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A Brief Introduction to the Federal Budget Process

Description: This report provides a brief introduction to the federal budget process. Key budget concepts and terminology are defined and explained. The separate procedures that make up the federal budget process are identified and their salient features described. While a complete understanding of federal budgeting probably can be obtained only after much observation and study of the process in operation, broad exposure to its rudiments is a useful first step. Various resources “for additional reading” are identified at the end of this report, which the reader may find helpful in exploring the subject in greater depth.
Date: October 20, 1997
Creator: Keith, Robert
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Brief Introduction to the Federal Budget Process

Description: This report provides a brief introduction to the federal budget process. Key budget concepts and terminology are defined and explained. The separate procedures that make up the federal budget process are identified and their salient features described. While a complete understanding of federal budgeting probably can be obtained only after much observation and study of the process in operation, broad exposure to its rudiments is a useful first step. Various resources "for additional reading" are identified at the end of this report, which the reader may find helpful in exploring the subject in greater depth.
Date: November 13, 1996
Creator: Keith, Robert
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Federal Budget Process: A Brief Outline

Description: In a sense the term "budget process" is a misnomer when applied to the federal government. Budgeting for the federal government is not a single process; rather it consists of a number of processes that have evolved separately and which occur with varying degrees of coordination. This report, and the accompanying flow chart, attempt to clarify the role played by each of the component parts of the budget process as well as how they operate together.
Date: April 26, 1996
Creator: Saturno, James V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Endangered Species Act and "Sound Science"

Description: This report provides a context for evaluating legislative proposals through examples of how science has been used in selected cases, a discussion of the nature and role of science in general, and its role in the Endangered Species Act (ESA) process in particular, together with general and agency information quality requirements and policies, and a review of how the courts have viewed agency use of science.
Date: July 16, 2002
Creator: Baldwin, Pamela & Corn, M. Lynne
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Excise Tax Financing of Federal Trust Funds

Description: Dedicated excise taxes finance only a small number of the many activities undertaken by the Federal Government. The fourteen trust funds and special funds currently financed by excise taxes can be grouped under four programmatic purposes: nature conservation and recreation, transportation, environmental cleanup, and health damage compensation. In close parallel, the products currently subject to taxation on behalf of trust and special funds can be classified under the categories of hunting and fishing equipment; cargo transport and air passenger transportation; motor fuels; and materials potentially hazardous to the environment or human health.
Date: January 5, 1993
Creator: Noto, Nonna A. & Talley, Louis Alan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ANWR Development: Economic Impacts

Description: This report briefly discusses Congressional considerations on whether to continue to protect the ecosystem on the coastal plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) or to open it to oil and gas development.
Date: December 3, 2001
Creator: Gelb, Bernard A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Endangered Species Act (ESA), Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA), and Department of Defense (DOD) Readiness Activities: Current Law and Legislative Proposals

Description: This report provides a brief overview of how the Endangered Species Act (ESA)1 and the Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA)2 and their relevant regulations may apply to military training and readiness activities of the Department of Defense (DOD). Military activities may “take” protected creatures directly (e.g,. killing with ordnance during rifle, gunnery or assault drills), or might destroy habitat (e.g., artillery or bombing practices), even if these results are not the purpose of the activities. The applicability of the MBTA and ESA to military readiness activities has been controversial recently and legislation has been enacted in both the 107th and 108th Congresses on these topics.
Date: May 30, 2003
Creator: Baldwin, Pamela
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Arctic National Wildlife Refuge: Background and Issues

Description: This report discusses the ongoing debate about whether or not to open the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) for energy development. The report discusses arguments for and against such development and related pieces of legislation. It does not analyze specific proposals to develop or protect the Refuge. Rather, it provides basic material for analyzing possibilities and implications of the major issues that have been the focus of the legislative debate over its fate.
Date: May 15, 2003
Creator: Corn, M. Lynne
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Endangered Species Act: Consideration of Economic Factors

Description: The Endangered Species Act (ESA) provides for the listing and protection of species that are found to be “endangered” or “threatened” – species that might become extinct. The listing of a species as endangered triggers the prohibitions in the Act against “taking” (killing or harming) individuals of the protected species, unless a permit is obtained to take individuals incidental to an otherwise lawful proposed action, or an exemption for the proposed action is obtained. Unauthorized taking of a listed species can result in civil or criminal penalties. These prohibitions and potential penalties can affect various activities, including development and use of land, with attendant economic impacts.
Date: April 15, 2003
Creator: Baldwin, Pamela
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Endangered Species Act: Consideration of Economic Factors

Description: The Endangered Species Act (ESA) provides for the listing and protection of species that are found to be “endangered” or “threatened” – species that might become extinct. The listing of a species as endangered triggers the prohibitions in the Act against “taking” (killing or harming) individuals of the protected species, unless a permit is obtained to take individuals incidental to an otherwise lawful proposed action, or an exemption for the proposed action is obtained. Unauthorized taking of a listed species can result in civil or criminal penalties. These prohibitions and potential penalties can affect various activities, including development and use of land, with attendant economic impacts.
Date: January 5, 2001
Creator: Baldwin, Pamela
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Dolphin Protection and Tuna Seining

Description: From its inception in 1972, one of the goals of the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) was to reduce the incidental mortality of dolphins in the ETP tuna fishery. Regulations promulgated under MMPA authority set standards for tuna seining and motivated technological improvements that reduced dolphin mortalities in this fishery -- by 1977, annual dolphin mortality by U.S. tuna seiners had declined to about 25,450 animals. Despite the extensive mortalities, no ETP dolphin population has been listed as endangered or threatened under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. However, two ETP dolphin stocks were listed as depleted under the MMPA.
Date: August 29, 1997
Creator: Buck, Eugene H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department