Search Results

Superconducting poloidal coils for STARFIRE commercial reactor

Description: STARFIRE is considered to be the tenth commercial tokamak power plant. A preliminary design study on its superconducting poloidal coil system is presented. Key features of the design studies are: the elimination of the ohmic heating coil; the trade-off studies of the equilibrium field coil locations; and the development of a conceptual design for the superconducting equilibrium field coils. Described are the 100 kA cryostable conductor design, the coil structure and evaluation of the coil forces.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Wang, S. T.; Evans, K. Jr.; Turner, L. R.; Huang, Y. C.; Prater, R. & Alcorn, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nuclear medicine technology. Progress report for quarter ending September 30, 1979

Description: Adrenal uptake in rats of /sup 117m/Sn-labeled 23-(trimethyl stanna)-24-nor-5..cap alpha..-cholan-3..beta..-o1 is demonstrated. The adrenal:blood and adrenal:liver ratios were 33:1 and 9:1, only one day after intravenous administration. A variety of /sup 117m/Sn-labeled steroids with structural modifications were also prepared to determine their effects on the adrenal uptake of these unusual steroids. Structural features required for significant adrenal uptake were determined. The diffusion chamber assay system has been assessed as a means of investigating the toxicity and biological fate of trace elements from energy technologies. In a preliminary experiment, the cell population in chambers from rats exposed to As/sub 2/O/sub 3/ was inhibited 48% one day after treatment. The results of continuing studies with /sup 75/Se, /sup 11/C, and /sup 195m/Pt-labeled agents are also described. Several /sup 75/Se-labeled long-chain fatty acids were prepared to determine heart uptake. Selenium-75-labeled 9-selenapentacosanoic acid showed the highest uptake of the compounds investigated. Preliminary radiation dose estimates have been performed for several /sup 75/Se and /sup 123m/Te-labeled fatty acids. Tissue distribution and excretion data for /sup 75/Se-labeled 9-selenaheptadecanoic acid and /sup 123m/Te-labeled 9-telluraheptadecanoic acid indicate that the human liver would recieve the highest absorbed radiation dose.Tissue distribution studies in rats with a series of /sup 195m/Pt-labeled chloroammine complexes have demonstrated that the tissue distribution and excretion characteristics of the chlorcammine complexes closely parallel their physicochemical properties. Further patient studies have assessed the efficacy of emission computerized tomographic organ imaging with /sup 11/C-valine, and /sup 11/C-amino-cyclobutanecarboxylic acid (ACBC). (ERB)
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Knapp, F. F. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Production of tungsten-188 and osmium-194 in a nuclear reactor for new clinical generators

Description: Rhenium-188 and iridium-194 are potential candidates for radioimmunotherapy with monoclonal antibodies directed against tumor-associated antigens. Both nuclei are short-lived and decay by high energy {Beta}{minus} emission. In addition, both nuclei emit {gamma}-rays with energy suitable for imaging. An important characteristics is availability of {sup 188}Re and {sup 194}Ir from decay of reactor-produced parents ({sup 188}W and {sup 194}Os, respectively) in convenient generator systems. The {sup 188}W and {sup 194}Os are produced by double neutron capture of {sup 186}W and {sup 192}Os, respectively. The large scale production yields of {sup 188}W in several nuclear reactors will be presented. We also report a new management for the cross-section of {sup 193}Os(n,{gamma}){sup 194}Os reaction and discuss the feasibility of producing sufficient quantities of {sup 194}Os. 17 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.
Date: January 1, 1991
Creator: Mirzadeh, S.; Knapp, F. F. Jr. & Callahan, A. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Selenium and tellurium as carbon substitutes

Description: This review has summarized structure-activity studies with /sup 75/Se- and /sup 123m/Te-labeled radiopharmaceuticals in which the selenium or tellurium heteroatom has been inserted between carbon-carbon bonds. The agents that have been investigated in most detail include steroids for adrenal imaging and long-chain fatty acids, and a variety of other unique agents have also been studied. Because of the great versatility of the organic chemistry of selenium and tellurium, there is continuing interest in the preparation of radiopharmaceuticals labeled with /sup 75/Se, /sup 73/Se, and /sup 123m/Te. There are two important factors which will determine the extent of future interest in such agents. These include the necessity of a decrease in the cost of highly enriched /sup 122/Te to make the reactor production of /sup 123m/Te cost effective. In addition, the potential preparation of large amounts of /sup 73/Se should stimulate the development of /sup 73/Se-labeled radiopharmaceuticals.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Knapp, F. F. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Funneling: an initial beam dynamics study

Description: Funneling two H/sup -/ beams into a single beam of twice the current has been examined as a means of doubling beam current without significantly increasing transverse emittance. Using the PARMILA particle-following code, two 100-mA RFQ output beams at 2 MeV were injected into idealized transport lines for merging two beams into one. Two approaches were studied: (1) the minimum-element method, in which a minimum number of discrete elements such as quadrupole triplets, buncher cavities, and bending magnets were used to transport and deflect the beam; and (2) the quasi-adiabatic method, in which a periodic lattice similar to the RFQ provided focusing and minimized abrupt changes in the beam environment. The minimum-element method resulted in an emittance growth ratio epsilon/sub 0//epsilon/sub i/ = 2.5, whereas the quasi-adiabatic emittance growth ratio was about 1.1 (albeit with an idealized line configuration). 5 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.
Date: April 20, 1985
Creator: Guy, F. W. & Wangler, T. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Octupole focusing in transport and acceleration systems

Description: The radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac is capable of accelerating high-current, low-velocity ion beams. In accelerator systems comprising an RFQ and higher velocity accelerating structures, the current bottleneck still typically occurs within the RFQ. This limiting current is quite high in most cases, but linacs with even higher currents may be required in the future. We have begun a study of higher multipole systems to determine their capability for focusing and accelerating very high currents. We have chosen first to examine a radio-frequency octupole (RFO) transport system, and have developed a smooth-approximation analytical description that includes the conditions for input radial matching of a zero space-charge beam. Further, we have constructed a multiparticle beam-dynamics simulation program that accepts the low-current matched beam and gradually increases the beam current as it is transported. This results in a matched high-current beam, and the procedure can be used to determine the saturation-current limit of a periodic octupole system. As expected, at high currents the beam develops a hollow radial distribution that reduces the space-charge defocusing; initial results show that high currents can be transported. For acceleration, we have formulated the design parameters for a section of RFO linac, including the potential function, acceleration, and focusing efficiencies, and the geometry of the radially modulated pole tips.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Crandall, K. R.; Pabst, M.; Stokes, R. H. & Wangler, T. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Influence of equipartitioning on the emittance of intense charged-particle beams

Description: We combine the ideas of kinetic energy equipartitioning and nonlinear field energy to obtain a quantitative description for rms emittance changes induced in intense beams with two degrees of freedom. We derive equations for emittance change in each plane for continuous elliptical beams and axially symmetric bunched beams, with arbitrary initial charge distributions within a constant focusing channel. The complex details of the mechanisms leading to kinetic energy transfer are not necessary to obtain the formulas. The resulting emittance growth equations contain two separate terms: the first describes emittance changes associated with the transfer of energy between the two planes; the second describes emittance growth associated with the transfer of nonlinear field energy into kinetic energy as the charge distribution changes.
Date: January 1, 1986
Creator: Wangler, T. P.; Guy, F. W. & Hofmann, I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of a 50 kA cryostable ac superconducting cable

Description: A design of a 50 kA cable at 8 T for superconducting ohmic heating coils is presented. The cable, which will be cryostable with relatively low ac losses, is composed of 24 basic cables and stainless steel backbone. A non-metallic cryostat for the test of pancake coils of the cable is developed.
Date: November 1, 1979
Creator: Kim, S. H. & Wang, S. T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thermal treatment of refinery wastes for oil recovery: The PST process

Description: Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has been investigating thermal, high-pressure processing of organic waste streams. The range of research and development activities extends from fundamental studies of conversion of biomass, coal, and organic wastes in high-pressure aqueous environments to tests in small pilot-scale reactor systems. Several processes have been developed from these investigations including two that have already been licensed to private companies. The most recently developed process is the Petroleum Sludge Treatment (PST) system which separates and recovers oil and water from oil-in-water emulsions such as the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) K'' listed wastes. The PST process evolved from attempts to convert API and DAF sludges to methane gas using the Thermochemical Environmental Energy System process. We were unsuccessful in converting these sludges to methane, however it became evident that thermal, high-pressure processing was very effective in separating the components of these sludges. The concept was further investigated and refined and the PST process was granted a US Patent in 1990.
Date: December 1, 1991
Creator: Baker, E. G.; Elliott, D. C. & Sealock, L. J. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Global set of quadrupole deformation parameters for even-even nuclei

Description: A compilation of experimental results has been completed for the reduced electric quadrupole transition probability (B(E2)up arrow) between the 0/sup +/ ground state and the first 2/sup +/ state in even-even nuclei. This compilation together with certain simple relationships noted by other authors can be used to make reasonable predictions of unmeasured B(E2)up arrow values. The quadrupole deformation parameter ..beta../sub 2/ immediately follows, because ..beta../sub 2/ is proportional to (B(E2)up arrow)/sup 1/2/. 8 refs., 7 figs.
Date: January 1, 1986
Creator: Raman, S. & Nestor, C. W. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thermochemical conversion of biomass: an overview of R and D activities sponsored by the Biomass Energy Systems Branch of DOE

Description: The US Department of Energy (DOE) is actively developing renewable energy sources through research and development programs sponsored by the Biomass Energy Systems Branch. The mission of the thermochemical conversion element of the Biomass Energy Systems Program is to develop competitive processes for the conversion of renewable biomass resources into clean fuels and chemical feedstocks which can supplement those produced from conventional sources. A description of thermochemical conversion program areas and an overview of specific thermochemical conversion projects sponsored by the Biomass Energy Systems Branch are presented in this paper.
Date: October 1, 1979
Creator: Schiefelbein, G. F.; Sealock, L. J. Jr. & Ergun, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Inspection indications, stress corrosion cracks and repair of process piping in nuclear materials production reactors

Description: Ultrasonic inspection of Schedule 40 Type 304 stainless steel piping in the process water system of the Savannah River Site reactors has provided indications of discontinuities in less than 10% of the weld heat affected zones. Pipe sections containing significant indications are replaced with Type 304L components. Post removal metallurgical evaluation showed that the indications resulted from stress corrosion cracking in weld heat-affected zones and that the overall weld quality was excellent. The evaluation also revealed weld fusion zone discontinuities such as incomplete penetration, incomplete fusion, inclusions, underfill at weld roots and hot cracks. Service induced extension of these discontinuities was generally not significant although stress corrosion cracking in one weld fusion zone was noted. One set of UT indications was caused by metallurgical discontinuities at the fusion boundary of an extra weld. This extra weld, not apparent on the outer pipe surface, was slightly overlapping and approximately parallel to the weld being inspected. This extra weld was made during a pipe repair, probably associated with initial construction processes. The two nearly parallel welds made accurate assessment of the UT signal difficult. The implications of these observations to the inspection and repair of process water systems of nuclear reactors is discussed.
Date: January 1, 1991
Creator: Louthan, M. R. Jr.; West, S. L. & Nelson, D. Z.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Materials experience and selection for nuclear materials production reactor heat exchangers

Description: The primary coolant systems for the heavy-water nuclear materials production reactors at the Savannah River Site are coupled to the secondary coolant systems through shell and tube heat exchangers. The head, shell, and tube sheets of these heat exchangers are fabricated from AISI Type 304 grades of austenitic stainless steel. The 8,957 tubes in each heat exchanger were originally fabricated from Type 304 stainless steel, but service experience has lead to the use of Sea Cure tubing in newer systems. The design includes double tube sheets, core rods, and 33,410 square feet of heat transfer surface. Tubes are rolled into the tube sheets and seal welded after rolling. The tubes contain Type 304 stainless steel rods which are positioned in the center of each tube axis to increase the fraction of the cooling water contacting the heat transfer surface. Each reactor utilizes twelve heat exchangers; thus the 120+ reactor-years of operating experience provide approximately 1,440 heat exchanger-years of service. Fatigue, stress corrosion cracking, crevice corrosion, and pitting have been observed during the service life. This paper describes the observed degradation processes and uses the operational experience to recommend materials for the Heavy Water -- New Production Reactor (HW-NPR).
Date: January 1, 1990
Creator: Marra, J. E. & Louthan, M. R. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Retention and release of tritium in aluminum clad, Al-Li alloys

Description: Tritium retention in and release from aluminum clad, aluminum-lithium alloys is modeled from experimental and operational data developed during the thirty plus years of tritium production at the Savannah River Site. The model assumes that tritium atoms, formed by the {sup 6}Li(n,{alpha}){sup 3}He reaction, are produced in solid solution in the Al-Li alloy. Because of the low solubility of hydrogen isotopes in aluminum alloys, the irradiated Al-Li rapidly becomes supersaturated in tritium. Newly produced tritium atoms are trapped by lithium atoms to form a lithium tritide. The effective tritium pressure required for trap or tritide stability is the equilibrium decomposition pressure of tritium over a lithium tritide-aluminum mixture. The temperature dependence of tritium release is determined by the permeability of the cladding to tritium and the local equilibrium at the trap sites. This model is used to calculate tritium release from aluminum clad, aluminum-lithium alloys. 9 refs., 3 figs.
Date: January 1, 1991
Creator: Louthan, M. R. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design and fabrication of a large magnetic cusp type of plasma generator for the production of negative ions

Description: The design and fabrication techniques for a large magnetic bucket type of plasma source designed for the production of negative ions by surface conversion are described. These include the design of a converter structure, cesium oven and injector, variable aperture electrode, accelerator section as well as the features of the magnetic cusp geometry employed.
Date: October 1, 1981
Creator: Biagi, L. A.; Ehlers, K. W.; Leung, K. N.; Matuk, C. A.; Moon, S. D. & Paterson, J. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development and evaluation of supercritical fluid chromatography/mass spectrometry for polar and high-molecular-weight coal components: Technical progress report, October 1, 1986-September 30, 1987

Description: This program, Development and Evaluation of Supercritical Fluid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry for Polar and High-Molecular-Weight Coal Components, is aimed at the development of new analytical technologies for the characterization of previously intractable complex mixtures. The specific goals of this program are twofold: (1) to develop and evaluate a combined high-resolution, capillary column, supercritical fluid chromatograph/high-performance mass spectrometer (SFC/MS) that is capable of analyzing high-molecular-weight materials, such as polar and heavy-end components found in coal conversion processes; and (2) to use this system to develop and evaluate analytical technology applicable to coal process development technology. Studies have been conducted to characterize the performance of the supercritical fluid chromatograph-mass spectrometer interface, and several modifications have been made to the probe, ion source, and associated hardware to improve performance and operator safety. Methods have been developed that allow the mass calibration of the magnetic sector mass spectrometer to 1400 daltons using desorption chemical ionization. Methodologies have been improved for fabricating capillary columns with bonded, crosslinked stationary phases suitable for use with polar fluids. Coal-derived materials and fossil-fuel-derived sediments have been investigated with supercritical fluid chromatograph/mass spectrometry and supercritical fluid extraction/mass spectrometry. Microbore packed columns coupled to a modified mass spectrometer interface allowed the chemical class fractionation of relatively polar complex mixtures derived from coal liquefaction. 6 refs., 12 figs.
Date: February 1, 1988
Creator: Chess, E. K.; Kalinoski, H. T. & Smith, R. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SBS (stimulated Brillouin scattering) pulse distortion in multimode optical fibers

Description: We have observed sever temporal-pulse-shape distortion due to stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in multimode optical fibers used to diagnose 351 m laser pulses on the Nova laser system. Our measurements can be fit by a basic model of SBS and provide a clear indication of the intensity and temporal regimes where significant SBS-induced temporal-pulse-shape distortion can be avoided. 15 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.
Date: January 1, 1989
Creator: Smith, J. R.; Hawkins, R. J.; Laumann, C. W. & Hatch, J. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

/sup 235/Cf anti. nu. discrepancy and the sulfur discrepancy

Description: The cantankerous discrepancy among measured values of anti ..nu.. for /sup 235/Cf appears at last to be nearing a final resolution. A recent review has summarized the progress that has been achieved through revaluation upward by 0.5% of two manganese bath values anti ..nu.. and the performance of a new liquid scintillator measurement. A new manganese bath measurement at INEL is in reasonably good agreement with previous manganese bath values of /sup 235/Cf anti ..nu... It now appears that the manganese bath values could still be systematically low by as much as 0.4% because the BNL-325 thermal absorption cross section for sulfur may be as much as 10% low. There is a bona fide discrepancy between measurements of the sulfur cross section by pile oscillators and the values derived from transmission measurements. The resolution of this discrepancy is a prerequisite to the final resolution of the /sup 235/Cf anti ..nu.. discrepancy. 22 references.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Smith, J. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mechanisms governing fine particulate emissions from coal flames

Description: The overall objectives of this project are to provide a basic understanding of the principal processes that govern fine particulate formation in pulverized coal flames, and develop procedures to predict the levels of emission of fine particles from pulverized coal combustors. (VC)
Date: November 1, 1988
Creator: Clark, W. D.; Chen, S. L.; Kramlich, J. C.; Newton, G. H.; Seeker, W. R. (Energy and Environmental Research Corp., Irvine, CA (United States)) & Samuelsen, G. S. (California Univ., Irvine, CA (United States))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fueling of magnetic-confinement devices

Description: A general overview of the fueling of magnetic confinement devices is presented, with particular emphasis on recent experimental results. Various practical fueling mechanisms are considered, such as cold gas inlet (or plasma edge fueling), neutral beam injection, and injection of high speed cryogenic hydrogen pellets. The central role played by charged particle transport and recycle of plasma particles from material surfaces in contact with the plasma is discussed briefly. The various aspects of hydrogen pellet injection are treated in detail, including applications to the production of high purity startup plasmas for stellarators and other devices, refueling of tokamak plasmas, pellet ablation theory, and the technology and performance characteristics of low and high speed pellet injectors.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Milora, S. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pellet fueling development at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

Description: A pellet injector development program has been under way at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) since 1976 with the goals of developing D/sub 2/, T/sub 2/ pellet fuel injectors capable of reliable repetitive fueling of reactors and of continued experimentation on contemporary plasma devices. The development has focused primarily on two types of injectors that show promise. One of these injectors is the centrifuge-type injector, which accelerates pellets in a high speed rotating track. The other is the gas or pneumatic gun, which accelerates pellets in a gun barrel using compressed helium of H/sub 2/ gas.
Date: January 1, 1982
Creator: Foster, C. A.; Milora, S. L.; Schuresko, D. D.; Combs, S. K. & Lunsford, R. V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of a high-heat-flux target for multimegawatt, multisecond neutral beams at ORNL

Description: A high-heat-flux target has been developed for intercepting multimegawatt, multisecond neutral beam power at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Water-cooled copper swirl tubes are used for the heat transfer medium; these tubes exhibit an enhancement in burnout heat flux over conventional axial-flow tubes. The target consists of 126 swirl tubes (each 0.95 cm in outside diameter with 0.16-cm-thick walls and approx. =1 m long) arranged in a V-shape. Two arrays of parallel tubes inclined at an angle ..cap alpha.. to the beam axis form the V-shape, and this geometry reduces the surface heat flux by a factor of 1/sin ..cap alpha.. (for the present design, ..cap alpha.. =13/sup 0/ and 21/sup 0/). In tests with the ORNL long-pulse ion source (13- by 43-cm grid), the target has handled up to 3-MW, 30-s beam pulses with no deleterious effects. The peak power density was estimated at approx. =15 kW/cm/sup 2/ normal to the beam axis (5.4 kW/cm/sup 2/ maximum on tube surfaces). The water flow rate through the target was 41.6 L/s (660 gpm) or 0.33 L/s (5.2 gpm) per tube (axial flow velocity = 11.6 m/s). The corresponding pressure drop across the target was 1.14 MPa (165 psi) with an inlet pressure of 1.45 MPa (210 psia). Data are also presented from backup experiments in which individual tubes were heated by a small ion source (10-cm-diam grid) to characterize tube performance. These results suggest that the target should handle peak power densities in the range 25 to 30 kW/cm/sup 2/ normal to the beam axis (approx. =10 kW/cm/sup 2/ maximum on tube surfaces) with the present flow parameters. This translates to beam power levels of 5 to 6 MW for equivalent beam optics.
Date: January 1, 1984
Creator: Combs, S. K.; Milora, S. L.; Bush, C. E.; Foster, C. A.; Haselton, H. H.; Hayes, P. H. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Confinement of high-density pellet-fueled discharges in TFTR

Description: TFTR pellet injection results reported by Schmidt have been extended to higher density and ntau in plasmas limited by a graphite inner-wall belt limiter. Increased pellet penetration and larger density increases were achieved by operation at reduced plasma current (1.6 MA), minor radius (70 cm), and major radius (235 cm). Under these conditions, beam heating results have been extended to 7 MW.
Date: January 1, 1986
Creator: Milora, S. L.; Schmidt, G. L.; Bell, M. G.; Bitter, M.; Bush, C. E.; Combs, S. K. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Performance characterization of pneumatic single pellet injection system

Description: The Oak Ridge National Laboratory single-shot pellet injector, which has been used in plasma fueling experiments on ISX and PDX, has been upgraded and extensively instrumented in order to study the gas dynamics of pneumatic pellet injection. An improved pellet transport line was developed which utilizes a 0.3-cm-diam by 100-cm-long guide tube. Pellet gun performance was characterized by measurements of breech and muzzle dynamic pressures and by pellet velocity and mass determinations. Velocities up to 1.4 km/s were achieved for intact hydrogen pellets using hydrogen propellant at 5-MPa breech pressure. These data have been compared with new pellet acceleration calculations which include the effects of propellant friction, heat transfer, time-dependent boundary conditions, and finite gun geometry. These results provide a basis for the extrapolation of present-day pneumatic injection system performance to velocities in excess of 2 km/s.
Date: January 1, 1982
Creator: Schuresko, D. D.; Milora, S. L.; Hogan, J. T.; Foster, C. A. & Combs, S. K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department