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U.S. Department of Energy physical protection upgrades at the Latvian Academy of Sciences Nuclear Research Center, Latvia

Description: Approximately five years ago, the Safe, Secure Dismantlement program was started between the United States and countries of the Former Soviet Union (FSU). The purpose of the program is to accelerate progress toward reducing the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation, including such threats as theft, diversion, and unauthorized possession of nuclear materials. This would be accomplished by strengthening the material protection, control, and accounting systems within the FSU countries. This paper describes: the process involved, from initial contacting to project completion, for the physical protection upgrades now in place at the LNRC; the intervening activities; and a brief overview of the technical aspects of the upgrades.
Date: December 31, 1966
Creator: Haase, M.; Hine, C.; Robertson, C.; Soo Hoo, M. S.; Engling, E.; Lapenas, A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measurement of the K{sup 0}{sub S} - K{sup 0}{sub L} mass difference by the time dependence of strangeness

Description: The magnitude of the K{sup 0}{sub S} - K{sup 0}{sub L} mass difference has been measured by monitoring the time dependence of the strangeness of neutral K's produced in hydrogen and deuterium in the LRL 25 '' hydrogen bubble chamber. The particles originate as K-bar{sup 0} in K{sup -} change-exchange scatters at .85 to 1.15 Bev/c; the signature for an S = -1 reaction is the production of a hyperon. Seventy- seven events were found, obtaining {Delta}{omega} = 0.50 =- 0.15, measured in units of inverse K{sup 0}{sub S} lifetime. This and two other recent measurements using the same method are consistent with one another and with measurements of {Delta}{omega} by other means. A combined ''world average'' of nine reasonably consistent measurements gives {Delta}{omega} = 0.60 +- 0.06.
Date: April 1, 1966
Creator: Camerini, U.; Cline, D.; English, J. B.; Fischbein, W.; Fry, W. F.; Gaidos, J. A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Modified Pyroelectric Sodium Fluoride Carrier Distillation Medthod For The Spectrographic Analysis Of Impurities In Plutonium

Description: A modification of the pyroelectric sodium fluoride carrier distillation method for analysis of impurities in plutonium metal is described. The metal is dissolved. Plutonium is precipitated and treated with nitric acid. The slurry obtained is dried and ignited. The resultant low density oxide is mixed with sodium fluoride and pressed into a pellet for arcing. Cobalt is used as the internal standard for densitometric using visual comparisons against prepared standards. The procedural modifications improve reproducibility and sensitivity of most of the elements involved. (auth)
Date: August 1, 1966
Creator: Schreiber, G. A. & Barrick, C. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Isotopic Discrimination of Some Solutes in Liquid Ammonia.

Description: The nitrogen isotopic discrimination of some salts and metals, studied in liquid ammonia solution at -50ÂșC, decreases in magnitude in the order Pb{sup++}, Ca{sup++}, Li{sup+}, Ag{sup+}, Na{sup+}, Li, K{sup+}, Na, K. The isotopic discrimination appears to provide qualitative information about the strength of the cation-solvent interaction in liquid amonia.
Date: January 1, 1966
Creator: Viste, A. & Taube, H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: I have understood my assignment as a review of some of the work done in high-energy physics with polarized proton targets and a description of some of the special problems connected with polarized targets. Most of my report will be based on the polarized target that I am most familiar with--that constructed by Jeffries, Schultz, Shapiro, and myself. This target is no longer unique; in fact, it is now somewhat old-fashioned in some respects. Other polarized proton targets are in operation at CERN, Saclay, the Rutherford Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, the Soviet Union, and there is a target newly in operation at the Brookhaven Laboratory. Other targets are in operation or are in the process of design or construction at a number of other places. Unfortunately, none of these targets consists of pure hydrogen. The target material most often used is made of lanthanum magnesium nitrate, LMN. About a quarter of the weight of this crystal is water; it is the protons within the water molecules that are polarized. Hydrogen constitutes only 3 percent of the weight of the crystal. This means that scattering processes on hydrogen must be distinguished kinematically from scattering processes involving the heavy elements of the target if the target is to be used efficiently in high-energy scattering experiments. In fact, some of the experiments one would very much like to do appear to be very difficult. In LMN the protons are polarized by an indirect process known as dynamic polarization. Neodymium ions are added to the crystal when it is grown from a water solution. The neodymium ions are substituted for lanthanum to the extent of one percent or less. The neodymium ion has an odd number of electrons; it has a doublet ground state, called a Kramers doublet, that acts very much like a ...
Date: September 9, 1966
Creator: Chamberlain, Owen
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: A simplified procedure is described for the preparation of crystalline bacteriochlorophyll from R. rubrum. The chemical dehydrogenation of bacteriochlorophyll with quinones is shown to give high yields of 2-desvinyl-2acetyl-chlorophyll a, whereas the photo-oxidation of bacteriochlorophyll results in a mixture of products of which 2-desvinyl-2acetyl-chlorophyll a is only a minor constituent. A number of interesting results have been observed spectrophotometrically during these oxidations under different reaction conditions. These observations are discussed and possible reaction mechanisms are outlined. The proton magnetic resonance spectrum of 2-desvinyl-2acetyl-chlorophyll a in deuteroacetone and the visible absorption spectra of this pigment and its magnesium-free derivative in acetone are reported. As expected, these spectra exhibit a marked resemblance to chlorophyll a and pheophytin a.
Date: June 1, 1966
Creator: Smith, John R. Lindsay & Calvin, Melvin
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: If we are to do a workmanlike job of studying the strong interactions it is imperative that we have knowledge of the spin dependence of the forces. This implies that polarization experiments are essential. Already Bareyre, Bricman, Stirling and Villet have shown that pion-proton polarization experiments should be interpreted as indicating two new resonances not previously seen by other methods. The present-day approach to determining detailed pion-proton scattering amplitudes is to use measured differential cross sections, polarization measurements, dispersion relations, and isospin conservation rules. Further assumptions are unitarity of the S matrix and the short-range nature of strong interactions. In the more distant future I hope we may see the day when the scattering experiments will be sufficiently detailed that the dispersion relations will not be necessary to the interpretation of results. Then the dispersion relations may themselves be checked experimentally, rather than being assumed. I see, then, an early period of polarization experiments followed by a later period in which more extensive experimental results will be called for. For the pion-proton system the first period seems well progressed, based on measurements of differential cross section and P, the polarization. In the second period more complex experiments should be required, such as measurements of the parameters R and A . In R and A measurements, the protons have a known polarization before the collision takes place. After the pion scatters on the proton, one asks how much residual polarization the proton has. The nucleon-nucleon (N-N) system is susceptible to similar analysis, but there are more amplitudes to be determined, so more experiments must be performed. The N-N system is less well analyzed at present than the {pi}-N system.
Date: December 1, 1966
Creator: Chamberlain, Owen
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Selective occlusions of straight-chain paraffins in the presence of branched-chain hydrocarbons by naturally occurring zeolites of suitable dimension was reported as early as 1944 by Barrer and Ibbitson. More recently the capacity of synthetic zeolites or molecular sieves to absorb exclusively the straight-chain hydrocarbons from complex hydrocarbon mixtures has found extensive application in the petroleum industry. Under the conditions developed for most sieving operations any normal olefins present are occluded along with the normal paraffins. A supplemental separation technique must be employed to obtain n-paraffins free of olefins.
Date: August 30, 1966
Creator: Fenselau, Catherine & Calvin, Melvin
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: The capacity of photosynthetic organisms to exhibit photo-induced electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) signals has been known for over ten years. Subcellular units of photosynthetic materials, the quantasomes and the chromatophores, are capable of Hill Reaction activity, and also of exhibiting the light-induced EPR signals. This, coupled with the rapid rise and decay kinetics of these signals, suggests but does not prove that the unpaired electrons are involved in the initial electron transfer processes in the primary quantum conversion act. The identification of the species giving rise to these signals and their connection with processes of primary quantum conversion remains elusive even though such varied approaches as mutant strains, special growth conditions, extreme physical conditions, special metabolic inhibitors, etc. have been applied to this problem. In this communication the authors wish to report another method being used in an attempt to identify the species responsible for the unpaired electrons. Hoffman prepared a water soluble, stable free radical, di-tertiary-butylnitroxide (hereafter called DTBN), which is a 'vigorous free radical scavenger'. It shows a sharp, well resolved, symmetrical, three-line paramagnetic resonance spectrum that is relatively insensitive to the molecular environment. The chemistry of di-tertiary butylnitroxide has not been studied extensively. However, four distinct types of interaction can be envisioned for this molecule. It could undergo a one-electron reduction to form a hydroxylamine which can be reduced subsequently to the amine; an oxidative degradation to 2-methyl-2-nitrosopropane and isobutylene; or a coupling with another radical forming either an oxygen substituted hydroxylamine or a tri-substituted amine oxide.
Date: September 9, 1966
Creator: Corker, Gerald A.; Klein, Melvin P. & Calvin, Melvin.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Expressions are presented for the electric and magnetic fields due to a pulse of charge, which may be oscillating transversely while moving down an infinitely long highly conducting pipe of circular cross section. The expressions are evaluated at large distances from the pulse and the fields are shown to decrease algebraically in the distance behind the pulse. In the absence of transverse oscillations the longitudinal electric field varies as the inverse three-halves power of the distance; in the presence of oscillations the dominant field component is the transverse magnetic field, which decreases as the inverse one-half power. In the long-range limit the amplitude of the fields is proportional to the square root of the wall resistivity. The phase of the field associated with the oscillating pulse is shown to be the phase of the pulse at the time when it passed the point of observation.
Date: February 28, 1966
Creator: Morton, P.L.; Neil, V.K. & Sessler, A.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: The second-order nonlinear differential equation for the rotation of Mercury is shown to imply locked-in motion when the period is within the range (2T/3) [1-{lambda} cos 2{pi}t/T {+-} 2/3 (21{lambda}e/2){sup 1/2}], where e is the eccentricity and T the period of Mercury's orbit, the time t is measured from perihelion, and {lambda} = (B-A)/C measures the planet's distortion. For values near 2T/3, the instantaneous period oscillates about 2T/3 with period (21{lambda}e/2){sup -1/2}T.
Date: January 1, 1966
Creator: Laslett, L. Jackson & Sessler, Andrew M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Using a polarized proton target, we have measured the polarization parameter P({theta}) in pion-proton scattering for both positive and negative pions. Because there seems to be a great deal of current interest in the analysis of pion-proton scattering we wish to present these experimental results at this time even though we have not yet completed their analysis. The measurement consisted of scattering pions from polarized target protons and observing the asymmetry in scattered intensity, I({theta}), as the target protons spin directions were reversed. The intensity for scattering from a target of polarization P{sub T} is I({theta}){sub pol.} = I({theta}){sub unpol.} (1 + P({theta})P{sub T}), where the parameter P({theta}) is the same as the recoil proton polarization in scattering pions from unpolarized protons under the assumption that parity is conserved in the process.
Date: October 1, 1966
Creator: Chamberlain, Owen; Hansroul, Michel J.; Johnson, Claiborne H.; Grannis, Paul D.; Holloway, Leland E.; Valentin, Luc et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Kamchatka geothermal resources development: Problems and perspectives

Description: There are four long-term exploited geothermal fields in Kamchatka: one steam-water field Pauzhetka (south of Kamchatka peninsula) and three hot water fields: Paratunka (near by town of Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky) and Esso and Anavgay (center of peninsula). Pauzhetka and Paratunka fields are exploited during almost 28 years. Esso and Anavgay fields are exploited during 25 years. In Pauzhetka 11 MWe geothermal power plant work and on the other fields thermal energy of hot water is directly used. Kamchatka region satisfies energetic demands mainly by organic imported fuels. At the same time electricity produced by geothermal fluids constitutes less than 2 per cent of total region electricity production, and thermal energy produced by geothermal fluids constitutes less than 3 per cent of total region thermal energy production. The main reasons of small geothermal portion in the energy production balance of Kamchatka are briefly discussed. The geothermal development reserves and perspectives of geothermal energy use increase in Kamchatka are outlined.
Date: January 24, 1966
Creator: Pashkevich, Roman I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department