One is retained at Mound Facility and twelve will be used at Sandia Laboratories, Livermore, to collect tritiated wastewater. This wastewater will be shipped to Mound for recovery or dispoal of the tritium.
Date: January 1, 1978
Creator: Watkins, R.A.; Rhinehammer, T.B. & Griffin, J.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Kaons and antiprotons as probes of the nucleus

Description: The K/sup +/ absorption on nuclei as a probe is considered, in particular the extraction of neutron densities from elastic and total cross sections, inelastic scattering to particular residual nuclear states, and quasiparticle properties of more deeply bound nucleon orbitals in the shell model via the (K/sup +/, K/sup +/p) reaction and K/sup +/ scattering with large energy loss (deep inelastic processes). It is noted that the level ordering of clumps of states reveals important features of the ..lambda..N interaction, possible formation of strangeness S = 2 nuclear systems, and hypernucleus formation. A new class of mesons is formed in the particle - antiparticle interactions. This formation may be as loosely bound quasimolecular ensembles of baryon and antibaryon or composed of a diquark and an anti-diquark. (JFP)
Date: January 1, 1978
Creator: Dover, C.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Refueling and control of RFP burns

Description: An earlier study of the stability of a fusion burn in a Reversed Field Pinch (RFP) has been extended to include cold particle refueling. This refueling, coupled with anomalous transport, makes possible quasi-steady state operation which both flattens the wall-loading temporal dependence and significantly increases energy gain factors. This paper discusses results of these burn simulations along with parametric studies aimed at determining associated reactor scaling problems.
Date: January 1, 1978
Creator: Nebel, R. & Miley, G.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reduction of irradiation-induced creep by point defect trapping

Description: The theory of point defect trapping was applied to predict the effect of solutes on the steady-state dislocation climb creep rate. Vacancy loops generated in the cascades of point defect production by heavy particles were included. It is shown that the effect of vacancy loops on the creep rate is mathematically equivalent to a simultaneous reduction in the vacancy trapping rate at solutes as well as in the free point defect generation rate and recombination coefficient. These parameters are reduced by the ratio of the sink strength without vacancy loops to the total sink strength. Solute trapping and vacancy loops do not reduce the unperturbed creep rates by more than an order of magnitude for the parametric range considered.
Date: July 10, 1978
Creator: Mansur, L.K. & Wolfer, W.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Stable Phases in Aged Type 321 Stainless Steel

Description: X-ray diffraction and Analytical Electron Microscopy have been used to characterize the precipitate phases present in type 321 stainless steel after 17 years of service at approximately 600/sup 0/C. The morphology, crystallography, and orientation relationships with the matrix of the precipitates have been determined along with the chemical composition of several of the phases. Long-term aging of type 321 stainless steel indicates TiC, not M/sub 23/C/sub 6/, is the stable carbide phase. A theory is developed to explain appearance of M/sub 23/C/sub 6/ at intermediate times. The theory also indicates the means for preventing M/sub 23/C/sub 6/ formation and hence sensitization of the steel to intergranular corrosion. The amount of sigma found correlates well with results from shorter time studies. Ti/sub 4/C/sub 2/S/sub 2/ and a complex phosphide-arsenide were also present.
Date: January 1, 1978
Creator: Bentley, J. & Leitnaker, J. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary deals magnet system design study for HFITR

Description: The application of the Demountable Externally Anchored Low Stress (DEALS) magnet concept to a High Field Ignition Test Reactor (HFITR) is considered in this paper. The TF magnet design, its demountability and the reactor accessibility is described. Results of finite element stress analyses of the support structure and the coil are given. Estimated heat inputs and refrigeration requirements are calculated. The feasibility of utilizing a movable pressure contact is examined.
Date: January 1, 1978
Creator: Hsieh, S.Y.; Powell, J.R. & Bezler, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radioactive waste isolation

Description: This paper has considered some of the concepts involved in the design of underground radioactive waste repositories. Obviously, the final designs must be tailored to the conditions that exist at a particular site. Work is in progress on site selection, conceptual designs of facilities and underground workings, and the more basic research work needed to provide a firm basis for successful repository design and operation.
Date: May 1, 1978
Creator: McClain, W.C. & Russell, J.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department