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US Army Radiological Bioassay and Dosimetry: The RBD software package

Description: The RBD (Radiological Bioassay and Dosimetry) software package was developed for the U. S. Army Material Command, Arlington, Virginia, to demonstrate compliance with the radiation protection guidance 10 CFR Part 20 (ref. 1). Designed to be run interactively on an IBM-compatible personal computer, RBD consists of a data base module to manage bioassay data and a computational module that incorporates algorithms for estimating radionuclide intake from either acute or chronic exposures based on measurement of the worker`s rate of excretion of the radionuclide or the retained activity in the body. In estimating the intake,RBD uses a separate file for each radionuclide containing parametric representations of the retention and excretion functions. These files also contain dose-per-unit-intake coefficients used to compute the committed dose equivalent. For a given nuclide, if measurements exist for more than one type of assay, an auxiliary module, REPORT, estimates the intake by applying weights assigned in the nuclide file for each assay. Bioassay data and computed results (estimates of intake and committed dose equivalent) are stored in separate data bases, and the bioassay measurements used to compute a given result can be identified. The REPORT module creates a file containing committed effective dose equivalent for each individual that can be combined with the individual`s external exposure.
Date: January 1, 1993
Creator: Eckerman, K. F.; Ward, R. C. & Maddox, L. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Maintenance and operations contractor plan for transition to the project Hanford management contract (PHMC)

Description: This plan has been developed by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), and its subcontractors ICF Kaiser Hanford (ICF KH) and BCS Richland, Inc. (BCSR), at the direction of the US Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL). WHC and its subcontractors are hereafter referred to as the Maintenance and Operations (M and O) Contractor. The plan identifies actions involving the M and O Contractor that are critical to (1) prepare for a smooth transition to the Project Hanford Management Contractor (PHMC), and (2) support and assist the PHMC and RL in achieving transition as planned, with no or minimal impact to ongoing baseline activities. The plan is structured around two primary phases. The first is the pre-award phase, which started in mid-February 1996 and is currently scheduled to be completed on June 1, 1996, at which time the contract is currently planned to be awarded. The second is the follow-on four-month post-award phase from June 1, 1996, until October 1, 1996. Considering the magnitude and complexity of the scope of work being transitioned, completion in four months will require significant effort by all parties. To better ensure success, the M and O Contractor has developed a pre-award phase that is intended to maximize readiness for transition. Priority is given to preparation for facility assessments and processing of personnel, as these areas are determined to be on the critical path for transition. In addition, the M and O Contractor will put emphasis during the pre-award phase to close out open items prior to contract award, to include grievances, employee concerns, audit findings, compliance issues, etc.
Date: April 12, 1996
Creator: Waite, J. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Monthly energy review, March 1994

Description: The Monthly Energy Review provides information on production, distribution, consumption, prices, imports, and exports for the following US energy sources: petroleum; petroleum products; natural gas; coal; electricity; and nuclear energy. The section on international energy contains data for world crude oil production and consumption, petroleum stocks in OECD countries, and nuclear electricity gross generation.
Date: March 29, 1994
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reactor physics input to the safety analysis report for the High Flux Isotope Reactor

Description: HFIR specific, few group neutron and coupled neutron-gamma libraries have been prepared. These are based on data from ENDF/B-V and beginning-of-life (BOL) conditions. The neutron library includes actinide data for curium target rods. Six critical experiments, collectively designated HFIR critical experiment 4, were analyzed. Calculated k-effective was 2% high at BOL-typical conditions but was 1.0 at end-of-life-typical conditions. The local power density distributions were calculated for each of the critical experiments. The axially averaged values at a given radius were frequently within experimental error. However at individual points, the calculated local power densities were significantly different from the experimentally derived values (several times greater than experimental uncertainty). A reassessment of the foil activation data with transport theory techniques seems desirable. Using the results of the critical experiments study, a model of current HFIR configuration was prepared. As with the critical experiments, BOL k-effective was high (3%). However, end-of-life k-effective was high (2%). The end-of-life concentrations of fission products were compared to those generated using the ORIGEN code. Agreement was generally good through differences in the inventories of some important nuclides, Xe and I, need to be understood. End-of-cycle curium target isotopics based on measured, discharged target rods were compared to calculated values and agreement was good. Axial flux plots at various irradiation positions were generated. Time-dependent power distributions based on two-dimensional calculations were provided.
Date: March 1, 1992
Creator: Primm, R. T. III
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparison of slurry versus fixed-bed reactor costs for indirect liquefaction applications. A supplement to final report: Design of slurry reactor for indirect liquefaction applications

Description: This work is a comparative evaluation of slurry reactors and fixed-bed reactors, with special emphasis on cost. Relative differences between slurry reactors and fixed-bed reactors have been pointed out in previous reviews; the differences pertinent to indirect liquefaction are summarized here. Design of both types is outlined.
Date: December 1, 1991
Creator: Prakash, A. & Bendale, P. G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Designing SSC quadrupole supports to minimize the effects from vibrational noise

Description: G. Stupakov has shown theoretically that the emittance at the SSC should increase linearly with time and the seismic noise spectrum associated with quadrupole motion at the betatron frequency {approximately} 750--1500 Hz. While the motion is also affected by overtones of the knockout frequencies, the frequencies are so high that the seismic noise becomes vanishingly small. Feedback control would be required to control emittance growth for a power spectrum in excess of 10{sup {minus}12} microns{sup 2}/Hz, assuming unit transmission at the betatron knockout frequency through the quadrupole supports. At the 1991 Corpus Christi Workshop on Beam Dynamics, N. Dikanski predicted unacceptable emittance growths of minutes for the SSC collider in the absence of protective measures. In view of this prediction a workshop was convened in February of 1992 to discuss vibrational issues. At this workshop G. Fischer referred participants to an early study based on the then best compilation from Aki and Richards of seismic measurements. Aki and Richards showed ambient ground noise for a generic site many orders of magnitude lower than the INP measurements for the 750--1500 Hz range. Fischer referred to later extensive measurements in the US and USSR that had confirmed the Aki results and also showed that instrumental noise in the 750--1500 Hz region could dominate measurement precision. Later measurements made by the Russian group at the SSC site measure quiet noise spectra of Hz five orders of magnitude lower than the original values. Under noisy conditions measurements indicate that culturally induced vibrations might still lead to marginal emittance growth, assuming unit transmission in the relevant frequency range, and 100% efficient coupling of resonant modes to the beam. This is certainly an overestimate as relevant wavelengths are small compared with quadrupole dimensions.
Date: September 1, 1993
Creator: Ritson, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

[Induction of polygalacturonases important in pathogenicity of Pseudomonas solanacearum]

Description: Recent studies on the importance of hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins (HPRG`s) in the nature and function of plant cell walls have led to the question as to whether proteolytic enzymes are also involved in tissue maceration and act in concert with other cell wall degrading enzymes in the process. The primary objective of this research was to determine whether proteolytic enzymes, in combination with other enzymes, are involved in the degradation of plant cell walls and thus may be essential for pathogenesis by certain soft rot bacteria. The proteolytic enzymes of Erwinia carotovora subsp.carotovora (Ecc) grown on various media were examined by isoelectrofocusing in polyacrylamide gels over a pH range of 3-10. In addition to the main protease present in culture filtrates, low concentrations of several other proteases were present in extracts from potato tubers infected by Ecc. These enzymes degraded gelatin, soluble collagen, and Hide Powder Azure, and showed weak activity on casein, but did not degrade insoluble collagen or elastin. Ecc proteases appear capable of degrading at least one type of cell wall protein in vitro, but we were unable to obtain evidence that these proteases can attack cell wall proteins in muro. The results indicate that some glycosidic alkali- labile bonds have to be broken befor Ecc proteases can degrade cell wall proteins. Thus, these proteases may play a role in cell wall degradation only when acting in concert with other enzymes that split glycosidic bonds.
Date: December 31, 1992
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hydrothermal reactions of fly ash. [Quarterly] report, January 1, 1993--March 31, 1993

Description: The reactions which occur when fly ash is treated under hydrothermal conditions are being investigated. This is being done for two primary reasons. The first of these is to determine the nature of the phases that form, to assess the stabilities of these phases in the ambient environment and, finally, to assess whether these phases are capable of sequestering hazardous species. The second reason for undertaking this proposed study is that, depending on the composition of the ash and the presence of selected additives, it may be possible under hydrothermal conditions to form compounds which have cementitious properties.Formation of four classes of compounds, which bracket likely fly ash compositional ranges, have been selected for study. These are calcium silicate hydrates, calcium silicosulfates, calcium aluminosulfates, andalkali aluminosilicates. The specific compounds fabricated will be determined and their stability regions assessed. As a part of stability assessment, the extent to which selected hazardous species are sequestered will be determined. Finally, the cementing properties of these compounds will be established.
Date: June 1, 1993
Creator: Brown, P. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Integrated Baseline System (IBS) Version 2.0: Utilities Guide

Description: The Integrated Baseline System (IBS) is an emergency management planning and analysis tool being developed under the direction of the US Army Nuclear and Chemical Agency. This Utilities Guide explains how you can use the IBS utility programs to manage and manipulate various kinds of IBS data. These programs include utilities for creating, editing, and displaying maps and other data that are referenced to geographic location. The intended audience for this document are chiefly data managers but also system managers and some emergency management planners and analysts.
Date: March 1, 1994
Creator: Burford, M. J.; Downing, T. R.; Williams, J. R. & Bower, J. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Catalyst dispersion and activity under conditions of temperature-staged liquefaction. Technical progress report, October--December 1991

Description: The general objectives of this research are (1) to investigate the use of highly dispersed catalysts for the pretreatment of coal by mild hydrogenation, (2) to identify the active forms of the catalysts under reaction conditions and (3) to clarify the mechanisms of catalysis. The ultimate objective is to ascertain if mild catalytic hydrogenation resulting in very limited or no coal solubilization is an advantageous pretreatment for the transformation of coal into transportable fuels. The experimental program will focus upon the development of effective methods of impregnating coal with catalysts, evaluating the conditions under which the catalysts are most active and establishing the relative impact of improved impregnation on conversion and product distributions obtained from coal hydrogenation.
Date: February 1, 1992
Creator: Davis, A.; Schobert, H. H.; Mitchell, G. D. & Artok, L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hanford business structure for HANDI 2000 business management system

Description: The Hanford Business Structure integrates the project`s technical, schedule, and cost baselines; implements the use of a standard code of accounts; and streamlines performance reporting and cost collection. Technical requirements drive the technical functions and come from the RDD 100 database. The functions will be identified in the P3 scheduling system and also in the PeopleSoft system. Projects will break their work down from the technical requirements in the P3 schedules. When the level at which they want to track cost via the code of accounts is reached, a Project ID will be generated in the PeopleSoft system. P3 may carry more detailed schedules below the Project ID level. The standard code of accounts will identify discrete work activities done across the site and various projects. They will include direct and overhead type work scopes. Activities in P3 will roll up to this standard code of accounts. The field that will be used to record this in PeopleSoft is ``Activity``. In Passport it is a user-defined field. It will have to be added to other feeder systems. Project ID and code of accounts are required fields on all cost records.
Date: August 24, 1998
Creator: Wilson, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Operating physics factors with zirconium tubes at the K Reactors

Description: This document lists the physics factors for the K Reactors following the transition to the KV fuel element geometry and zirconium tubes. Each new parameter with the zirconium tube lattice has been calculated relative to the factors used with aluminum tubes and the KIV fuel elements. The purpose of this document is to provide working values for plant assistance use during the transition to the zirconium lattice. In some cases, where there are large uncertainties in the absolute values, the conservative end of the range has been provided for present operational use in safety and control administration. Refinement and publication of ``best`` values for the zirconium lattice based on the extensive experimental and calculational studies are included in future Reactor Physics Unit programs.
Date: May 24, 1963
Creator: Tiller, R. E. & Vaughn, A. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

System curves for 100-K water plant expansion pump analysis

Description: Modifications to the 100-K water plant will be made, under Project CG-775, to increase total process water flow rates to 175,000 gpm or greater. Included in the modifications will be the installation of new pump impellers for the primary and secondary process water pumps located in the 190-K Buildings.
Date: June 5, 1958
Creator: Rudock, E. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fundamental mechanisms in flue gas conditioning. Quarterly report, September 1991--December 1991

Description: This project is divided into four tasks. Task 1 is the Development of a Management Plan. Task 2, Evaluation of Mechanisms in FGD Sorbent and Ash Interactions, focuses on the characteristics of binary mixtures of these distinct powders. Task 3, Evaluation of Mechanisms in Conditioning Agents and Ash, is designed to examine the effects of various conditioning agents on fine ash particles to determine the mechanisms by which these agents alter the physical properties of the ash. Tasks 2 and 3 began with an extensive literature search and the assembly of existing theories. The results of the work performed under Tasks 2 and 3 will be included in a Flue Gas Conditioning Model that will be issued under Task 4. The Final Report for the project will also be prepared under Task 4. This quarterly report covers four months in order to synchronize the reporting periods for this project with US Government quarters. Work performed on the project during the past quarter consisted almost entirely of the review of literature pertaining to the objectives of Tasks 2 and 3. The primary results of that review are discussed at length in Topical Reports 1 and 2, submitted January 9, 1992. As a consequence of the work described in the topical reports, several of the project`s Measures of Success that were described in the first quarterly report have been achieved. This quarterly report will discuss these achievements.
Date: January 23, 1992
Creator: Snyder, T. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis and monitoring design for networks

Description: The idea of applying experimental design methodologies to develop monitoring systems for computer networks is relatively novel even though it was applied in other areas such as meteorology, seismology, and transportation. One objective of a monitoring system should always be to collect as little data as necessary to be able to monitor specific parameters of the system with respect to assigned targets and objectives. This implies a purposeful monitoring where each piece of data has a reason to be collected and stored for future use. When a computer network system as large and complex as the Internet is the monitoring subject, providing an optimal and parsimonious observing system becomes even more important. Many data collection decisions must be made by the developers of a monitoring system. These decisions include but are not limited to the following: (1) The type data collection hardware and software instruments to be used; (2) How to minimize interruption of regular network activities during data collection; (3) Quantification of the objectives and the formulation of optimality criteria; (4) The placement of data collection hardware and software devices; (5) The amount of data to be collected in a given time period, how large a subset of the available data to collect during the period, the length of the period, and the frequency of data collection; (6) The determination of the data to be collected (for instance, selection of response and explanatory variables); (7) Which data will be retained and how long (i.e., data storage and retention issues); and (8) The cost analysis of experiments. Mathematical statistics, and, in particular, optimal experimental design methods, may be used to address the majority of problems generated by 3--7. In this study, the authors focus their efforts on topics 3--5.
Date: June 1, 1998
Creator: Fedorov, V.; Flanagan, D.; Rowan, T. & Batsell, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies: Froth flotation. Quarterly technical progress report No. 11, April 1, 1991--June 30, 1991

Description: This document a quarterly report prepared in accordance with the project reporting requirements covering the period from July 1, 1992 to September 30, 1992. This report provides a summary of the technical work undertaken during this period, highlighting the major results. A brief description of the work done prior to this quarter is provided in this report under the task headings. The overall project scope of the engineering development project is to conceptually develop a commercial flowsheet to maximize pyritic sulfur reduction at practical energy recovery values. This is being accomplished by utilizing the basic research data on the surface properties of coal, mineral matter and pyrite obtained from the Coal Surface Control for Advanced Fine Coal Flotation Project, to develop this conceptual flowsheet. The conceptual flowsheet must be examined to identify critical areas that need additional design data. This data will then be developed using batch and semi-continuous bench scale testing. In addition to actual bench scale testing, other unit operations from other industries processing fine material will be reviewed for potential application and incorporated into the design if appropriate. The conceptual flowsheet will be revised based on the results of the bench scale testing and areas will be identified that need further larger scale design data verification, to prove out the design.
Date: December 31, 1991
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effects of nonstandard heat treatment temperatures on tensile and Charpy impact properties of carbon-steel casting repair welds

Description: This report discusses carbon steel castings which are used for a number of different components in nuclear power plants, including valve bodies and bonnets. Components are often repaired by welding processes, and both welded components and the repair welds are subjected to a variety of postweld heat treatments (PWHT) with temperatures as high as 899{degrees}C (1650{degrees}F), well above the normal 593 to 677{degrees}C (1100 to 1250{degrees}F) temperature range. The temperatures noted are above the A1 transformation temperature for the materials used for these components. A test program was conducted to investigate the potential effects of such ``nonstandard`` PWHTs on mechanical properties of carbon steel casting welds. Four weldments were fabricated, two each with the shielded-metal-arc (SMA) and flux-cored-arc (FCA) processes,with a high-carbon and low-carbon filler metal in each case. All four welds were sectioned and given simulated PWHTs at temperatures from 621 to 899{degrees}C (1150 to 1650{degrees}F) in increments of 56{degrees}C (100{degrees}F) and for times of 5, 10, 20, and 40 h at each temperature. Hardness, tensile, and Charpy V-notch (CVN) impact tests were conducted for the as-welded and heat-treated conditions.
Date: April 1, 1993
Creator: Nanstad, R. K.; Goodwin, G. M. & Swindeman, M. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Genetic studies on cytoplasmic male sterility in maize. Progress report, April 15, 1990--April 14, 1992

Description: Our research concerns the basic mechanisms of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) and fertility restoration in maize. The molecular determination of CMS is in the DNA of the mitochondria (mtDNA) but specific nuclear restorer-of-fertility (Rf) genes can overrule the male-sterile effect of the cytoplasm. Our approach to the study of the Rf genes is threefold. We are attempting to tag the cms-S Rf genes and the cms-T Rf2 gene with controlling elements (CEs). Since we have identified a number of spontaneous Rf genes for cms-S and have demonstrated that they are themselves transposable, we are also searching for cases in which an Rf gene is inserted into a wild-type gene. The other aspect of our research involves the nuclear control over the organization of the mitochondrial genome. We found that the changes in mtDNA organization upon cytoplasmic reversion to fertility were characteristic of the nuclear background in which the reversion event occurred. We have investigated whether these differences are a reflection of differences in the organization of the mtDNA genome before reversion.
Date: May 1, 1992
Creator: Laughnan, J. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Closure of municipal solid waste landfills (MSWLFs). RCRA Information Brief

Description: This RCRA (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act) information brief answers some questions regarding the 40 CFR 258 and 40 CFR 257 regulations on solid waste disposal facilities and their closure/cover. Section 405 of the Clean Water Act is covered as well as the RCRA.
Date: July 1, 1993
Creator: Petts, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparison of experimental and analytical temperatures achieved by DT-18 and PC-1 shipping containers during hypothetical thermal accident tests

Description: Temperatures were monitored at various locations on DT-18 and PC-1 shipping packages during furnace tests at the Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The furnace tests are intended to simulate hypothetical thermal accident conditions specified in Title 10 CFR, Pt. 71.73 (c)(3). Maximum temperatures of the outer containers ranged from 750 to 965{degrees}C while typical maximum temperatures recorded on the inner containers were 60 to 77{degrees}C. One exceptionally high temperature of 196{degrees}C occurred on the PC-1 inner container. Heating 7.1 models of both the DT-18 and PC-1 packages were developed. Models with and without heat generation in the inner containers were developed for each shipping package. The models with heat generation are intended to simulate condensation and convection of hot vapors generated during the heating of the Celotex{trademark} insulating material used in the packages. In general, the analytical models calculate temperatures for the outer containers which agree well with the test data. The HEATING models with and without heat generation bound the inner container test data. These findings are significant in that they lead to the conclusion that heat is transferred to the inner containers through a mechanism other than conduction alone. The high temperature of 196{degrees}C recorded at the PC-1 inner container is within 4{degrees}C of the maximum temperature calculated by the PC-1 HEATING model with heat generation.
Date: March 1, 1992
Creator: Anderson, J. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Field evaluations of hearing protection devices at surface mining environments

Description: A study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of circumaural hearing protection devices and their predictability when they were being worn by mine employees performing normal work duties. The method employed relied on a physical measurement of the noise reduction of the hearing protectors by utilizing two FM-wireless transmitting and receiving systems. One system measured the outside hearing protector noise level, the second system measured the inside hearing protector noise level. The noise level data of both systems was transmitted back to the corresponding receivers and was recorded onto a two-channel tape recorder. Three methods of evaluating hearing protector performance were explored and compared to the Environmental Protection Agency, Noise Reduction Rating (EPA NRR) values. They were, (1) predicted National Institute for occupational Safety and Health`s (NIOSH) method No. 1 values, (2) field-calculated NIOSH No. 1 values, and (3) measured dBA reduction values, which was the arithmetic A-weighted differences between both microphone locations. The majority of the data was obtained on operators of mobile strip equipment, such as bulldozers, front-end-loaders, and overburden drills. A total of 107 individual tests were conducted using 11 different hearing protectors. The results indicate that the amount of protection, which can vary significantly, is related either to the spectrum shape of the noise, or the C-weighted minus the A-weighted (C-A) value. This is consistent with other researchers. The field measured noise reductions were equivalent to the EPA NRR values when the C-A values were negative or approaching zero. When the C-A values increased, the measured noise reductions significantly decreased.
Date: December 31, 1993
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department