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Engineering problems in the development of fusion power reactors

Description: This paper reviews current progress in the development of fusion power from the engineering point of view and highlights the most outstanding technical issues which must be resolved. (MOW)
Date: November 2, 1976
Creator: Varljen, T. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Simplified scheme or radioactive plume calculations

Description: A simplified mathematical scheme to estimate external whole-body $gamma$ radiation exposure rates from gaseous radioactive plumes was developed for the Rio Blanco Gas Field Nuclear Stimulation Experiment. The method enables one to calculate swiftly, in the field, downwind exposure rates knowing the meteorological conditions and $gamma$ radiation exposure rates measured by detectors positioned near the plume source. The method is straightforward and easy to use under field conditions without the help of mini-computers. It is applicable to a wide range of radioactive plume situations. It should be noted that the Rio Blanco experiment was detonated on May 17, 1973, and no seep or release of radioactive material occurred. (auth)
Date: November 21, 1976
Creator: Gibson, T.A. & Montan, D.N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High level radioactive waste isolation by incorporation in silicate rock

Description: A number of technical possibilities for isolating high level radioactive materials have been theoretically investigated at various times and places. Isolating such wastes deep underground to insure long-term removal from the biosphere is one such possibility which has been investigated. The present concept involves as a first step creating the necessary void space at considerable depth, say 2 to 5 km, in a very low permeability silicate medium such as shale. Waste in dry, calcined or vitrified form is then lowered into the void space, and the access hole or shaft sealed. Energy released by the radioactive decay raises the temperature to a point where the surrounding rock begins to melt. The waste is then dissolved in it. The extent of this melt region grows until the heat generated is balanced by conduction away from the molten zone. Resolidification then begins, and ends when the radioactive decay has progressed to the point that the temperature falls below the melting point of the rock-waste solution. Calculations are presented showing the growth and resolidification process. The use of a nuclear explosion presents one alternative way of creating the void space.
Date: November 1, 1976
Creator: Schwartz, L. L.; Cohen, J. J.; Lewis, A. E. & Braun, R. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

BWR Mark I pressure suppression pool dynamics studies

Description: This report summarizes the initial effort of the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory involvement with the study of BWR Mark I pressure suppression pool dynamics. Analytical activity is described and calculational results are presented for several simplified geometries. Computer code authentication will be provided by a currently active program in benchmark tests. The experiment and some results are presented. A combined analytical and experimental program to evaluate air scaling hypotheses for hydrodynamic forces and pool motion is presented, along with some conclusions regarding model scaling.
Date: November 1, 1976
Creator: McCauley, E. W.; Martin, R. W.; Lai, W.; Morrison, F. A. & Sutton, S. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Metal hydride materials program at BNL: current status and future plans

Description: FeTi, TiFe/sub 0/./sub 79/Mn/sub 0/./sub 15/, and TiFe/sub 0/./sub 76/Mn/sub 0/./sub 14/ subjected to hydriding-dehydriding cycles showed no deterioration as a function of hydriding-dehydriding cycles. The presence of O/sub 2/ in the hydrogen gas phase has a poisoning effect on the reactivity of FeTi toward hydrogen. Manganese-containing FeTi alloys were used to determine minimum activation temperatures. Future work will be concerned primarily with two separate alloy systems, magnesium and titanium. (LK)
Date: November 1, 1976
Creator: Reilly, J. J. & Johnson, J. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Lawrence Livermore Laboratory Nuclear Test Effects and Geologic Data Bank

Description: Data on the geology of the USERDA Nevada Test Site have been collected for the purpose of evaluating the possibility of release of radioactivity at proposed underground nuclear test sites. These data, including both the rock physical properties and the geologic structure and stratigraphy of a large number of drill-hole sites, are stored in the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory Earth Sciences Division Nuclear Test Effects and Geologic Data Bank. Retrieval programs can quickly provide a geological and geophysical comparison of a particular site with other sites where radioactivity was successfully contained. The data can be automatically sorted, compared, and averaged, and information listed according to site location, drill-hole construction, rock units, depth to key horizons and to the water table, and distance to faults. These programs also make possible ordered listings of geophysical properties (interval bulk density, overburden density, interval velocity, velocity to the surface, grain density, water content, carbonate content, porosity, and saturation of the rocks). The characteristics and capabilities of the data bank are discussed.
Date: November 1, 1976
Creator: Howard, N. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Project Rio Blanco: additional production testing and reservoir analysis

Description: Additional subsurface investigations of the Rio Blanco detonation region and adjacent reservoir have been underway since the last technical meeting at IAEA. The lowermost explosion cavity has been reentered and a production test from it was performed. A dry gas volume of 7.6 x 10/sup 5/ m/sup 3/ (27 Mmscf) was withdrawn. Chemical and radiochemical analyses of this gas show that (1) the yield of the bottom explosive was 31 +- 2 kt; (2) the cavity/chimney volume was 2.4 x 10/sup 4/ m/sup 3/ (8.4 x 10/sup 5/ ft/sup 3/); (3) about 7 percent of the tritium produced is associated with the gas; and (4) a slight (approximately 0.1 percent) gas contribution from the middle explosion region was noted. The reservoir/chimney model implies an unstimulated reservoir flow capacity of 0.15 mdarcy-m (0.50 md-ft) connected to the bottom chimney region. A cavity radius of 21 +- 3 m (70 +- 10 ft) was deduced. Unstimulated reservoir production parameters were investigated in a well offset 190 m (625 ft) from the emplacement hole. Insufficient productivity was obtained in the Mesaverde formation (in which the bottom explosive was detonated) to evaluate reservoir properties. The productive sandstones in the Fort Union formation adjoining the top detonation region were individually evaluated. Their aggregate flow capacity was determined to be 0.14 +- 0.2 mdarcy-m (0.45 +- 0.08 md-ft). A numerical simulation model which incorporates these data is described. The lack of a high-permeability connection between the three explosion regions remains unexplained. The two chimney reentry wells have been cemented to the surface and abandoned. The offset well has been plugged in a way which preserves the option for additional subsurface investigation in the future. Project facilities have been removed and the site restored to conditions which minimize environmental impact.
Date: November 1, 1976
Creator: Ballou, L. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measurement of high energy ions

Description: The current interest in fast ions has prompted the design of a new time-of-flight ion spectrometer which measures the high energy ions from a laser produced plasma. A magnet was used to separate the ions from the intense background of electrons, x-rays and scattered light. The design of the instrument is wide band so that ions with energies 0.03 to 3000 keV/amu can be measured. Results from target experiments on the LLL ARGUS laser facility will be presented. The fast ion spectrum is dovetailed with the spectrum of the slower ions collected by Faraday cups and thus provides a measurement for the total energy carried by ions. The charge to mass ratio of the ions can be calculated from the spectrometer output.
Date: November 9, 1976
Creator: Glaros, S. S.; Tirsell, K. G.; Rupert, V. C.; Catron, H. C. & Slivinsky, V. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Response of rocks to large stresses. [Model for predicting response of ductile and brittle rocks to impact loading]

Description: To predict the dimensions and characteristics of impact- and explosion-induced craters, one must know the equation of state of the rocks in which the crater is formed. Recent experimental data shed light upon inelastic processes that influence the stress/strain behavior of rocks. We examine these data with a view to developing models that could be used in predicting cratering phenomena. New data is presented on the volume behavior of two dissimilar rocks subjected to tensile stresses.
Date: November 10, 1976
Creator: Schock, R. N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Abstracts of the first ORNL workshop on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: characterization and measurement with a view toward personnel protection. [PAH from coal conversion]

Description: This report contains the abstracts of papers presented at a workshop on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) such as those produced by coal conversion technologies. Their often carcinogenic nature imposes the obligation of providing adequate protection and measurement devices for workers and for the general public. The primary questions are as follows: What should be measured. Where and how should it be measured. What are the maximum permissible concentrations. This workshop and future workshops are intended to bring these problems into better focus and to help establish a consensus on what needs to be done in order to provide a dosimetry effort that will ensure the adequate protection of personnel. There were 32 attendees of this one-day meeting. The papers and discussions included current industrial hygiene practices, the development of government agency guidelines for worker protection, and a wide range of analytical techniques for PAH detection, some of which are still in the research stage and are unproven. The workshop was held at ORNL on February 26, 1976.
Date: November 1, 1976
Creator: Gammage, R. B. (comp.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Petrology and chemistry of the Huntzinger flow, Columbia River basalt, Washington

Description: Drill core samples of basalts of the Columbia River Group from the Hanford Reservation reveal a spotted, diabasic flow of up to 60 meters in thickness. These samples and those from the flow outcropping at Wahatis Peak (Saddle Mountains, Washington) were examined in detail to document intraflow textural, mineralogical, and chemical variations, which are of importance in basalt flow correlations. Analyses were by atomic absorption, instrumental neutron activation, electron microprobe, natural gamma well logging, K-Ar age dating, X-ray fluorescence, field (portable) magnetometer, and petrographic microscope.
Date: November 1, 1976
Creator: Ward, A. W. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Neutronics and mass transport in a chemical reactor associated with controlled thermonuclear fusion reactor

Description: The formation of ozone from oxygen and the dissociation carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide and oxygen is studied in a gamma-neutron chemical process blanket associated with a controlled thermonuclear reactor. Materials used for reactor tube wall will affect the efficiency of the energy absorption by the reactants and consequently the yield of reaction products. Three kinds of materials, aluminum, stainless steel and fiber (Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/)-aluminium are investigated for the tube wall material in the study.
Date: November 28, 1976
Creator: Dang, V D; Steinberg, M; Lazareth, O W & Powell, J R
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Numerical simulation of natural convection in closed containers using a fully implicit method

Description: Numerical solutions have been obtained for two-dimensional free convective flow in rectangular and annular cavities using the strongly implicit procedure (SIP) and the cyclic reduction-fast Fourier transform (CR-FFT) technique. Rayleigh numbers range from 10/sup 4/ to 10/sup 6/, Prandtl numbers from 0.713 to 10/sup 3/, radius ratios from 1 to 3 (annular cavities), and aspect ratios (height/width) from 1 to 15. Motion is generated by either uniformly heating the bottom wall or heating a vertical wall (nondimensional temperature of 1) and cooling the opposite wall (nondimensional temperature of 0). Both time-dependent and steady state solutions confirm results previously obtained by others. The computational speed of the SIP and CR-FFT methods is very fast. Because SIP uses a common set of matrix algorithms, the governing equations of motion can be solved simultaneously without major modification to the method for each equation.
Date: November 1, 1976
Creator: Pepper, D. W. & Harris, S. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Enhancement of digital images by modeling two-dimensional surfaces

Description: A method of digital image processing is described which can be used to improve the quality of radiographic images. An image is modeled as the sum of background information, details of interest, and noise. The background is then modified in order to enhance the details. 5 figures.
Date: November 3, 1976
Creator: Huebel, J. G. & Myers, G. K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Damage rates of MeV Al ions in aluminum

Description: Damage rates of 5 MeV /sup 27/Al ions in Al have been measured as a function of the ion path length in Al. The technique developed for this study employed evaporated Al thin film (approximately 0.4 - 0.5 ..mu..m thick), electrical resistivity specimens, as a damage sensor and variation in ion path lengths were obtained by insertion of thin foils of Al immediately in front of the resistivity specimen. Irradiations and electrical resistance measurements were carried out below 10/sup 0/K to ''freeze in'' the displacement damage and to provide suitable conditions for precision electrical measurements. The resistance increase due to irradiation is a measure of the displacement damage resulting from ion-atom collisions in the specimen. The damage rates vary about an order of magnitude over the range of the ions and are in general agreement with calculated damage rates obtained from theory. 9 fig.
Date: November 1, 1976
Creator: Noggle, T. S.; Appleton, B. R.; Williams, J. M.; Oen, O. S.; Biggerstaff, J. A. & Iwata, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

What can be expected from high-Z semiconductor detectors. [Assessment of promising semiconductor materials; 25 references]

Description: It has been hoped that high-Z semiconductors would offer efficient ..gamma..-ray detection at or near ambient temperatures with energy resolution significantly better than NaI (Tl) scintillators. For use at X-ray energies, this goal has been achieved with both HgI/sub 2/, CdTe, and GaAs detectors. However, at higher energies (approximately 660 keV) all current detectors have one or more significant deficiencies in terms of attainable volume, charge collection efficiency, and polarization effects. Starting with first principles, all potential compounds which can be formed by the binary combination of elements from the periodic chart were considered as possible detector materials. A rank-ordered listing of the most promising materials for further development is given as well as an assessment of the prospects for future success. 25 references.
Date: November 17, 1976
Creator: Armantrout, G. A.; Swierkowski, S. P.; Sherohman, J. W. & Lee, J. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measurement of peak optical power from laser diodes

Description: An improved method for measuring the peak power output from pulsed-injection laser diodes having risetimes of 10 ns or greater has been developed by the Bendix Kansas City Metrology Laboratory. Based on the combination of an integrating sphere and a silicon photodiode, the system provides the means for collecting all of the widely divergent pulsed output of laser diodes. System accuracy is estimated to be within +-15%. Methods of system calibration are described along with the circuitry used to pulse and measure the diode current.
Date: November 1, 1976
Creator: Wonnell, L. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Multipurpose laboratory test system applying CAMAC standards

Description: A flexible electronic product test and evaluation system is proposed. A system study was performed to determine how increasingly complex telemetry systems could be effectively evaluated during development and preproduction and after first production units were built. A primary requirement was that this system remain flexible with respect to configuration and mission and that it be easily maintainable. In addition, the system must be upgraded easily as old product requirements and definitions are replaced by new designs. As a result of this study it is concluded that this project would involve the expenditure of considerable funds and manpower at the beginning of the project and that the cost effectiveness of the system would be dependent upon its utilization and management. This study also demonstrates how the use of computer interface hardware standards (IEEE 583) can minimize requirements for expensive specially designed test equipment for each application.
Date: November 1, 1976
Creator: Bowers, J. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Corrosion experience in nuclear waste processing at Battelle Northwest. [In-Can Melter vitrification; interim canister storage in water]

Description: Emphasis is on corrosion as related to waste storage canister. Most work has been done in support of the In-Can Melter (ICM) vitrification system. It is assumed that the canister goes through the ICM process and is then stored in a water basin. The most severe corrosion effect seen is oxidation of stainless steel (SS) surfaces in contact with gases containing oxygen during processing. The processing temperature is near 1100/sup 0/C and furnace atmosphere, used until now, has been air with unrestricted flow to the furnace. The oxidation rate at 1100/sup 0/C is 15.8 g/cm/sup 2/ for 304L SS. Techniques for eliminating this corrosion currently being investigated include the use of different materials, such as Inconel 601, and the use of an inert cover gas. Corrosion due to the waste melt is not as rapid as the air oxidation. This effect has been studied extensively in connection with the development of a metallic crucible melter at Battelle. Data are available on the corrosion rates of several waste compositions in contact with various materials. Long-term compatibility tests between the melt and the metal have been run; it was found the corrosion rates due to the melt or its vapor do not pose a serious problem to the waste canister. However, these rates are high enough to preclude the practical use of a metallic melter. Interim water storage of the canister may be a problem if proper corrective measurements are not taken.The canister may be susceptible to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) because it will be sensitized to some extent and it will be nearly stressed to yield. The most favorable solution to SCC involves minimizing canister sensitization and stress plus providing good water quality control. It has been recommended to keep the chlorine ion concentration below 1 ppM and the pH above ...
Date: November 1976
Creator: Slate, S. C. & Maness, R. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design and development of multi-megawatt beam dumps

Description: The next generation of U.S. fusion experiments which includes TFTR, MFTF, and Doublet III, will utilize neutral-beam injection for plasma heating. TFTR, for example, desires 20 MW of 120-keV deuterium atoms in pulses of 0.5-sec duration. In order to meet these requirements, a 15-A, 120-keV, 0.5-sec pulse per minute module is presently under test at the neutral-beam test facility at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. A 65-A, 120-keV, 0.5-sec module is under construction and is scheduled for assembly in April of this year. Some of the features of a calorimeter/beam dump that is presently being used in the testing and evaluation of these neutral beam sources are discussed.
Date: November 1, 1976
Creator: Haughian, J. M.; Cooper, W. S. & Paterson, J. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sub-nanosecond plastic scintillator time response studies using laser produced x-ray pulsed excitation

Description: The light emission time response of quenched NElll plastic scintillators has been measured using a streak camera (20 ps resolution) and 100 to 180 ps, 1.06 ..mu..m, laser-produced, pulsed, low energy x-ray excitation. Each light output pulse was obtained by deconvolution from the film data using the x-ray temporal response measured with an x-ray sensitive streak camera (10 ps resolution). Time response parameters are presented for benzophenone and acetophenone, quenching agents which most effectively reduce the decay time of the singlet component. Full width-half-maximums less than or equal to 260 ps were observed for NElll samples quenched with greater than or equal to 2 percent benzophenone. Results are given for unquenched samples consisting of different concentrations of butyl-PBD in PVT and for the phosphor ZnO doped with Ga.
Date: November 17, 1976
Creator: Tirsell, K. G.; Tripp, G. R.; Lent, E. M.; Lerche, R. A.; Cheng, J. C.; Hocker, L. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department