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Tank Tests of the Effect of Rivet Heads, etc., on the Water Performance of a Seaplane Float, Special Report

Description: A 1/3.5 full-size model of the Mark V float of the Bureau of Aeronautics, Navy Department, was tested in the NACA tank both with smooth painted bottom surfaces and with roundhead rivets, plate laps, and keel plates fitted to simulate the actual bottom of a metal float. The augmentation in water resistance due to the added roughness was found to be from 10-12% at the hum speed and from 12-14% at high speeds. The effect of the roughness of the afterbody was found to be negligible except at high trims. The model data were extrapolated to full size by the usual method which assumes the forces to vary according to Froude's law, and in the case of the smooth model by a method of separation that takes into account the effect of scale on the frictional resistance. It was concluded that the effect of rivet heads on the takeoff performance of a relatively high-powered float seaplane is of little consequence but that it may be of greater importance in the case of more moderately powered flying boats.
Date: June 4, 1936
Creator: Parkinson, J. B. & Robertson, J. B., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characteristics of NACA 4400R Series Rectangular and Tapered Airfoils, Including the Effect of Split Flaps

Description: At the request of the Bureau of Aeronautics, Navy Department, tests were made in the variable-density wind tunnel of a tapered wing of 3-10-18 plan form and based on the NACA 4400R series sections. The wing was also tested with 0.2 chord spit flaps, deflected 60 deg span ratios of 0.3, 0.5, 0.7 and 1.0 respectively. In order to get data from which to calculate the characteristics of the flapped wing, the investigation was extended to include tests of the four rectangular airfoils of the NACA 4400R series (4409R, 4412R, 4415R, and 4418R) with full-span 0.2 chord, trailing edge split flaps deflected 60 deg.
Date: January 1941
Creator: Greenberg, Harry
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Estimated Effect of Ring Cowl on the Climb and Ceiling of an Airplane, Special Report

Description: Although the application of a ring cowl to an airplane with an air-cooled engine increases the maximum L/D and the high speed to an appreciable extent, the performance in climb and ceiling is not increased as much as one would expect without analyzing the conditions. When a ring cowl is installed on an airplane, the propeller is set at a higher pitch to allow the engine to turn its rated r.p.m. at the increased high speed. V/nD is increased and the propeller efficiency at high speed is increased slightly. The ratio of r.p.m. at climbing speed, V(sub c) , to the r.p.m. at maximum speed, V (sub m) is dependent upon the ratio of V(sub c) to V(sub m). The increase in V(sub c) for all airplane with ring cowl i s not as great as the increase in V(sub m), so that the ratio V(sub c)/V(sub m) is less than for the airplane without ring. Consequently the r.p.m. and full throttle thrust power available are less at V(sub c) for the airplane with ring cowl and in spite of the increase in L/D due to the installation of the ring, the excess thrust power available for climbing is not appreciably changed. The same method of reasoning accounts for the small increase in absolute ceiling in spite of a large increase in L/D maximum.
Date: June 1931
Creator: Louden, F. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Notes on New French Commercial Airplanes

Description: This document discusses the types of commercial planes ordered by Air France. Characteristics of the Wibault 670, the Dewoitine D.620, Bloch 300, and the Potez 620 airplanes are included. Pictures and diagrams of these aircraft are also included.
Date: April 4, 1935
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Accelerations in Landing with a Tricycle-Type Landing Gear

Description: In connection with the application of stable tricycle-type landing gears to transport airplanes, the question arises as to whether certain passengers may not experience relatively great accelerations in an emergency landing. Since the main landing wheels are behind the center of gravity in this type of gear, a hard-braked landing will cause immediate nosing down of the airplane and, when this motion is stopped due to the front wheel striking the ground, there will be some tendency for the rearmost passengers to be thrown out of their seats, The provided rough calculations are designed to show the magnitudes of the various reactions experienced in a severe landing under these circumstances.
Date: February 1937
Creator: Jones, Robert T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Approximate Method of Calculation of Relative Humidity Required to Prevent Frosting on Inside of Aircraft Pressure Cabin Windows, Special Report

Description: This report has been prepare in response to a request for information from an aircraft company. A typical example was selected for the presentation of an approximate method of calculation of the relative humidity required to prevent frosting on the inside of a plastic window in a pressure type cabin on a high speed airplane. The results of the study are reviewed.
Date: December 5, 1940
Creator: Jones, Alun R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

N.A.C.A. Stall-Warning Device

Description: With some airplanes the approach to the stall is accompanied by changes in the behavior, such as tail buffeting or changes in the control characteristics of the airplane so that the pilot obtains a warning of the impending stall. Vith other airplanes it is possible to approach the stall without any perceptible warning other than the reading of the air-speed meter, in which case the danger of inadvertent stalling is considerably greater. Although it is not within the scope of this paper to discuss stalling characteristics, it is desired to point out that in general the danger of inadvertent stalling is greatest with those airplanes that behave worse when the stalling occurs; that is, with airplanes in which the stall starts at the wing tips. A warning of the impending stall is desirable in any case, but is particularly desirable with airplanes of the latter type.
Date: February 1938
Creator: Thompson, F. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wing-nacelle-propeller tests - comparative tests of liquid-cooled and air-cooled engine nacelles

Description: From Summary: "This report gives the results of measurements of the lift, drag, and propeller characteristics of several wing and nacelle combinations with a tractor propeller." The liquid-cooled engines appeared to have an advantage over the air-cooled engines.
Date: January 1934
Creator: Wood, Donald H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mechanical properties of flush-riveted joints

Description: Report discusses the strength of several types of flush-riveted joints, including single-shearing, double-shearing, and tensile specimens. The stress at failure, type of failure, and d/t ratio are provided. Dimpled joints were found to be the strongest, but their strength was heavily influenced by the details of their construction.
Date: January 1940
Creator: Bruggeman, Wm. C. & Roop, Frederick C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary model tests of a wing-duct cooling system for radial engines, special report

Description: From Summary: "Wind-tunnel tests were conducted on a model wing-nacelle combination to determine the practicability of cooling radial engines by forcing the cooling air into wing-duct entrances located in the propeller slipstream, passing the air through the engine baffles from rear to front, and ejecting the air through an annular slot near the front of the nacelle. The drag of the cowlings tested was definitely less than for the conventional N.A.C.A. cowling, and the pressure available at low air speed corresponding to operation on the ground and at low flying speeds was apparently sufficient for cooling most present-day radial engines."
Date: February 1939
Creator: Biermann, David & Valentine, E. Floyd
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary tests in the NACA tank to investigate the fundamental characteristics of hydrofoils

Description: Report discusses an investigation into the hydrodynamic properties and general behavior of simple hydrofoils. The experimental results are presented as curves of the lift and drag coefficients plotted against speed for angles of attack and depths. Properly designed hydrofoil sections were determined to have excellent characteristics and a significant reduction in the speed of cavitation.
Date: September 1940
Creator: Ward, Kenneth E. & Land, Norman S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tandem air propellers

Description: Report discussing tests of 2-blade, adjustable-pitch, counterrotating tandem model propellers, adjusted to absorb equal power at maximum efficiency. The characteristics at several pitch settings and diameter spacings were compared with 2-blade and 4-blade propellers. Tandem propellers were found to have an advantage over single propellers at higher pitch settings.
Date: August 1937
Creator: Lesley, E.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Calculated Effect of Various Hydrodynamic and Aerodynamic Factors on the Take-Off of a Large Flying Boat

Description: Present designs for large flying boats are characterized by high wing loading, high aspect ratio, and low parasite drag. The high wing loading results in the universal use of flaps for reducing the takeoff and landing speeds. These factors have an effect on takeoff performance and influence to a certain extent the design of the hull. An investigation was made of the influence of various factors and design parameters on the takeoff performance of a hypothetical large flying boat by means of takeoff calculations. The parameters varied in the calculations were size of hull (load coefficient), wing setting, trim, deflection of flap, wing loading, aspect ratio, and parasite drag. The takeoff times and distances were calculated to the stalling speeds and the performance above these speeds was studied separately to determine piloting technique for optimum takeoff. The advantage of quick deflection of the flap at high water speeds is shown.
Date: April 28, 1939
Creator: Olson, R. E. & Allison, J. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Boundary-Layer Transition on the N.A.C.A. 0012 and 23012 Airfoils in the 8-Foot High-Speed Wind Tunnel, Special Report

Description: Determinations of boundary-layer transition on the NACA 0012 and 2301 airfoils were made in the 8-foot high-speed wind tunnel over a range of Reynolds Numbers from 1,600,000 to 16,800,000. The results are of particular significance as compared with flight tests and tests in wind tunnels of appreciable turbulence because of the extremely low turbulence in the high-speed tunnel. A comparison of the results obtained on NACA 0012 airfoils of 2-foot and 5-foot chord at the same Reynolds Number permitted an evaluation of the effect of compressibility on transition. The local skin friction along the surface of the NACA 0012 airfoil was measured at a Reynolds Number of 10,000,000. For all the lift coefficient at which tests were made, transition occurred in the region of estimated laminar separation at the low Reynolds Numbers and approach the point of minimum static pressure as a forward limit at the high Reynolds Numbers. The effect of compressibility on transition was slight. None of the usual parameters describing the local conditions in the boundary layer near the transition point served as an index for locating the transition point. As a consequence of the lower turbulence in the 8-foot high-speed tunnel, the transition points occurred consistently farther back along the chord than those measured in the NACA full-scale tunnel. An empirical relation for estimating the location of the transition point for conventional airfoils on the basis of static-pressure distribution and Reynolds Number is presented.
Date: January 1940
Creator: Becker, John V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparison of Intercooler Characteristics

Description: A method is presented of comparing the performance, weight, and general dimensional characteristics of inter-coolers. The performance and dimensional characteristics covered in the comparisons are cooling effectiveness, pressure drops and weight flows of the charge and cooling air, power losses, volume, frontal area, and width. A method of presenting intercooler data is described in which two types of charts are plotted; (1) A performance chart setting forth all the important characteristics of a given intercooler and (2) a replot of these characteristics for a number of intercoolers intended to assist in making a selection to satisfy a given set of installation conditions. The characteristics of commercial intercoolers obtained from manufacturers' data and of some computed designs are presented on this basis. A standard test procedure and instrumentation are suggested whereby comparable data may be obtained by different testing organizations.
Date: May 1941
Creator: Reuter, J. George & Valerino, Michael F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Compressibility Effects in Aeronautical Engineering

Description: Compressible-flow research, while a relatively new field in aeronautics, is very old, dating back almost to the development of the first firearm. Over the last hundred years, researches have been conducted in the ballistics field, but these results have been of practically no use in aeronautical engineering because the phenomena that have been studied have been the more or less steady supersonic condition of flow. Some work that has been done in connection with steam turbines, particularly nozzle studies, has been of value, In general, however, understanding of compressible-flow phenomena has been very incomplete and permitted no real basis for the solution of aeronautical engineering problems in which.the flow is likely to be unsteady because regions of both subsonic and supersonic speeds may occur. In the early phases of the development of the airplane, speeds were so low that the effects of compressibility could be justifiably ignored. During the last war and immediately after, however, propellers exhibited losses in efficiency as the tip speeds approached the speed of sound, and the first experiments of an aeronautical nature were therefore conducted with propellers. Results of these experiments indicated serious losses of efficiency, but aeronautical engineers were not seriously concerned at the time became it was generally possible. to design propellers with quite low tip. speeds. With the development of new engines having increased power and rotational speeds, however, the problems became of increasing importance.
Date: August 1941
Creator: Stack, John
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Critical Compressive Stress for Flat Rectangular Plates Supported Along all Edges and Elastically Restrained Against Rotation Along the Unloaded Edges, Special Report 189

Description: A chart is presented for the values of the coefficient in the formula for the critical compressive stress at which buckling may be expected to occur in flat rectangular plates supported along all edges and, in addition, elastically restrained against rotation along the unloaded edges. The mathematical derivations of the formulas required in the construction of the chart are given.
Date: May 1941
Creator: Lundquist, Eugene E. & Stowell, Eldbridge Z.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Correction of Profile-Drag Results from Variable-Density Tunnel and the Effect on the Choice of Wing-Section Thickness

Description: Profile-drag coefficients published from tests in the N.A.C.A. variable-density tunnel (Technical Reports Nos. 460, 537, 586, and 610, references 1 to 4) have tended to appear high as compared with results from the N.A.C.A. full-scale tunnel (Technical Report No. 530, reference 5) and from foreign sources (references 6 to 8). Such discrepancies were considered in Technical Report No. 586, and corrections for turbulence and tip effects were derived that tended to reduce the profile-drag coefficients, particularly for the thicker airfoils. The corrected profile-drag coefficients, designated by the lower-case symbol cdo as contrasted with the older CDO, have been employed in the airfoil reports published since Technical Report No. 460, but even these corrected results continued to appear high, particularly for the thicker sections. The important practical result is that a smaller increase of drag with airfoil thickness is indicated, which may be of primary importance to the airplane designer in choosing the optimum airfoil sections for actual wings. Further investigations of this subject were, of course, undertaken, one of the most important being an investigation of three symmetrical sections N.A.C A. 0009, 0012, and 0018 under conditions of low turbulence in the full-scale tunnel. Preliminary results from this investigation also indicate a smaller increase in drag with airfoil thickness than the results from the variable-density tunnel. Furthermore, comparative tests made in the two tunnels by applying strings to the surface of the N.A.C.A. 0012 airfoil to move the transition point to a predetermined position indicated that the effective reynolds Number concept would account approximately for the drag as affected by the position of transition from laminar to turbulent flow in the boundary layer.
Date: March 18, 1938
Creator: Jacobs, Eastman N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparison of Three Exit-Area Control Devices on an N.A.C.A. Cowling, Special Report

Description: Adjustable cowling flaps, an adjustable-length cowling skirt, and a bottom opening with adjustable flap were tested as means of controlling the rate of cooling-air flow through an air-cooled radial-engine cowling. The devices were tested in the NACA 20-foot tunnel on a model wing-nacelle-propeller combination, through an airspeed range of 20 to 80 miles per hour, and with the propeller blade angle set 23 degrees at 0.75 of the tip radius. The resistance of the engine to air flow through the cowling was simulated by a perforated plate. The results indicated that the adjustable cowling flap and the bottom opening with adjustable flap were about equally effective on the basis of pressure drop obtainable and that both were more effective means of increasing the pressure drop through the cowling than the adjustable-length skirt. At conditions of equal cooling-air flow, the net efficiency obtained with the adjustable cowling flaps and the adjustable-length cowling skirt was about 1% greater than the net efficiency obtained with the bottom opening with adjustable flap.
Date: May 1940
Creator: McHugh, James G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Effect of Surface Irregularities on Wing Drag. I. Rivets and Spot Welds, 1, Rivets and Spot Welds

Description: Tests have been conducted in the NACA 8-foot high-speed wind tunnel to determine the effect of exposed rivet heads and spot welds on wing drag. Most of the tests were made with an airfoil of 5-foot chord. The air speed was varied from 80 to 500 miles per hour and the lift coefficient from 0 to 0.30. The increases in the drag of the 5-foot airfoil varied from 6%, due to countersunk rivets, to 27%, due to 3/32-inch brazier-head rivets, with the rivets in a representative arrangement. The drag increases caused by protruding rivet heads were roughly proportional to the height of the heads. With the front row of rivets well forward, changes in spanwise pitch had negligible effects on drag unless the pitch was more than 2.5% of the chord. Data are presented for evaluating the drag reduction attained by removing rivets from the forward part of the wing surface; for example, it is shown that over 70% of the rivet drag is caused by the rivets on the forward 30% of the airfoil in a typical case.
Date: February 1938
Creator: Hood, Manley J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Intercooler Design for Aircraft, Special Report

Description: When an airplane is operating at high altitude, it is necessary to use a supercharger to maintain ground pressure at the carburetor inlet. This maintenance and high intake-manifold pressure tends to keep the power output of the engine at ground-level value. The air, being compressed by the supercharger, however, is heated by adiabatic compression and friction to a temperature that seriously affect the performance of the engine. It is thus necessary to use an intercooler to reduce the temperature of the air between the supercharger outlet and the carburetor inlet. The amount of cooling required of the intercooler depend on the efficiency of the supercharger installation. In this investigation, several types of intercoolers were compared and a design procedure that will give the best intercooler for a given set of conditions is indicated. The figure of merit used for the selection of the best design was the total power consumed by the intercooler. This value includes the power required to transport the weight of the intercooler as well as the power used to force the charge air and the cooling air through the intercooler. The cost, size and practicality of construction were not considered, inasmuch as it was thought that a survey of possibilities of improvement in design would be of interest, regardless of whether the improvement could be immediately realized. Three types of intercoolers are included in this survey: a counterflow intercooler with indirect cooling surface in the form of fins, a counterflow intercooler with direct cooling surfaces, and a cross-flow, tube-type intercooler.
Date: September 1939
Creator: Brevoort, M. J.; Joyner, U. T. & Leifer, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation in the 7-By-10 Foot Wind Tunnel of Ducts for Cooling Radiators Within an Airplane Wing, Special Report

Description: An investigation was made in the NACA 7- by 10-foot wind tunnel of a large-chord wing model with a duct to house a simulated radiator suitable for a liquid-cooled engine. The duct was expanded to reduce the radiator losses, and the installation of the duct and radiator was made entirely within the wing to reduce form and interference drag. The tests were made using a two-dimensional flow set-up with a full-span duct and radiator. Section aerodynamic characteristics of the basic airfoil are given and also curves showing the characteristics of the various duct-radiator combinations. An expression for efficiency, the primary criterion of merit of any duct, and the effect of the several design parameters of the duct-radiator arrangement are discussed. The problem of throttling is considered and a discussion of the power required for cooling is included. It was found that radiators could be mounted in the wing and efficiently pass enough air for cooling with duct outlets located at any point from 0.25c to 0.70c from the wing leading edge on the upper surface. The duct-inlet position was found to be critical and, for maximum efficiency, had to be at the stagnation point of the airfoil and to change with flight attitude. The flow could be efficiently throttled only by a simultaneous variation of duct inlet and outlet sizes and of inlet position. It was desirable to round both inlet and outlet lips. With certain arrangements of duct, the power required for cooling at high speed was a very low percentage of the engine power.
Date: July 1938
Creator: Harris, Thomas A. & Recant, Isidore G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High-Speed Tests of a Model Twin-Engine Low-Wing Transport Airplane

Description: Force tests were made of a 1/8-scale model of a twin-engine low-wing transport airplane in the NACA 8-foot high-speed wind tunnel to investigate compressibility and interference effects at speeds up to 450 miles per hour. In addition to tests of the standard arrangement of the model tests were made with several modifications designed to reduce the drag and to increase the critical speed. The results show serious increases in drag at critical speeds below 450 miles per hour due to the occurrence of compressibility burbles on the standard radial-engine cowlings, on sections of the wing as a result of wing-nacelle interference, and on the semi-retracted main landing wheels. The critical speed at which the shock occurred on the standard cowlings was 20 miles per hour lower in the presence of the fuselage than in the presence of the wing only. The drag of the complete model was reduced 25% at 300 miles per hour by completely retracting the landing gear, fairing the windshield irregularities, and substituting streamline nacelles (with allowance made for the proper amount of cooling-air flow) for the standard nacelle arrangement. The values of the critical Mach number were extended from 0.47 to 0.60 as a result of the aforementioned improvements. The principal purpose of the reported tests was to investigate the effect of compressibility on the drag of the component parts of a representative large airplane and on the overall drag of such an airplane. The influence of interference on compressibility effects was also studied. In addition, it was proposed to test several modifications of the standard component parts that gave promise of an improvement in aerodynamic characteristics.
Date: April 1940
Creator: Becker, John V. & Leonard, Lloyd H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department