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The National Facility physics and diagnostics

Description: This paper presents a description of the National Ignition Facility, some of the physics experiments that will be performed on it, and a description of some of the diagnostics needed to complete these experiments. Experiments are presented under the headings of: ignition physics, weapons physics or high-energy-density experimental science, weapons effects, and basic science and inertial fusion energy. The diagnostics discussed are primarily those that will be provided for early operation.
Date: August 6, 1999
Creator: Wootton, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Future algorithm research needs for partitioning in solid mechanics and coupled mechanical models

Description: Exceptional progress has been made in mathematical algorithm research leading to optimized mesh partitions for the highly unstructured grids occurring in finite element applications in solid mechanics. Today another research challenge presents itself. Research is needed to include boundary conditions into the algorithms for partitioning meshes. We describe below two methods we use currently to accomplish this and propose a more general approach be developed which would apply to our problems today as well as to the coupled models we envision for the future. Finally, we suggest research be considered that would incorporate partitioning methods into parallel mesh generation.
Date: October 6, 1997
Creator: Hoover, C. G.; DeGroot, A. J. & Sherwood, R. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design and Initial Development of Monolithic Cross-Flow Ceramic Hot-Gas Filters

Description: Advanced, coal-fueled, power generation systems utilizing pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) and integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technologies are currently being developed for high-efficiency, low emissions, and low-cost power generation. In spite of the advantages of these promising technologies, the severe operating environment often leads to material degradation and loss of performance in the barrier filters used for particle entrapment. To address this problem, LoTEC Inc., and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are jointly designing and developing a monolithic cross-flow ceramic hot-gas filter. The filter concept involves a truly monolithic cross-flow design that is resistant to delamination, can be easily fabricated, and offers flexibility of geometry and material make-up. During Phase I of the program, a thermo-mechanical analysis was performed to determine how a cross-flow filter would respond both thermally and mechanically to a series of thermal and mechanical loads. The cross-flow filter mold was designed accordingly, and the materials selection was narrowed down to Ca{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}Zr{sub 4}P{sub 6}O{sub 24} (CS-50) and 2Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-3SiO{sub 2} (mullite). A fabrication process was developed using gelcasting technology and monolithic cross-flow filters were fabricated. The program focuses on obtaining optimum filter permeability and testing the corrosion resistance of the candidate materials.
Date: June 6, 1999
Creator: Barra, C.; Limaye, S.; Stinton, D.P. & Vaubert, V.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Predictive Models for the Determination of Pitting Corrosion Versus Inhibitor Concentrations and Temperature for Radioactive Sludge in Carbon Steel Waste Tanks

Description: Statistical models have been developed to predict the occurrence of pitting corrosion in carbon steel waste storage tanks exposed to radioactive nuclear waste. The levels of nitrite concentrations necessary to inhibit pitting at various temperatures and nitrate concentrations were experimentally determined via electrochemical polarization and coupon immersion corrosion tests. Models for the pitting behavior were developed based on various statistical analyses of the experimental data. Feed-forward Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models, trained using the Back-Propagation of Error Algorithm, more accurately predicted conditions at which pitting occurred than the logistic regression models developed using the same data.
Date: October 6, 1998
Creator: Mickalonis, J.I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Exploring the Role of Shear Stress and Severe Turbulence in Downstream Fish Passage

Description: Fish may be exposed to damaging levels of fluid shear stress and turbulence while passing through hydroelectric power plants. The generally assumed locations for such potential damage are the turbine and draft tube passages, although it is possible that fish are also injured during passage over the spillway or through sluiceways and fish bypass outfalls. Unless mitigated, fluid-induced injuries and mortality could frustrate efforts to develop advanced, fish-friendly turbines or to provide safe alternate downstream passages. The effects of shear stress and turbulence on fish are poorly understood, in part because of the difficulties in conceptualizing these phenomena, determining their magnitudes and distribution within hydroelectric systems, and then recreating them in a controlled laboratory environment. We define the fluid phenomena that are relevant to the assessment of effects on fish. The magnitudes of fluid stresses associated with man-altered aquatic environments are often considerably higher than those found in natural environments (e.g., normal river flows). However, levels of shear stresses that occur during flash floods appear to be comparable to those expected within a turbine. Past studies of the effects of shear stress on fish are of limited value, mainly because of their narrow scope and lack of instrumentation to measure velocities on appropriately small scales. A laboratory experiment to study the effects of shear stress and turbulence on fish is described.
Date: July 6, 1999
Creator: Cada, G.; Carlson, T.; Ferguson, J.; Richmond, M. & Sale, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: The SNS to be built at Oak Ridge National Laboratory will provide a high average intensity 1 GeV beam to produce spallation neutrons. Loss of a even small percentage of this intense beam would result in high radiation. The Beam Loss Monitor (ELM) system must detect such small, long term losses yet be capable of measuring infrequent short high losses. The large dynamic range presents special problems for the system design. Ion chambers will be used as the detectors. A detector originally designed for the FNAL Tevatron, was considered but concerns about ion collection times and low collection efficiency at high loss rates favor a new design. The requirements and design concepts of the proposed approach will be presented. Discussion of the design and testing of the ion chambers and the analog j-Point end electronics will be presented. The overall system design will be described.
Date: May 6, 2002
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Static hybrid quarkonium potential with improved staggered quarks

Description: The authors are studying the effects of light dynamical quarks on the excitation energies of a flux tube between a static quark and antiquark. They report preliminary results of an analysis of the ground state potential and the {Sigma}{prime}{sub g}{sup +} and II{sub u} potentials. They have measured these potentials on closely matched ensembles of gauge configurations, generated in the quenched approximation and with 2+1 flavors of Asqtad improved staggered quarks.
Date: January 6, 2004
Creator: al., C. Bernard et
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ORFEUS and EUVE observations of AM herculis

Description: Far-UV spectra of AM Her in a high optical state were obtained in 1993 September with the University of California, Berkeley (UCB) spectrometer aboard the ORFEUS telescope. The UCB spectrometer has a spectral resolution {lambda}/{Delta}{lambda} 3000 and covers the 390-1170 {Angstrom} bandpass, but interstellar absorption leaves no detectable -flux below the Lyman limit. Spectra of AM Her were acquired during the intervals 04:19:40-04:36:26 UT on September 16 and 08:34:03-09:09:06 UT on September 17 of 1993. The corresponding magnetic phases are 0.75-0.84 and 0.88-1.07 according to the linear polarization ephemeris of S. Tapia. The main spectral features are the 0 VI doublet, C III {lambda}977, and He II {lambda}1085 (Balmer {gamma}). The bright C III {lambda}1176 multiplet, which is detected by IUE, is at the very end of the spectrum. At the full spectral resolution of the instrument, the 0 VI doublet shows broad and narrow components similar to that of the optical emission lines. The intensity ratio of the narrow component of the 0 VI doublet is {approximately} 1.3:1, much closer to the optically thick limit of 1:1 than the optically thin ratio of 2:1.
Date: April 6, 1995
Creator: Mauche, C.W.; Paerels, F.B.S. & Raymond, J.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A new security model for collaborative environments

Description: Prevalent authentication and authorization models for distributed systems provide for the protection of computer systems and resources from unauthorized use. The rules and policies that drive the access decisions in such systems are typically configured up front and require trust establishment before the systems can be used. This approach does not work well for computer software that moderates human-to-human interaction. This work proposes a new model for trust establishment and management in computer systems supporting collaborative work. The model supports the dynamic addition of new users to a collaboration with very little initial trust placed into their identity and supports the incremental building of trust relationships through endorsements from established collaborators. It also recognizes the strength of a users authentication when making trust decisions. By mimicking the way humans build trust naturally the model can support a wide variety of usage scenarios. Its particular strength lies in the support for ad-hoc and dynamic collaborations and the ubiquitous access to a Computer Supported Collaboration Workspace (CSCW) system from locations with varying levels of trust and security.
Date: June 6, 2003
Creator: Agarwal, Deborah; Lorch, Markus; Thompson, Mary & Perry, Marcia
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CDF Run II status and prospects

Description: Run II at the Tevatron Collider started at the beginning of March 2001. With extensive upgrades on both detectors and electronics the CDF II began to collect data. This paper reviews early Run II physics results obtained by analyzing data collected before the middle of June 2002. At the present the understanding of the detector performances is rather high so many analysis are already underway.
Date: February 6, 2003
Creator: Pagliarone, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Influences on Mercury Bioaccumulation Factors for the Savannah River

Description: Mercury TMDLs (Total Maximum Daily Loads) are a regulatory instrument designed to reduce the amount of mercury entering a water body and ultimately to control the bioaccumulation of mercury in fish. TMDLs are based on a BAF (bioaccumulation factor), which is the ratio of methyl mercury in fish to dissolved methyl mercury in water. Analysis of fish tissue and aqueous methyl mercury samples collected at a number of locations and over several seasons in a 118 km reach of the Savannah River demonstrated that species specific BAFs varied by factors of three to eight. Factors contributing to BAF variability were location, habitat and season related differences in fish muscle tissue mercury levels and seasonal differences in dissolved methyl mercury levels. Overall (all locations, habitats, and seasons) average BAFs were 3.7 x 106 for largemouth bass, 1.4 x 106 for sunfishes, and 2.5 x 106 for white catfish. Inaccurate and imprecise BAFs can result in unnecessary economic impact or insufficient protection of human health. Determination of representative and precise BAFs for mercury in fish from large rivers necessitates collecting large and approximately equal numbers of fish and aqueous methyl mercury samples over a seasonal cycle from the entire area and all habitats to be represented by the TMDL.
Date: May 6, 2003
Creator: Paller, M.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: The objective of this report is to identify business opportunities and value for Battelle Organizations to undertake IS0 14001 Environmental Management System Implementation and registration to the international standard as a corporate strategic initiative.
Date: November 6, 2001
Creator: BRIGGS,S.L.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: One of the concerns facing accelerator-driven transmutation systems (ADSs) is whether the radiotoxicity of materials produced during the transmutation process poses more of a concern than does the radiotoxicity of the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) itself. Most of the common fission products (or FPs) are emitters of beta radiation, but additionally, some of the radionuclides generated during spallation are alpha emitters. Thus, both ingestion and inhalation radiotoxicity of the materials produced during spallation could be significant. Typically, ingestion is considered to be more significant than inhalation radiotoxicity for long-term storage/disposal (such as in a repository) because the greatest potential biological hazard to humans occurs when the isotope is absorbed in nearby ground water or brine and transported from the repository to drinking water. Nonetheless, inhalation radiotoxicity is also important to analyze in case of a breach of containment inside the accelerator facility and/or for short-term (i.e., above-ground) storage concerns. Thus, this study calculated the radiotoxicity of spallation products (or SPs) from three different targets: lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE), LBE-cooled tungsten, and LBE-cooled lead.
Date: June 6, 2002
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of Hydraulic Conductivity Calculations

Description: Equations by Marshall and by Millington and Quirk for calculating hydraulic conductivity from pore-size distribution data are dependent on an arbitrary choice of the exponent on the porosity term and a correct estimate of residual water. This study showed that a revised equation, based on the pore-interaction model of Marshall, accurately predicts hydraulic conductivity for glass beads and a loam soil from the pressure-water content relationships of these porous materials.
Date: January 6, 2003
Creator: Green, R.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Recent results using all point quark propagators

Description: Pseudofermion methods for extracting all-point quark propagators are reviewed, with special emphasis on techniques for reducing or eliminating autocorrelations induced by low eigenmodes of the quark Dirac operator. Recent applications, including high statistics evaluations of hadronic current correlators and the pion form factor, are also described.
Date: January 6, 2004
Creator: Duncan, A. & Yoo, E. Eichten and J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Macro stress mapping on thin film buckling

Description: Thin films deposited by Physical Vapour Deposition techniques on substrates generally exhibit large residual stresses which may be responsible of thin film buckling in the case of compressive stresses. Since the 80's, a lot of theoretical work has been done to develop mechanical models but only a few experimental work has been done on this subject to support these theoretical approaches and nothing concerning local stress measurement mainly because of the small dimension of the buckling (few 10th mm). This paper deals with the application of micro beam X-ray diffraction available on synchrotron radiation sources for stress mapping analysis of gold thin film buckling.
Date: November 6, 2002
Creator: Goudeau, P.; Villain, P.; Renault, P.-O.; Tamura, N.; Celestre, R.S. & Padmore, H.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Temperature Effect on the Sorption of Radionuclides by Freshwater Algae

Description: The heavy waters of the reactor effluent streams within the Savannah River Plant area transport very low concentrations of fission and activation products through miles of natural streambeds and swamps to the Savannah River. This study emphasizes the effects of environmental factors on the sorption of radionuclides by representative species.
Date: January 6, 2003
Creator: Harvey, R.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Non-Inductive Current Drive Modeling Extending Advanced Tokamak Operation to Steady State

Description: A critical issue for sustaining high performance, negative central shear (NCS) discharges is the ability to maintain current distributions that are maximum off axis. Sustaining such hollow current profiles in steady state requires the use of non-inductively driven current sources. On the DIII-D experiment, a combination of neutral beam current drive (NBCD) and bootstrap current have been used to create transient NCS discharges. The electron cyclotron heating (ECH) and current drive (ECCD) system is currently being upgraded from three gyrotrons to six to provide more than 3MW of absorbed power in long-pulse operation to help sustain the required off-axis current drive. This upgrade SuPporrs the long range goal of DIII-D to sustain high performance discharges with high values of normalized {beta}, {beta}{sub n} = {beta}/(I{sub p}/aB{sub T}), confinement enhancement factor, H, and neutron production rates while utilizing bootstrap current fraction, f{sub bs}, in excess of 50%. At these high performance levels, the likelihood of onset of MHD modes that spoil confinement indicates the need to control plasma profiles if we are to extend this operation to long pulse or steady state. To investigate the effectiveness of the EC system and to explore operating scenarios to sustain these discharges, we use time-dependent simulations of the equilibrium, transport and stability. We explore methods to directly alter the safety factor profile, q, through direct current drive or by localized electron heating to modify the bootstrap current profile. Time dependent simulations using both experimentally determined [1] and theory-based [2] energy transport models have been done. Here, we report on simulations exploring parametric dependencies of the heating, current drive, and profiles that affect our ability to sustain stable discharges.
Date: June 6, 2000
Creator: Casper, T.A.; Lodestro, L.L.; Pearlstein, L.D.; Porter, G.D.; Murakami, M.; Lao, L.L. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Liquid metal flows in circular insulated ducts in nonuniform magnetic fields.

Description: Magnetohydrodynamic flows in insulated circular ducts in nonuniform magnetic fields are studied with reference to liquid metal blankets and divertors of fusion reactors. Particular emphasis is made on C-MOD. The ducts are supposed to be straight, while the gradient of the magnetic field to be inclined by an angle {alpha} to the duct axis. The results are presented for the values of the Hartmann numbers, Ha, of 1000 and 100. Three-dimensional pressure drop, development length, three-dimensional length and nonuniformities of the velocity profiles have been evaluated. It has been shown that for Ha = 1000 the three-dimensional effects are of considerable importance, while for Ha = 100 they may be neglected.
Date: March 6, 2002
Creator: Reed, C.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Review of Analytes of Concern and Sample Methods for Closure of DOE High Level Waste Storage Tanks

Description: Sampling residual waste after tank cleaning and analysis for analytes of concern to support closure and cleaning targets of large underground tanks used for storage of legacy high level radioactive waste (HLW) at Department of Energy (DOE) sites has been underway since about 1995. The DOE Tanks Focus Area (TFA) has been working with DOE tank sites to develop new sampling plans, and sampling methods for assessment of residual waste inventories. This paper discusses regulatory analytes of concern, sampling plans, and sampling methods that support closure and cleaning target activities for large storage tanks at the Hanford Site, the Savannah River Site (SRS), the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), and the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP).
Date: May 6, 2002
Creator: Thomas, T.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Vibrational stability of NLC linac and final focus components

Description: Vertical vibration of linac components (accelerating structures, girders and quadrupoles) in the NLC has been studied experimentally and analytically. Effects such as structural resonances and vibration caused by cooling water both in accelerating structures and quadrupoles have been considered. Experimental data has been compared with analytical predictions and simulations using ANSYS. A design, incorporating the proper decoupling of structure vibrations from the linac quadrupoles, is being pursued.
Date: February 6, 2003
Creator: al., F. Le Pimpec et
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Relative Advantages of Direct and Indirect Drive for an Inertial Fusion Energy Power Plant Driven by a Diode-Pumped Solid-State Laser

Description: This paper reviews our current understanding of the relative advantages of direct drive (DD) and indirect drive (ID) for a 1 GWe inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant driven by a diode-pumped solid-state laser (DPSSL). This comparison is motivated by a recent study (1) that shows that the projected cost of electricity (COE) for DD is actually about the same as that for ID even though the target gain for DD can be much larger. We can therefore no longer assume that DD is the ultimate targeting scenario for IFE, and must begin a more rigorous comparison of these two drive options. The comparison begun here shows that ID may actually end up being preferred, but the uncertainties are still rather large.
Date: March 6, 2001
Creator: Orth, C.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: This workshop's focus is on considering ways for improving the proton beam polarization that the AGS delivers to the RHIC. This talk attempts to review the first decade of AGS polarization--the 1980's; to briefly describe some aspects of the machine situation, the depolarization avoidance strategies employed and the success achieved in AGS from the perspective of one of those involved.
Date: November 6, 2002
Creator: AHRENS,L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department