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The History Engine: Doing History with Digital Tools

Description: Article on the History Engine Project, an online archive consisting of thousands of narratives written and contributed by undergraduates.
Date: September 9, 2009
Creator: Nelson, Robert K.; Nesbit, Scott & Torget, Andrew J., 1978-
Partner: UNT College of Arts and Sciences

Atmospheric chemistry of isopropyl formate and tert-butyl formate

Description: Article on the atmospheric chemistry of isopropyl formate and tert-butyl formate.
Date: August 21, 2009
Creator: Pimentel, Andre Silva; Tyndall, Geoffrey S. (Geoffrey Stuart) 1955-; Orlando, John J.; Hurley, Michale D.; Wallington, Timothy J.; Sulbaek Andersen, Mads Peter et al.
Partner: UNT College of Arts and Sciences

Acid-Base Interactions at the Molecular Level: Adhesion and Friction Studies with Interfacial Force Microscopy

Description: To examine the forces of acid-base adhesive interactions at the molecular level, we utilize the scanning probe Interracial Force Microscope (IFM). Unlike cantilever-based atomic force microscopes, the EM is a non-compliant, mechanically stable probe that provides a complete adhesive profile without jump-to-contact. In this way, we are able to quantitatively measure the work of adhesion and bond energies at well-defined, nanometer-scale single asperity contacts. In particular, we will discuss the displacement-controlled adhesive forces between self-assembled monolayer of functionalized alkanethiols strongly bound to a gold substrate and a similarly functionalized tip. We also discuss a method utilizing decoupled lateral and normal force sensors to simultaneously observe the onset of both friction and chemical bond formation. Measurements show that friction can be directly attributed to bond formation and rupture well before repulsive contact.
Date: December 9, 1998
Creator: Burns, A.R.; Carpick, R.W.; Houston, J.E. & Michalske, T.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy and momentum conserving algorithms for rigid body contact

Description: Energy-momentum conserving methods are developed for rigid body dynamics with contact. Because these methods are unconditionally stable, they are not time step dependent and, hence, are well suited for incorporation into structural mechanics finite element codes. Both penalty and Lagrange multiplier methods are developed herein and are the extension of the energy-momentum conserving integration schemes for rigid bodies given by Simo and Wong [1].
Date: April 9, 1998
Creator: Puso, M.A. & Zywicz, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A New Analytical Solution for Diaphragm Deflection and its Application to a Surface-Micromachined Pressure Sensor

Description: An analytical solution for large deflections of a clamped circular diaphragm with built-in stress is presented. The solution is directly applicable to micromachined pressure sensors. The solution is compared to finite element analysis results and experimental data from a surface-micromachined pressure sensor.
Date: March 9, 1999
Creator: Bitsie, F.; Eaton, W.P.; Plummer, D.W. & Smith, J.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cluster ion beam polishing for inertial confinement fusion target capsules

Description: Targets for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) typically consist of a hollow, spherical capsule filled with a mixture of hydrogen isotopes. Typically, these capsules are irradiated by short, intense pulses of either laser light (``direct drive``) or laser-generated. x-rays (``indirect drive``), causing them to implode This compresses and heats the fuel, leading to thermonuclear fusion. This process is highly sensitive to hydrodynamic (e.g., Rayleigh-Taylor) instabilities, which can be initiated by imperfections in the target. Thus, target capsules must be spherical and smooth One of the lead capsule designs for the National Ignition Facility, a 1.8 MJ laser being built at Livermore, calls for a 2-mm- diam capsule with a 150-{micro}m-thick copper-doped beryllium wall. These capsules can be fabricated by sputter depositing the metal onto a spherical plastic mandrel. This results in surfaces with measured Rq`s of 50 to 150 nm, as measured with an atomic force microscope For optimal performance the roughness should be below 10 nm rms We have begun studying the use of ion cluster beam polishing as a means of improving the surface finish of as-deposited capsules In this approach, a batch of capsules would be agitated in a bounce pan inside a vacuum chamber during exposure to the cluster beam. This would ensure a uniform beam dose around the capsule. We have performed preliminary experiments on both Be flats and on a stationary Be capsule On the capsule, the measured Rq went from 64 nm before polishing to 15 nm after This result was obtained without any effort at process optimization. Similar smoothing was observed on the planar samples
Date: June 9, 1998
Creator: McEachern, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Consideration on Isochronal Anneal Technique: From Measurement to Physics

Description: The isochronal anneal technique used to predict isothermal anneal behavior of MOS devices is analyzed as a function of experimental parameters. The effects of detrapping of trapped holes and compensating electrons are discussed.
Date: March 9, 1999
Creator: Flament, O.; Fleetwood, D.M.; Leray, J.L. & Paillet, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Laser imprint and implications for direct drive ignition with the National Ignition Facility

Description: For direct drive ICF, nonuniformities in laser illumination can seed ripples at the ablation front in a process called imprint. Such nonuniformities will grow during the capsule implosion and can penetrate the capsule shell impede ignition, or degrade burn. We have simulated imprint for a number of experiments on tile Nova laser. Results are in generally good agreement with experimental data. We leave also simulated imprint upon National Ignition Facility (NIF) direct drive ignition capsules. Imprint modulation amplitude comparable to the intrinsic surface finish of {approximately}40 nm is predicted for a laser bandwidth of 0.5 THz. Ablation front modulations experience growth factors up to several thousand, carrying modulation well into the nonlinear regime. Saturation modeling predicts that the shell should remain intact at the time of peak velocity, but penetration at earlier times appears more marginal.
Date: July 9, 1996
Creator: Weber, S.V.; Glendinning, S.G.; Kalantar, D.H.; Remington, B.A. & Rothenberg, J.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Observation of resonant energy transfer between identical-frequency laser beams

Description: Enhanced transmission of a low intensity laser beam is observed when crossed with an identical-frequency beam in a plasma with a flow velocity near the ion sound speed. The time history of the enhancement and the dependence on the flow velocity strongly suggest that this is due to energy transfer between the beams via a resonant ion wave with zero frequency in the laboratory frame. The maximum energy transfer has been observed when the beams cross in a region with Mach 1 flow. The addition of frequency modulation on the crossing beams is seen to reduce the energy transfer by a factor of two. Implications for indirect-drive fusion schemes are discussed.
Date: December 9, 1998
Creator: Afeyan, B. B.; Cohen, B. I.; Estabrook, K. G.; Glenzer, S. H.; Joshi, C.; Kirkwood, R. K. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Footprint Reduction Process: Using Remote Sensing and GIS Technologies to Identify Non-Contaminated Land Parcels on the Oak Ridge Reservation National Priorities List Site

Description: In 1989, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry evaluated the entire 35,000-acre U. S: Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR, located in Oak Ridge, TN) and placed it on the National Priorities List (NPL), making the ORR subject to Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) regulations. Although much of the ORR has not been impacted by previous federal activities, without investigation it is difficult to discern which parcels of land are free of surface contamination. In 1996, the DOE Oak Ridge Environmental Management Program (EM) funded the Footprint Reduction Project to: 1) develop a process to study the large areas of the ORR that are believed to be free of surface contamination and 2) initiate the delisting of the "clean" areas from the NPL. Although this project's goals do not include the transfer of federal property to non-federal entities, the process development team aimed to provide a final product with multiple uses. Therefore, the process was developed to meet the requirements of NPL delisting and the transfer of non- contaminated federal lands to future land users. Section 120 (h) of the CERCLA law identifies the requirements for the transfer of federal property that is currently part of an NPL site. Reviews of historical information (including aerial photography), field inspections, and the recorded chain of title documents for the property are required for the delisting of property prior to transfer from the federal government. Despite the widespread availability of remote sensing and other digital geographic data and geographic information systems (GIS) for the analysis of such data, historical aerial photography is the only geographic data source required for review under the CERCLA 120 (h) process. However, since the ORR Environmental Management Program had an established Remote Sensing Program, the Footprint Reduction Project included the development ...
Date: December 9, 1998
Creator: Halsey, P.A.; Kendall, D.T.; King, A.L. & Storms, R.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Consequences of return to power after a beam interruption in the blanket of an accelerator driven system.

Description: A sudden drop in power after a beam interruption leads to thermal fatigue effects in structural components in the blanket of an accelerator driven system. These thermal fatigue effects limit component lifetimes. A sudden return to power after a beam interruption can contribute significant additional thermal fatigue and greatly reduce component lifetimes. One obvious solution is a gradual return to power after a beam interruption. There are two potential problems with this solution. One problem involves interruptions that are longer than the thermal time constants of thin structural members but shorter than the time constants of thick structural members. In such a case, a gradual return to power reduces the additional thermal fatigue in the thin structural members but increases the thermal fatigue in thick structural members. Some compromise is necessary. The other problem is that for thick components with long thermal time constants a long, gradual return to power is required to minimize additional thermal fatigue. Such a slow return to power can reduce the utilization or the effective load factor of the system. Specific examples of beam interruptions with various assumptions on return to power are provided for a preliminary design for the blanket of the Accelerator Driven Test Facility. Also, mitigation options to increase component lifetime are discussed. These mitigation options include improving beam reliability and modifying the blanket design to better tolerate beam interruptions.
Date: August 9, 2001
Creator: Dunn, F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography - Reflective Mask Technology

Description: EUVL mask blanks consist of a distributed Bragg reflector made of 6.7nm-pitch bi-layers of MO and Si deposited upon a precision Si or glass substrate. The layer deposition process has been optimized for low defects, by application of a vendor-supplied but highly modified ion-beam sputter deposition system. This system is fully automated using SMIF technology to obtain the lowest possible environmental- and handling-added defect levels. Originally designed to coat 150mm substrates, it was upgraded in July, 1999 to 200 mm and has coated runs of over 50 substrates at a time with median added defects >100nm below 0.05/cm{sup 2}. These improvements have resulted from a number of ion-beam sputter deposition system modifications, upgrades, and operational changes, which will be discussed. Success in defect reduction is highly dependent upon defect detection, characterization, and cross-platform positional registration. We have made significant progress in adapting and extending commercial tools to this purpose, and have identified the surface scanner detection limits for different defect classes, and the signatures of false counts and non-printable scattering anomalies on the mask blank. We will present key results and how they have helped reduce added defects. The physics of defect reduction and mitigation is being investigated by a program on multilayer growth over deliberately placed perturbations (defects) of varying size. This program includes modeling of multilayer growth and modeling of defect printability. We developed a technique for depositing uniformly sized gold spheres on EUVL substrates, and have studied the suppression of the perturbations during multilayer growth under varying conditions. This work is key to determining the lower limit of critical defect size for EUV Lithography. We present key aspects of this work. We will summarize progress in all aspects of EUVL mask blank development, and present detailed results on defect reduction and mask blank performance at EUV wavelengths.
Date: May 9, 2000
Creator: Walton, C.C.; Kearney, P.A.; Mirkarimi, P.B.; Bowers, J.M.; Cerjan, C.; Warrick, A.L. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Jets and dijets in Au+Au and p+p collisions at RHIC

Description: Recent data from RHIC suggest novel nuclear effects in the production of high p{sub T} hadrons. We present results from the STAR detector on high p{sub T} angular correlations in Au+Au and p+p collisions at {radical}S = 200 GeV/c. These two-particle angular correlation measurements verify the presence of a partonic hard scattering and fragmentation component at high p{sub T} in both central and peripheral Au+Au collisions. When triggering on a leading hadron with p{sub T}>4 GeV, we observe a quantitative agreement between the jet cone properties in p+p and all centralities of Au+Au collisions. This quantitative agreement indicates that nearly all hadrons with p{sub T}>4 GeV/c come from jet fragmentation and that jet fragmentation properties are not substantially modified in Au+Au collisions. STAR has also measured the strength of back-to-back high p{sub T} charged hadron correlations, and observes a small suppression of the back-to-back correlation strength in peripheral collisions, and a nearly complete disappearance o f back-to-back correlations in central Au+Au events. These phenomena, together with the observed strong suppression of inclusive yields and large value of elliptic flow at high p{sub T}, are consistent with a model where high p{sub T} hadrons come from partons created near the surface of the collision region, and where partons that originate or propagate towards the center of the collision region are substantially slowed or completely absorbed.
Date: December 9, 2002
Creator: Hardtke, D. & Collaboration, STAR
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Prospects for diffractive physics with the CDF forward detectors at the Tevatron

Description: The Forward Detector upgrade project at CDF is designed to enhance the capabilities for studies of diffractive physics at the Tevatron during Run II. Studies of hard diffraction and very forward physics are some of the topics that can be addressed in the next few years at the Tevatron. The program for diffractive physics, including the detectors and their commissioning, is discussed here. All the detectors have been installed and are presently collecting data.
Date: July 9, 2002
Creator: others], M. Gallinaro
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Concluding remarks for ECRIS '02

Description: ECRIS'02 was held in Jyvaeskylae Finland at the edge of Lake Jyvaeskylae, which was beautiful location to meet and discuss the state of Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion sources. It was the 15th ECR Ion Source Workshop in a series stretching back to the first workshop held November 6, 1978 in Karlsruhe Germany. Overall, the workshop reports could be characterized as showing solid achievements and steady progress without any spectacular breakthroughs or highly controversial new ideas. In this short report, I will mention some of the highlights and surprises of the workshop that I observed during the meeting and reported on at the close of the meeting. As such, it will be relatively brief and not meant to be all encompassing. A short list of items that made this workshop memorable is given.
Date: September 9, 2002
Creator: Lyneis, Claude
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Status of MARS Code

Description: Status and recent developments of the MARS 14 Monte Carlo code system for simulation of hadronic and electromagnetic cascades in shielding, accelerator and detector components in the energy range from a fraction of an electronvolt up to 100 TeV are described. these include physics models both in strong and electromagnetic interaction sectors, variance reduction techniques, residual dose, geometry, tracking, histograming. MAD-MARS Beam Line Build and Graphical-User Interface.
Date: April 9, 2003
Creator: Mokhov, N.V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Benchmark Studies of the Effectiveness of Structural and Internal Materials as Radiation Shielding for the International Space Station

Description: Accelerator-based measurements and model calculations have been used to study the heavy ion radiation transport properties of materials in use on the International Space Station (ISS). Samples of the ISS aluminum outer hull were augmented with various configurations of internal wall material and polyethylene. The materials were bombarded with high energy Fe ions characteristic of a significant part of the Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) heavy ion spectrum. Transmitted primary ions and charged fragments produced in nuclear collisions in the materials were measured near the beam axis, and a model was used to extrapolate from the data to lower beam energies and to a lighter ion. For the materials and ions studied, at incident particle energies from 1037 MeV/nucleon down to at least 600 MeV/nucleon, nuclear fragmentation reduces the average dose and dose equivalent per incident ion. At energies below 400 MeV/nucleon, the calculation predicts that as material is added, increased ionization energy loss produces increases in some dosimetric quantities. These limited results suggest that the addition of modest amounts of polyethylene or similar material to the interior of the ISS will reduce the dose to ISS crews from space radiation; however the radiation transport properties of ISS materials should be evaluated with a realistic space radiation field.
Date: May 9, 2002
Creator: Miller, J.; Zeitlin, C.; Cucinotta, F.A.; Heilbronn, L.; Stephens, D. & Wilson, J.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department