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Effects of Implementing a Competency-Based Performance Management System on Measures of Sales Performance

Description: Use of competency models has exploded in recent years. Unfortunately, the empirical research to validate such systems is scarce. This study explores the relationship between Competency-based Performance Management Systems and sales performance to determine whether the use of these systems increases performance. Performance data from sales representatives in a medical products company were examined to determine changes in performance following the introduction of the Competency-based Performance Management System (N=64). Correlations with performance were obtained for each competency dimension to determine if any factors were highly correlated with performance and if state-factors were more positively correlated with performance than trait-factors (N=66). The study found no significant relationship between implementation of a Competency-based Performance Management System and sales performance. Also state-factors were not more positively correlated with sales performance than trait-factors.
Date: May 2000
Creator: Lynch, Ronald
Partner: UNT Libraries

An Employee Participation Change Project and Its Impact on the Organization: a Case Study

Description: The purpose of this study was to document and assess the consequences of implementing employee involvement in a manufacturing setting. Using a quasi-experimental design, the study utilized information from various sources of data including archives, interview, and questionnaire data for a three to four year period. Time series comparisons were used. The results indicated that production increased initially, but then dropped back to original level. Quality of products increased and continued to improve gradually. The highest rate of improvement was observed in safety. An attempt was made to measure current level of commitment at the plant but was unsuccessful due to a low return rate of questionnaires. Overall, data collected partially support the hypotheses. Implications for further research and practice are discussed.
Date: August 1990
Creator: Roustaei, Simin
Partner: UNT Libraries

Correlates of a Past Behavior Interview for the Business Unit Leader: Experience, Motivation, Personality and Cognitive Ability

Description: This research evaluates the relationship between various individual differences constructs and performance on a past behavior interview (PBI)-one of the most popular forms of personnel selection interviews used today-within a sample of business unit leader level incumbents and applicants from organizations across the United States. Correlation analysis is conducted on the relationship between overall performance on a PBI and four work-related constructs: Experience, Motivation, Personality, and Cognitive Ability. The existing literature on PBIs and the four independent variables is critically reviewed. As limited research has been conducted on the influence of Experience and Motivation on PBI performance, this study makes unique contributions to the literature regarding impact of these two constructs. The major hypotheses stated that Experience and Motivation would yield significant, positive correlations with PBI performance while Personality and Cognitive Ability would not be significantly correlated with PBIs. Results partially supported the hypotheses-Experience, Motivation, and Personality were significantly related to overall PBI score, while Cognitive Ability was not. Implications for the findings as well as suggestions for future research are discussed.
Date: August 2008
Creator: Conner, Lane A.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Antecedents of Commitment to and Support of a Proposed Change Initiative in a Southern Baptist Congregation.

Description: This study extends research findings directed at a micro-focus of change by assessing individual organizational members' perspectives and psychological constructs influencing change efforts by an organization. The change initiative in question regards the construction of a new facility and subsequent relocation to said facility. Moral commitment to the organization (negative), change initiative's fit with organizational vision, and social influence significantly contributed to variance in members' affective commitment to change. Trust in leadership and normative commitment to the organization (NCO) significantly contributed to variance in members' normative commitment to change. Continuance commitment to the organization and participation (negative) significantly contributed to variance in members' continuance commitment to change. NCO, change initiative's fit with organizational vision, and participation significantly contributed to variance in support of the proposed change initiative. Affective commitment to the organization (negative), NCO (negative), trust in leadership (negative), and disruption of influence significantly contributed to variance in members' intent to leave the organization.
Date: August 2009
Creator: Lee, Audra
Partner: UNT Libraries

Relationship between Fortune 500 companies with regulatory violations and/or criminal offenses and resulting stock values.

Description: The purpose of this study was to determine whether publicly disclosed violations by U.S corporations, resulting in convictions or settlements, erode shareholder investment in the offending organizations. This study was designed to assess whether or not the shareholders' reactions to corporations' violations were related to a decline in organizations' stock valuations across sectors. In addition, this study attempted to assess whether or not shareholder support, expressed by stock prices, declined more after a corporation was prosecuted or reached a settlement for violations, as compared to corporations that disclosed earnings disappointments. Also, this study investigated the stock prices of violating corporations compared to the non-offending corporations from within the same business sector, as well as considered the percentage decline for repeat offenders for violation two compared to violation one. Opposite to hypothesis, results showed that stock prices for the violating companies were significantly greater 12 months after the violation compared to the other months and no significant differences in percent decline between the eight sectors on any of the five decline measures. There were also no differences between violating companies and their matched companies. Companies with a violation had significantly greater stock prices overall than those without a violation.
Date: December 2009
Creator: Bhagwat, Tanya A.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Angoff Method and Rater Analysis: Enhancing Cutoff Score Reliability and Accuracy

Description: At times called a philosophy and other times called a process, cutting score methodology is an issue routinely encountered by Industrial/Organizational (I/0) psychologists. Published literature on cutting score methodology appears much more frequently in academic settings than it does in personnel settings where the potential for lawsuits typically occurs more often. With the passage of the 1991 Civil Rights Act, it is no longer legal to use within-group scoring. It has now become necessary for personnel psychologists to develop more acceptable selection methods that fall within established guidelines. Designating cutoff scores with the Angoff method appears to suit many requirements of personnel departments. Several procedures have evolved that suggest enhancing the accuracy and reliability of the Angoff method is possible. The current experiment investigated several such procedures, and found that rater accuracy methods significantly enhance cutoff score reliability and accuracy.
Date: December 1993
Creator: Baker, Charles E., 1957-
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Concurrent Validation Study of a Paper and Pencil Test Battery for a Sales Position

Description: Participating in this study were 251 decorator consultants. The decorator consultant position is a direct sales position. The primary objective of this study was to demonstrate that a relationship existed between decorators' selection test scores and their job performance. The SRA Verbal Form, the EAS Numerical Ability Test, the EAS Space Visualization Test, and the Sales Attitude Checklist were evaluated as potential selection tests. Behavioral criteria and managerial ratings were used to assess job performance. Correlational analyses revealed that all the tests but the SRA Verbal Form were significantly correlated with two or more criteria.
Date: May 1990
Creator: Irons, Deedra Kim
Partner: UNT Libraries

Factors Relating to Upper Level Employee Support for Organizational Redesign

Description: Successful implementation of organizational redesign depends on the support of employees at all levels of the organization. This study looked at some of the factors that are related to employee support for organizational redesign. Subjects (82 support staff members of a small manufacturing plant undergoing organizational change) were administered a survey which measured employee perceptions about the change management process and the disruption the change caused to their daily routine. Eleven variables were assessed as independent variables in terms of their relationship to the dependent variable which was employee support of the organizational change. All eleven variables were significantly related to the dependent variable. The implications of these results and issues for further research was discussed.
Date: August 1990
Creator: Street, Amy
Partner: UNT Libraries

Validation of a Test Battery for the Selection of Driver Managers in a Trucking Organization

Description: This study was a concurrent validation of a paper and pencil test battery used at a national trucking company. Forty-eight driver managers were rated by their immediate supervisors with the performance appraisal covering 12 dimensions of job behavior that was developed by the experimenter. The driver managers were also administered the Wesman Personnel Classification Test, the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal, and the California Psychological Inventory (CPI). A biographical information blank was also developed and validated. Most validity correlations were nonsignificant, with the exception of the Dominance scale r = .25 (p < .05), the Self-control scale r = -.25 (p < .05), the Communanlity scale r = .29 (p < .05), and the Flexibility scale r = -.39 (p < .05), with overall performance.
Date: May 1990
Creator: Cassel, Shirley T. (Shirley Tamsen)
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Self-Managed Work Team Environment: Perceptions of Men and Women

Description: The present study empirically examined working behaviors of men and women within a self-managed working environment. Three models of women and work were studied. Results indicated women exhibited higher levels of job meaning and continuance commitment. The more self-managed production team exhibited higher levels of growth need strength, support from co-workers, continuance commitment, task significance and lower levels of role conflicts. Support teams exhibited higher levels of autonomy and satisfaction with pay. Path analysis, testing a model based on Astin's sociopsychological model indicated direct effects from expectancy to general satisfaction, from gender to expectancy, and task significance to gender. An alternative model showed direct effects between general satisfaction and expectancy, satisfaction with pay, task significance and expectancies, and between satisfaction with pay and teams.
Date: August 1992
Creator: Martins-Crane, Lolin
Partner: UNT Libraries

Evaluation of an Ergonomic Intervention Program for the Prevention of Cumulative Trauma Disorders in Industry

Description: The present study analyzed the health benefits data of employees in a southwestern United States manufacturing plant. The data consisted of the prevalence rates of headaches, muscle injuries, upper respiratory complaints, and colds/flu for baseline (1985) and intervention levels (1986-1988) for five high-risk jobs. The prevalence rates of headaches and muscle injuries decreased significantly (p < .001) from baseline levels for all five job groups. Comparisons with a nontreatment group revealed significant decreases (p < .05) for three of the five job groups. The findings support the efficacy of the ergonomic interventions. A health surveillance system is recommended for early detection and prevention of cumulative trauma disorders.
Date: August 1989
Creator: Villaneuva, Raul
Partner: UNT Libraries

Impact of Interpersonal Skills Training on the Effectiveness of Self-Managed Work Teams

Description: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the teams that received interpersonal training would function more effectively as a team than the teams that did not receive training. Individuals from a large division of a major defense contractor in the southern part of the United States served as subjects. Data were collected using the Team Effectiveness Profile designed to measure team effectiveness. This survey measures the overall score as well as five sub-scores. It was hypothesized that the teams that received training would function more effectively than the teams that did not receive training. The hypotheses were not supported. Results were explained, among other things, by the internal and external changes that hampered the transition towards self-managed work teams.
Date: May 1994
Creator: Flax, Stacey L. (Stacey Lynn)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Validation of a Selection Battery for Retail Sales People in Telecommunications

Description: The study employed 206 entry-level, retail sales associates working for a large telecommunications company across 70 store sites. The purpose of the study was to discriminate successful performers from those with little sales potential via a valid, fair, and practical selection procedure. The experimental test set consisted of the General Ability Battery, Sales Attitude Checklist, Wonderlic Personnel Test, SRA Verbal Form, School and College Ability Test Verbal, SPA Arithmetic Index, and SRA Reading Index. Supervisory ratings and percent revenue data were used as measures of sales performance. Based on the multiple regression results, the SPA Reading Index and SRA Verbal Form were chosen to compose the final selection system for the retail sales position.
Date: May 1992
Creator: McTague, T. Scott
Partner: UNT Libraries

Development of Biographical Predictors of Cashier Turnover at a Convenience Store Chain

Description: Subjects, 432 convenience store cashiers, were divided into long-tenure and short-tenure groups. Chi-square analysis of application blank information for a weighting sample drawn from both groups revealed two items which significantly (p < .05) differentiated between the long tenure and short-tenure groups: number of previous jobs and full-time/part-time preference. Response weights were computed for these two items and used to calculate composite scores for the remaining holdout sample. A significant reduction in turnover would have occurred at the highest composite score level, if used as a hiring cut off. Results were tempered by several considerations, including a high percentage of false negatives and an insignificant linear relationship between composite scores and tenure.
Date: May 1989
Creator: Huffcutt, Allen Ivan
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Relationship of Selected Personality Factors to Turnover Among Restaurant Managers

Description: This study investigated the relationship between turnover and personality measures through the application of discriminant analysis in a split sample cross validation design. Four personality tests measuring 34 dimensions of personality were administered to 300 Caucasian male job applicants. The tests were the Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation-Behavior, the Vocational Preference Inventory, a shortened version of the DF-Opinion Survey, and the Guilford Zimmerman Temperament Survey. Ten of the dimensions were initially found to be significantly related to turnover. The shrinkage of the coefficient after cross validation was enough for the loss of statistical significance. It is suggested that personality measures are moderately associated with turnover and that investigations examining methods to reduce turnover should focus on other variables.
Date: August 1989
Creator: Daughtry, Perry
Partner: UNT Libraries

Job embeddedness versus traditional models of voluntary turnover: A test of voluntary turnover prediction.

Description: Voluntary turnover has historically been a problem for today's organizations. Traditional models of turnover continue to be utilized in a number of ways in both academia and industry. A newer model of turnover, job embeddedness, has recently been developed in an attempt to better predict voluntary turnover than existing models. Job embeddedness consists of organizational fit, organizational sacrifice, and organizational links. The purpose of this study is to two fold. First, psychometric analyses were conducted on the job embeddedness model. Exploratory factor analyses were conducted on the dimensions of job embeddedness, which revealed a combined model consisting of five factors. This structure was then analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis, assessing a 1, 3, and 5 factor model structure. The confirmatory factor analysis established the use of the 5 factor model structure in subsequent analysis in this study. The second purpose of this study is to compare the predictive power of the job embeddedness model versus that of the traditional models of turnover. The traditional model of turnover is comprised of job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and perceived job alternatives. In order to compare the predictive power of the job embeddedness and traditional model of voluntary turnover, a series of structural equation model analyses were conducting using LISREL. The job embeddedness model, alone, was found to be the best fit with the sample data. This fit was improved over the other two models tested (traditional model and the combination of the traditional and job embeddedness model). In addition to assessing which model better predicts voluntary turnover, it was tested which age group and gender is a better fit with the job embeddedness model. It was found that the job embeddedness model better predicts turnover intention for older respondents and males.
Date: December 2005
Creator: Besich, John
Partner: UNT Libraries

Organizational Change Development Interventions: Are Multiple Interventions Useful?

Description: The effects of multiple interventions in organizational development change were studied in a comprehensive meta-analytic review. Thirteen organizational interventions were assessed on five outcome variables based upon previous research of six major meta-analytic reviews. Findings based on 138 studies indicated that there were no significant effects of multiple interventions on positive organizational change as opposed to individually implemented interventions. The findings are not congruent with previous findings of organizational development change, and possible issues surrounding these differences are discussed.
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Date: August 2005
Creator: Smith, Lindsay C.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Job Satisfaction of Registered Nurses in a Patient Focused Care Team

Description: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the job satisfaction and motivating potential of nursing jobs would be higher for nurses using Patient Focused Care (PFC) compared with nurses not using PFC. Nurses from a large metropolitan hospital served as subjects. Data were collected using three instruments designed to measure job satisfaction and motivating potential. Those instruments were the Job Diagnostic Survey, the Job Descriptive Inventory, and the McCloskey/Mueller Satisfaction Scale. It was hypothesized that nurses working on PFC nursing units would demonstrate greater job satisfaction and motivating potential than nurses working on non-PFC nursing units. The hypotheses were not supported. Results were explained by, among other things, accounting for the nature of the instruments used. The two instruments which gave data counter to the hypothesized direction were not nursing-oriented.
Date: December 1993
Creator: Saiter, Mark R. (Mark Roberts)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Prediction of the Job Performance of Restaurant Workers Using a Service Orientation Measure

Description: Service orientation has been suggested to be a work-related behavioral trait that contributes toward overall job performance in certain occupations. Therefore, the Batrus Hollweg Service Questionnaire (SQ), a personality inventory, was hypothesized to predict performance in a sample (N=55) of fast-food restaurant workers whose jobs were primarily composed of service-related elements. A performance evaluation form was created for use as the criterion measure. An alternative scoring system for the SQ was developed, and showed it to be significantly correlated with the criterion. The potential for use of the alternative scoring procedure is discussed.
Date: August 1990
Creator: Blansett, Karen D. (Karen Day)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Holland's Self-Directed Search: A Measure of Interests of Abilities?

Description: This study examined the relationship between the sub-components of Holland's Self-Directed Search and independent, objective measures of ability using a comprehensive battery of well-validated tests of primary abilities corresponding to each of Holland's six vocational interest types. The sample consisted of 149 female undergraduate students, ages 18-25. Correlation of the ability measure test scores with the four Self-Directed Search subcomponents revealed that the subtests were not related to corresponding measures of ability in a consistent fashion. Implications for the use of the Self-Directed Search in assessing abilities are discussed along with suggestions for future research investigating the relationhip between interest in ventories and the measurement of primary abilities.
Date: December 1985
Creator: Williams, Richard Earl
Partner: UNT Libraries

Relationship Between Employee Age and Perceptions of Work in Self-Managed Work Groups

Description: Derived from sociotechnical systems theory, autonomous or self-managed work groups are a form of work design in which employees are multi-skilled, take responsibility for the group's tasks, and have discretion over the decisions which impact group performance. Previously collected survey data from 602 employees of a southwestern manufacturing firm were examined via factor analyses and multivariate analysis of variance. Significant differences were found for self-managed work group members versus traditional job holders regarding enhanced organizational involvement and enhanced work responsibility. However, there was no evidence of an age effect nor interaction regarding age. This study provides evidence to other action researchers and organizational decision makers that an "older" work force should not be considered a barrier to implementing this type of work design
Date: August 1992
Creator: Miller, Carolyn
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Comparative Analysis of Three Forms of Evaluating Management Training Programs

Description: The practice of training evaluation has not kept pace with prescription, and evaluations being being done are frequently negligent of appropriate controls needed to draw valid conclusions. A comparison was made of training outcomes contrasting results obtained using carefully controlled scientific approaches with those from a more popular less scientific approach. The research design involved the collection and analysis of data from a single organizations managerial training program. , Three different methods of training evaluation were studied: an "immediate reaction" rating sheet, a self-report participant survey, and a similar survey completed by t he participants' subordinates. Bo th surv ey r e sul t s showed no signif icant c hang es in on-the-job behavior six weeks after training. In contrast the "immediate reaction" ratings were positive, implying the training program was a "success." Conclusions w ere drawn concerning the validity of methods compared.
Date: December 1985
Creator: Hale, John P.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Predictive Validity of the Retail Employment Inventory for the Selection of Over-the-Road Truck Drivers

Description: An independent pilot study suggested that the Retail Employment Inventory (REI) might be predictive of subjectively and objectively measured Over the Road (OTR) truck driver performance. The present validation study consisted of three parts. First, an examination of the relationship between REI scores and 11 objective, performance criteria revealed weak and non-significant correlations. Second, a comparison of subjective ratings and REI scores failed to replicate the findings of the pilot study. And third, to confirm that the task components of the OTR job were correctly identified in the pilot study, a second job analysis was performed. Possible reasons for the failure of the REI to predict OTR performance and directions for future research are discussed.
Date: May 1988
Creator: Nygren, Richard Edwin, 1964-
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effect of Type A and Type B Personality and Leadership Style on Absenteeism

Description: This study explored the relationship of Type A/B personality and leadership style to absenteeism. Absenteeism data were gathered for 243 male fire fighters and fire engineers. Each subject was administered the Jenkins Activity Scale to measure his Type A characteristics and the Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire to measure his perception of his supervisor's leadership style. The results, though non-significant, revealed that: a) Type A's had less absenteeism than type B's; b) Subjects who perceived their supervisors as being low on consideration had less absenteeism than those who perceived their supervisors as being high on this dimension; c) Type A's absenteeism was low and Type B's was high when working under a leader perceived as low on structure. Finally, a weak but significant three-way interaction effect revealed that the highest amount of absenteeism occurred when Type B' s worked under supervisors who were high in consideration and low in structure. The least amount of absenteeism occurred when Type A's worked under supervisors who were high in structure and low in consideration.
Date: August 1987
Creator: Nichols, Judith Ann, 1957-
Partner: UNT Libraries