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The State of Democracy in the Arab World

Description: This comparative study assesses the state of democracy and examines the process of democratization in the Arab World between the years 1980-1993. It addresses shortcomings in the mainstream democracy literature that excluded the Arab World from the global democratic revolution on political cultural grounds. To fulfil the objectives of this study, I employ both the qualitative and quantitative research approaches to test a number of hypothesized relationships. I hypothesize that transition to democracy is negatively associated with economic development, militarism, U.S. foreign policy, the political economy of oil, and dependency. I contend that emerging civil society institutions so far have had no significant effect on democratization in the Arab World. Finally, I hypothesize that the level of democracy in the Arab World is influenced greatly by the issue of civil rights. In order to investigate the hypothesized relationships, the following data sets have been used: Gastil's Freedom House Data set, "Repression and Freedom in the 1980s" data set, and Vanhanen's 1990 data set. The findings of this study support the aforementioned hypothesized relationships. I find that Arab countries, in general have made modest progress toward democracy, making the Arab World part of the global revolution.
Date: December 1995
Creator: Al-Olimat, Muhamad S. (Muhamad Salim)
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Delta (Lower Egypt).

Description: Color map of the Lower Egypt Delta in 1898. Includes major roads, cities and towns and some geographical features. Scale 1:1,000,000.
Date: 1898
Creator: Baedeker, Karl.
Partner: UNT Libraries Rare Book and Texana Collections

The Shifting Borders of Egypt

Description: The formation of state borders is often told through the history of war and diplomacy. What is neglected is the tale of how borders of seemingly peaceful and long-extant places were set. In drawing Egypt’s borders, nineteenth-century cartographers were drawing upon a well of knowledge that stretched back into antiquity. Relying on the works of Greco-Roman writers and the Bible itself, cartographers and explorers used the authority of these works to make sense of unfamiliar lands, regardless of any current circumstances. The border with Palestine was determined through the usage of the Old Testament, while classical scholars like Herodotus and Ptolemy set the southern border at the Cataracts. The ancient cartography of Rome was overlaid upon the Egypt of Muhammad Ali. Given the increasing importance Egypt had to the burgeoning British Empire of the nineteenth century, how did this mesh with the influences informing cartographical representations of Egypt? This study argues that the imagined spaces created by Western cartographers informed the trajectory of Britain’s eventual conquest of Egypt. While receding as geopolitical concerns took hold, the classical and biblical influences were nonetheless part of a larger trend of Orientalism that colored the way Westerners interacted with and treated the people of Egypt and the East. By examining the maps and the terminology employed by nineteenth century scholars on Egypt’s geography, a pattern emerges that highlights how much classical and biblical texts had on the Western imagination of Egypt as the modern terms eventually superseded them.
Date: May 2015
Creator: Chavez, Miguel Angel
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Relationship between Privatization, Culture, Adoption of International Accounting Standards, and Accounting in Egypt

Description: This study explores how the Egyptian socioeconomic factors impacted the implementation of International Accounting Standards (IASs) in Egypt. Prior research concluded that developing nations have special needs when it comes to accounting and financial reporting and recommended nation-specific analysis. The author adapts Gray's (1988) model, which connects Hofstede's cultural dimensions with accounting practice, to fit the Egyptian environment.
Date: December 1998
Creator: Dahawy, Khaled M.
Partner: UNT Libraries

International Peacekeeping Operations: Sinai, Congo, Cyprus, Lebanon, and Chad Lessons for the UN and OAU

Description: Peacekeeping is a means by which international or regional organizations control conflict situations that are likely to endanger international peace and security. Most scholars have viewed the contributions of peacekeeping forces only in terms of failures, and they have not investigated fully the political-military circumstances" under which conflict control measures succeed. This dissertation is an attempt to bridge this gap and to show how the OAU compares with the UN in carrying out peacekeeping missions. The method of research was the case study method in which primary and secondary data was used to describe the situations in which six peacekeeping forces operated. The content of resolutions, official reports and secondary data were examined for non-trivial evidences of impediments to implementation of mandates. Findings from the research indicate that peacekeeping missions not properly backed by political efforts at settlement of disputes, cooperation of the superpowers, and financial and logistic support were ineffective and usually unsuccessful. Lack of consensus and pursuit of national interests have resulted in ambiguous or unrealistic mandates and have reduced the effectiveness of peacekeeping operations. Moreover, parties to a conflict were interested only in solutions that favored their interests and were often skeptical about the role and credibility of peacekeeping forces. But the continued violations of ceasefire agreements in defiance of the presence of peacekeeping forces were due partly to the force's inability to use force except in self-defense , Most of the forces operated under serious operational and logistical difficulties and they were inadequately funded. But none of the three factors has been responsible alone for the failure of peacekeeping missions. The coordination of UN operations has been better than that of the OAU. In civil war situations, national governments have requested peacekeeping forces because they could not, unaided, put down their opponents. The UN has deployed ...
Date: December 1989
Creator: Demsa, Paul Meslam, 1949-
Partner: UNT Libraries

[Amenhotep's Colonnade]

Description: Photograph of Amenhotep's colonnade in the temple complex of Luxor, Egypt. A row of columns from Amenhotep's peristyle is visible in the right foreground next to a patch of grass. The colonnade leads into the background on the left side of the frame. More ruins are visible in the background.
Date: unknown
Creator: Gough, Ray
Location Info:
Partner: UNT College of Visual Arts + Design

[Camel]

Description: Photograph of a camel in Medinet Habu, Egypt. The camel faces the camera in the center foreground. Stone ruins are scattered about behind the camel. Large intersecting stone walls are visible behind the ruins.
Date: unknown
Creator: Gough, Ray
Location Info:
Partner: UNT College of Visual Arts + Design

[Colossi of Memnon]

Description: Photograph of the Colossi of Memnon in Thebes, Egypt. The twin statues are visible in the center foreground. The distant rocky hillside is visible in the background.
Date: unknown
Creator: Gough, Ray
Location Info:
Partner: UNT College of Visual Arts + Design

[Column]

Description: Photograph of a column in the Temple of Amun-Re in Karnuk, Egypt. The column is visible in the foreground. A standing stone figure is visible on the right side of the column. A row of columns is visible in the background.
Date: unknown
Creator: Gough, Ray
Location Info:
Partner: UNT College of Visual Arts + Design

[Column Bases]

Description: Photograph of columns in Medinet Habu, Egypt. Only the bases of the columns remain. The foreground is divided by lines of column bases. Each base is carved with hieroglyphics and decorative reliefs. The distant hillside is visible in the background.
Date: unknown
Creator: Gough, Ray
Location Info:
Partner: UNT College of Visual Arts + Design

[Column Bases]

Description: Photograph of column remains in the Temple of Ramses III in Medinet Habu, Egypt. A man in a blue robe is visible in the foreground between the columns. Column bases fill the foreground. Stone walls are visible behind the columns. The columns are decorated with hieroglyphics.
Date: unknown
Creator: Gough, Ray
Location Info:
Partner: UNT College of Visual Arts + Design

[Columns with Hieroglyphics]

Description: Photograph of columns in the Temple of Amun-Re in Karnak, Egypt. In the foreground, a metal track leads between two rows of stone columns into the background. A man with an umbrella walks next to the track in the foreground. The columns are decorated with carved hieroglyphics.
Date: unknown
Creator: Gough, Ray
Location Info:
Partner: UNT College of Visual Arts + Design

[Corridor of Sphinxes]

Description: Photograph of a corridor of sphinxes seen from above at the Temple of Amun-Re in Karnak, Egypt. The stone sphinxes form two lines on either side of a dirt path leading up to an empty foundation. In the background, a street and surrounding buildings are visible.
Date: unknown
Creator: Gough, Ray
Location Info:
Partner: UNT College of Visual Arts + Design

[Egypt]

Description: Photograph of ruins in Egypt. Multiple people are visible in the foreground. A long passageway lined with stone pillars is visible behind the people. One large pillar stands out at the of the line. A doorway is visible in the background at the end of the passageway.
Date: unknown
Creator: Gough, Ray
Partner: UNT College of Visual Arts + Design

[Great Pyramid of Giza]

Description: Photograph of the Great Pyramid of Giza. The stone step structure of the pyramid is visible in the foreground. Three men (two in uniform) walk on the steps.
Date: unknown
Creator: Gough, Ray
Location Info:
Partner: UNT College of Visual Arts + Design

[Hathor Relief]

Description: Photograph of a wall relief in the Mortuary Temple of Hatshepsut of Deir el-Bahri, Egypt. The colored relief of a cow (the god Hathor) is visible in the bottom foreground. Above the relief, a stone figure sits atop the wall.
Date: unknown
Creator: Gough, Ray
Location Info:
Partner: UNT College of Visual Arts + Design